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Lonsurf

Generic Name: trifluridine and tipiracil
Dosage Form: tablet, film coated

Medically reviewed by Drugs.com. Last updated on Mar 1, 2019.

Indications and Usage for Lonsurf

See also: Xeloda

Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

Lonsurf is indicated for the treatment of adult patients with metastatic colorectal cancer previously treated with fluoropyrimidine-, oxaliplatin- and irinotecan-based chemotherapy, an anti-VEGF biological therapy, and if RAS wild-type, an anti-EGFR therapy.

Metastatic Gastric Cancer

Lonsurf is indicated for the treatment of adult patients with metastatic gastric or gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma previously treated with at least two prior lines of chemotherapy that included a fluoropyrimidine, a platinum, either a taxane or irinotecan, and if appropriate, HER2/neu-targeted therapy.

Lonsurf Dosage and Administration

Recommended Dose

The recommended dosage of Lonsurf is 35 mg/m2 up to a maximum of 80 mg per dose (based on the trifluridine component) orally twice daily with food on Days 1 through 5 and Days 8 through 12 of each 28-day cycle until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Round dose to the nearest 5 mg increment.

Instruct patients to swallow Lonsurf tablets whole.

Instruct patients not to retake doses of Lonsurf that are vomited or missed and to continue with the next scheduled dose.

Lonsurf is a cytotoxic drug. Follow applicable special handling and disposal procedures.1

Table 1 shows the calculated initial daily dose based on body surface area (BSA).

Table 1 Dose According to Body Surface Area (BSA)
BSA
(m2)
Total daily
dose (mg)
Dose (mg)
administered
twice daily
Tablets per dose
15mg 20mg
<1.07 70 35 1 1
1.07 - 1.22 80 40 0 2
1.23 - 1.37 90 45 3 0
1.38 - 1.52 100 50 2 1
1.53 - 1.68 110 55 1 2
1.69 - 1.83 120 60 0 3
1.84 - 1.98 130 65 3 1
1.99 - 2.14 140 70 2 2
2.15 - 2.29 150 75 1 3
≥2.30 160 80 0 4

Dosage Modifications for Adverse Reactions

Obtain complete blood cell counts prior to and on Day 15 of each cycle [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

Do not initiate the cycle of Lonsurf until:

  • Absolute neutrophil count (ANC) greater than or equal to 1,500/mm3 or febrile neutropenia is resolved
  • Platelets greater than or equal to 75,000/mm3
  • Grade 3 or 4 non-hematological adverse reactions are resolved to Grade 0 or 1

Within a treatment cycle, withhold Lonsurf for any of the following:

  • Absolute neutrophil count (ANC) less than 500/mm3 or febrile neutropenia
  • Platelets less than 50,000/mm3
  • Grade 3 or 4 non-hematologic adverse reaction

After recovery, resume Lonsurf after reducing the dose by 5 mg/m2/dose from the previous dose, if the following occur:

  • Febrile neutropenia
  • Uncomplicated Grade 4 neutropenia (which has recovered to greater than or equal to 1,500/mm3) or thrombocytopenia (which has recovered to greater than or equal to 75,000/mm3) that results in more than 1 week delay in start of next cycle
  • Non-hematologic Grade 3 or Grade 4 adverse reaction except for Grade 3 nausea and/or vomiting controlled by antiemetic therapy or Grade 3 diarrhea responsive to antidiarrheal medication

A maximum of 3 dose reductions are permitted. Permanently discontinue Lonsurf in patients who are unable to tolerate a dose of 20 mg/m2 orally twice daily. Do not escalate Lonsurf dosage after it has been reduced.

Dosage Forms and Strengths

Tablets:

  • 15 mg trifluridine/6.14 mg tipiracil: white, biconvex, round, film-coated, imprinted with ‘15’ on one side, and ‘102’ and ‘15 mg’ on the other side, in gray ink.
  • 20 mg trifluridine/8.19 mg tipiracil: pale red, biconvex, round, film-coated, imprinted with ‘20’ on one side, and ‘102’ and ‘20 mg’ on the other side, in gray ink.

Contraindications

None.

Warnings and Precautions

5.1 Severe Myelosuppression

In the 868 patients who received Lonsurf in RECOURSE and TAGS, Lonsurf caused severe and life-threatening myelosuppression (Grade 3-4) consisting of anemia (18%), neutropenia (38%), thrombocytopenia (5%) and febrile neutropenia (3%). Two patients (0.2%) died due to neutropenic infection/sepsis and four other patients (0.5%) died due to septic shock. A total of 12% of Lonsurf-treated patients received granulocyte-colony stimulating factors.

