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Zortress Dosage

Generic name: EVEROLIMUS 0.25mg
Dosage form: tablet

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Patients receiving Zortress may require dose adjustments based on everolimus blood concentrations achieved, tolerability, individual response, change in concomitant medications and the clinical situation. Optimally, dose adjustments of Zortress should be based on trough concentrations obtained 4 or 5 days after a previous dosing change. Dose adjustment is required if the trough concentration is below 3 ng/mL. The total daily dose of Zortress should be doubled using the available tablet strengths (0.25 mg, 0.5 mg or 0.75 mg). Dose adjustment is also required if the trough concentration is greater than 8 ng/mL on 2 consecutive measures; the dose of ZORTRESS® should be decreased by 0.25 mg twice daily [see Dosage and Administration (2.3), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

      Dosage in Adult Kidney Transplant Patients 

An initial Zortress dose of 0.75 mg orally twice daily (1.5 mg per day) is recommended for adult kidney transplant patients in combination with reduced dose cyclosporine, administered as soon as possible after transplantation [see Dosage and Administration (2.3, 2.4), Clinical Studies (14.1)]. 

Oral prednisone should be initiated once oral medication is tolerated. Steroid doses may be further tapered on an individualized basis depending on the clinical status of patient and function of graft.

      Dosage in Adult Liver Transplant Patients

Start Zortress at least 30 days posttransplant. An initial dose of 1.0 mg orally twice daily (2.0 mg per day) is recommended for adult liver transplant patients in combination with reduced dose tacrolimus [see Dosage and Administration (2.3, 2.5), Clinical Studies (14.2)].

Steroid doses may be further tapered on an individualized basis depending on the clinical status of patient and function of graft.

      Therapeutic DrugMonitoring (TDM) Everolimus

Routine everolimus whole blood therapeutic drug concentration monitoring is recommended for all patients. The recommended everolimus therapeutic range is 3 to 8 ng/mL [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.7)]. Careful attention should be made to clinical signs and symptoms, tissue biopsies, and laboratory parameters. It is important to monitor everolimus blood concentrations, in patients with hepatic impairment, during concomitant administration of CYP3A4 inducers or inhibitors, when switching cyclosporine formulations and/or when cyclosporine dosing is reduced according to recommended target concentrations [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.7, 12.8)].

There is an interaction of cyclosporine on everolimus, and consequently, everolimus concentrations may decrease if cyclosporine exposure is reduced. There is little to no pharmacokinetic interaction of tacrolimus on everolimus, and thus, everolimus concentrations do not decrease if the tacrolimus exposure is reduced [see Drug Interactions (7.2)].

The everolimus recommended therapeutic range of 3 to 8 ng/mL is based on an LC/MS/MS assay method. Currently in clinical practice, everolimus whole blood trough concentrations may be measured by chromatographic or immunoassay methodologies. Because the measured everolimus whole blood trough concentrations depend on the assay used, individual patient sample concentration values from different assays may not be interchangeable. Consideration of assay results must be made with knowledge of the specific assay used. Therefore, communication should be maintained with the laboratory performing the assay.

      Therapeutic DrugMonitoring (TDM) Cyclosporine in Kidney Transplant Patients

Both cyclosporine doses and the target range for whole blood trough concentrations should be reduced, when given in a regimen with Zortress, in order to minimize the risk of nephrotoxicity [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6), Drug Interactions (7.2), Clinical Pharmacology (12.8)].

The recommended cyclosporine therapeutic ranges when administered with Zortress are 100 to 200 ng/mL through Month 1 posttransplant, 75 to 150 ng/mL at Months 2 and 3 posttransplant, 50 to 100 ng/mL at Month 4 posttransplant, and 25 to 50 ng/mL from Month 6 through Month 12 posttransplant. The median trough concentrations observed in the clinical trial ranged between 161 to 185 ng/mL through Month 1 posttransplant and between 111 to 140 ng/mL at Months 2 and 3 posttransplant. The median trough concentration was 99 ng/mL at Month 4 posttransplant and ranged between 46 to 75 ng/mL from Months 6 through Month 12 posttransplant [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.8), Clinical Studies (14.1)]. 

