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is a normal stage in a woman's life when her monthly periods stop. A woman who has not had a period for a full year after the age of 40 is considered to be in menopause. Menopause usually occurs between ages 47 to 53. Perimenopause is a stage before menopause that may cause signs and symptoms similar to menopause. Perimenopause may start about 4 years before menopause.

Common symptoms include the following:

The signs and symptoms of menopause can be different from woman to woman:

  • Irregular menstrual cycles with heavy vaginal bleeding followed by decreased bleeding until it stops
  • Hot flashes (feeling warm, flushed, and sweaty)
  • Vaginal changes such as increased dryness
  • Mood changes such as anxiety, depression, or decreased desire to have sex
  • Trouble sleeping, joint pain, headaches
  • Brittle nails, hair on chin or chest where it is normally absent
  • Decrease in breast size and change in skin texture

Contact your healthcare provider if:

  • You have vaginal bleeding after menopause.
  • You have questions or concerns about your condition or care.

What you need to know about menopause:

  • You can still get pregnant while you have periods. Continue to use birth control if you do not want to get pregnant. You may need to use birth control until it has been 1 year since your periods stopped.
  • Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) can be used to treat symptoms of menopause. HRT is medicine that replaces your low hormone levels. HRT contains estrogen and sometimes progestin. HRT has benefits and risks. HRT decreases your risk for bone fractures by helping to prevent osteoporosis. HRT also protects you from colon cancer. HRT may increase your risk for breast cancer, blood clots, heart disease, and stroke. Ask your healthcare provider if HRT is right for you.


  • Manage hot flashes. Hot flashes are brief periods of feeling very warm, flushed, and sweaty. Hot flashes can last from a few seconds to several minutes. They may happen many times during the day, and are common at night. Layer your clothing so that you can easily remove some clothing and cool yourself during a hot flash. Cold drinks may also be helpful.
  • Reduce vaginal dryness by using over-the-counter vaginal creams. Vaginal dryness may cause you to have pain or discomfort during sex. Only use creams that are made for vaginal use. Do not use petroleum jelly. You may need an estrogen cream to put in and around your vagina. Estrogen cream may help decrease vaginal dryness and lower your risk of vaginal infections.
  • Continue to use birth control during perimenopause if you do not want to get pregnant. You may need to use birth control until it has been 1 year since your periods stopped. Ask your healthcare provider when you can stop using birth control to prevent pregnancy.

Lead a healthy lifestyle:

After menopause, your risk for heart disease and bone loss increases. Ask about these and other ways to stay healthy:

  • Exercise regularly. Exercise helps you maintain a healthy weight. Exercise can also help to control your blood pressure and cholesterol levels. Include weight-bearing exercise for strong bones. Weight bearing exercise is recommended for at least 30 minutes, 3 times a week. Ask your healthcare provider about the best exercise plan for you.
  • Eat a variety of healthy foods. Include fruits, vegetables, whole grains (whole-wheat bread, pasta, and cereals), low-fat dairy, and lean protein foods (beans, poultry, and fish). Limit foods high in sodium (salt). Ask your healthcare provider for more information about a meal plan that is right for you.
  • Do not smoke. If you smoke, it is never too late to quit. You are more likely to have a heart attack, lung disease, blood clots, and cancer if you smoke. Ask your healthcare provider for information if you need help quitting.
  • Take supplements as directed. You may need extra calcium and vitamin D to help prevent osteoporosis.
  • Limit alcohol and caffeine. Alcohol and caffeine may worsen your symptoms.

Follow up with your doctor as directed:

Write down your questions so you remember to ask them during your visits.

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The above information is an educational aid only. It is not intended as medical advice for individual conditions or treatments. Talk to your doctor, nurse or pharmacist before following any medical regimen to see if it is safe and effective for you.

Learn more about Menopause (Ambulatory Care)

Associated drugs

IBM Watson Micromedex

Symptom checker

Mayo Clinic Reference

Further information

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