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Heart Healthy Diet
WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW:
A heart healthy diet is an eating plan low in unhealthy fats and sodium (salt). The plan is high in healthy fats and fiber. A heart healthy diet helps improve your cholesterol levels and lowers your risk for heart disease and stroke. A dietitian will teach you how to read and understand food labels.
Heart healthy diet guidelines to follow:
- Choose foods that contain healthy fats.
- Unsaturated fats include monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats. Unsaturated fat is found in foods such as soybean, canola, olive, corn, and safflower oils. It is also found in soft tub margarine that is made with liquid vegetable oil.
- Omega-3 fat is found in certain fish, such as salmon, tuna, and trout, and in walnuts and flaxseed. Eat fish high in omega-3 fats at least 2 times a week.
- Get 20 to 30 grams of fiber each day. Fruits, vegetables, whole-grain foods, and legumes (cooked beans) are good sources of fiber.
- Limit or do not have unhealthy fats.
- Cholesterol is found in animal foods, such as eggs and lobster, and in dairy products made from whole milk. Limit cholesterol to less than 200 mg each day.
- Saturated fat is found in meats, such as bacon and hamburger. It is also found in chicken or turkey skin, whole milk, and butter. Limit saturated fat to less than 7% of your total daily calories.
- Trans fat is found in packaged foods, such as potato chips and cookies. It is also in hard margarine, some fried foods, and shortening. Do not eat foods that contain trans fats.
- Limit sodium as directed. You may be told to limit sodium to 2,000 to 2,300 mg each day. Choose low-sodium or no-salt-added foods. Add little or no salt to food you prepare. Use herbs and spices in place of salt.
Include the following in your heart healthy plan:
Ask your dietitian or healthcare provider how many servings to have from each of the following food groups:
- Whole-wheat breads, cereals, and pastas, and brown rice
- Low-fat, low-sodium crackers and chips
- Broccoli, green beans, green peas, and spinach
- Collards, kale, and lima beans
- Carrots, sweet potatoes, tomatoes, and peppers
- Canned vegetables with no salt added
- Bananas, peaches, pears, and pineapple
- Grapes, raisins, and dates
- Oranges, tangerines, grapefruit, orange juice, and grapefruit juice
- Apricots, mangoes, melons, and papaya
- Raspberries and strawberries
- Canned fruit with no added sugar
- Low-fat dairy:
- Nonfat (skim) milk, 1% milk, and low-fat almond, cashew, or soy milks fortified with calcium
- Low-fat cheese, regular or frozen yogurt, and cottage cheese
- Meats and proteins:
- Lean cuts of beef and pork (loin, leg, round), skinless chicken and turkey
- Legumes, soy products, egg whites, or nuts
Limit or do not include the following in your heart healthy plan:
- Unhealthy fats and oils:
- Whole or 2% milk, cream cheese, sour cream, or cheese
- High-fat cuts of beef (T-bone steaks, ribs), chicken or turkey with skin, and organ meats such as liver
- Butter, stick margarine, shortening, and cooking oils such as coconut or palm oil
- Foods and liquids high in sodium:
- Packaged foods, such as frozen dinners, cookies, macaroni and cheese, and cereals with more than 300 mg of sodium per serving
- Vegetables with added sodium, such as instant potatoes, vegetables with added sauces, or regular canned vegetables
- Cured or smoked meats, such as hot dogs, bacon, and sausage
- High-sodium ketchup, barbecue sauce, salad dressing, pickles, olives, soy sauce, or miso
- Foods and liquids high in sugar:
- Candy, cake, cookies, pies, or doughnuts
- Soft drinks (soda), sports drinks, or sweetened tea
- Canned or dry mixes for cakes, soups, sauces, or gravies
Other healthy heart guidelines:
- Do not smoke. Nicotine and other chemicals in cigarettes and cigars can cause lung and heart damage. Ask your healthcare provider for information if you currently smoke and need help to quit. E-cigarettes or smokeless tobacco still contain nicotine. Talk to your healthcare provider before you use these products.
- Limit or do not drink alcohol as directed. Alcohol can damage your heart and raise your blood pressure. Your healthcare provider may give you specific daily and weekly limits. The general recommended limit is 1 drink a day for women 21 or older and for men 65 or older. Do not have more than 3 drinks in a day or 7 in a week. The recommended limit is 2 drinks a day for men 21 to 64 years of age. Do not have more than 4 drinks in a day or 14 in a week. A drink of alcohol is 12 ounces of beer, 5 ounces of wine, or 1½ ounces of liquor.
- Exercise regularly. Exercise can help you maintain a healthy weight and improve your blood pressure and cholesterol levels. Regular exercise can also decrease your risk for heart problems. Ask your healthcare provider about the best exercise plan for you. Do not start an exercise program without asking your healthcare provider.
Follow up with your doctor or cardiologist as directed:
Write down your questions so you remember to ask them during your visits.
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