Cyclosporine, USP Modified is to be administered as oral capsules twice daily unless cyclosporine oral solution or intravenous administration of cyclosporine cannot be avoided. Cyclosporine, USP Modified should be initiated as soon as possible  and no later than 48 hours after reperfusion of the graft and dose adjusted to target concentrations from Day 5 onwards.

If impairment of renal function is progressive the treatment regimen should be adjusted. In renal transplant patients, the cyclosporine dose should be based on cyclosporine whole blood trough concentrations [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.8)].

In renal transplantation, there are limited data regarding dosing Zortress with reduced cyclosporine trough concentrations of 25 to 50 ng/mL after 12 months. Zortress has not been evaluated in clinical trials with other formulations of cyclosporine. Prior to dose reduction of cyclosporine it should be ascertained that steady-state everolimus whole blood trough concentration is at least 3 ng/mL. There is an interaction of cyclosporine on everolimus, and consequently, everolimus concentrations may decrease if cyclosporine exposure is reduced [see Drug Interactions (7.2)]. 

      Therapeutic Drug-Monitoring (TDM) Tacrolimus in Liver Transplant Patients

Both tacrolimus doses and the target range for whole blood trough concentrations should be reduced, when given in a regimen with Zortress, in order to minimize the potential risk of nephrotoxicity [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6), Clinical Pharmacology (12.9)]. 

The recommended tacrolimus therapeutic range when administered with Zortress are whole blood trough (C-0h) concentrations of 3 to 5 ng/mL by three weeks after the first dose of Zortress (approximately Month 2) and through Month 12 posttransplant.

The median tacrolimus trough concentrations observed in the clinical trial ranged between 8.6 to 9.5 ng/mL at Weeks 2 and 4 posttransplant (prior to initiation of everolimus). The median tacrolimus trough concentrations ranged between 7 to 8.1 ng/mL at Weeks 5 and 6 posttransplant, between 5.2 to 5.6 ng/mL at Months 2 and 3 posttransplant, and between 4.3 to 4.9 ng/mL between Months 4 and 12 posttransplant [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.9), Clinical Studies (14.2)]

Tacrolimus is to be administered as oral capsules twice daily unless intravenous administration of tacrolimus cannot be avoided. 

In liver transplant patients, the tacrolimus dose should be based on tacrolimus whole blood trough concentrations [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.9)]. 

In liver transplantation, there are limited data regarding dosing Zortress with reduced tacrolimus trough concentrations of 3 to 5 ng/mL after 12 months. Prior to dose reduction of tacrolimus it should be ascertained that the steady-state everolimus whole blood trough concentration is at least 3 ng/mL. Unlike the interaction between cyclosporine and everolimus, tacrolimus does not affect everolimus trough concentrations, and consequently, everolimus concentrations do not decrease if the tacrolimus exposure is reduced.

      Administration 

Zortress tablets should be swallowed whole with a glass of water and not crushed before use.

Administer Zortress consistently approximately 12 hours apart with or without food to minimize variability in absorption and at the same time as cyclosporine or tacrolimus [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

      Hepatic Impairment

Whole blood trough concentrations of everolimus should be closely monitored in patients with impaired hepatic function. For patients with mild hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class A), the initial daily dose should be reduced by approximately one-third of the normally recommended daily dose. For patients with moderate or severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh B or C), the initial daily dose should be reduced to approximately one-half of the normally recommended daily dose. Further dose adjustment and/or dose titration should be made if a patient’s whole blood trough concentration of everolimus, as measured by an LC/MS/MS assay, is not within the target trough concentration range of 3 to 8 ng/mL [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.6)]. 

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