Obtain complete blood counts prior to and on Day 15 of each cycle of Lonsurf and more frequently as clinically indicated. Withhold Lonsurf for severe myelosuppression and resume at the next lower dosage [see Dosage and Administration (2.2)].

Embryo-Fetal Toxicity

Based on animal studies and its mechanism of action, Lonsurf can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Trifluridine/tipiracil caused embryo-fetal lethality and embryo-fetal toxicity in pregnant rats when orally administered during gestation at dosage levels resulting in exposures lower than those achieved at the recommended dosage of 35 mg/m2 twice daily. Advise pregnant women of the potential risk to the fetus. Advise females of reproductive potential to use an effective method of contraception during treatment with Lonsurf and for at least 6 months after the final dose [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1, 8.3)].

Adverse Reactions

The following clinically significant adverse reactions are described elsewhere in the labeling:

 

  • Severe Myelosuppression [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]

Clinical Trials Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

The data in the WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS section and below reflect exposure to Lonsurf at the recommended dose in 533 patients with metastatic colorectal cancer in RECOURSE and 335 patients with metastatic gastric cancer in TAGS. Among the 868 patients who received Lonsurf, 11% were exposed for 6 months or longer and 1% were exposed for 12 months or longer. The most common adverse reactions or laboratory abnormalities (≥10%) are anemia, neutropenia, fatigue/asthenia, nausea, thrombocytopenia, decreased appetite, diarrhea, vomiting, and pyrexia.

Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

The safety of Lonsurf was evaluated in RECOURSE, a randomized (2:1), double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in patients with previously treated metastatic colorectal cancer [see Clinical Studies (14.1)]. Patients received Lonsurf 35 mg/m2/dose (n=533) or placebo (n=265) twice daily on Days 1 through 5 and Days 8 through 12 of each 28-day cycle. In RECOURSE, 12% of patients received Lonsurf for more than 6 months and 1% of patients received Lonsurf for more than 1 year.

The study population characteristics were: median age 63 years; 61% male; 57% White, 35% Asian, and 1% Black.

The most common adverse reactions or laboratory abnormalities (≥10% in incidence) in patients treated with Lonsurf at a rate that exceeds the rate in patients receiving placebo were anemia, neutropenia, asthenia/fatigue, nausea, thrombocytopenia, decreased appetite, diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and pyrexia.

In RECOURSE, 3.6% of patients discontinued Lonsurf for an adverse reaction and 14% of patients required a dose reduction. The most common adverse reactions or laboratory abnormalities leading to dose reduction were neutropenia, anemia, febrile neutropenia, fatigue, and diarrhea.

Tables 2 and 3 list the adverse reactions and laboratory abnormalities (graded using CTCAE v4.03), respectively, observed in RECOURSE.

Table 2 Adverse Reactions (≥5%) in Patients Receiving Lonsurf and at a Higher Incidence (>2%) than in Patients Receiving Placebo in RECOURSE

*No Grade 4 definition for nausea, abdominal pain, or fatigue in National Cancer Institute Common Terminology

Incidence reflects 64 preferred terms in the Infections and Infestations system organ class.

Adverse Reactions Lonsurf
(N=533)
Placebo
(N=265)
All Grades
(%)
Grades 3-4*
(%)
All Grades
(%)
Grades 3-4*
(%)
General
Asthenia/fatigue 52 7 35 9
Pyrexia 19 1 14 <1
Gastrointestinal
Nausea 48 2 24 1
Diarrhea 32 3 12 <1
Vomiting 28 2 14 <1
Abdominal pain 21 2 18 4
Stomatitis 8 <1 6 0
Metabolism and nutrition
Decreased appetite 39 4 29 5
Infections† 27 6 16 5
Nervous system
Dysgeusia 7 0 2 0
Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders
Alopecia 7 0 1 0
Table 3 Laboratory Abnormalities in RECOURSE

* Worst Grade at least one grade higher than baseline, with percentages based on number of patients with post-baseline samples, which may be <533 (Lonsurf) or 265 (placebo)

One Grade 4 anemia adverse reaction based on clinical criteria was reported

Laboratory Parameter* Lonsurf Placebo
All Grades
%
Grades 3-4
%
All Grades
%
Grades 3-4
%
Hematologic
Anemia 77 18 33 3
Neutropenia 67 38 1 0
Thrombocytopenia 42 5 8 <1

In RECOURSE, pulmonary emboli occurred more frequently in Lonsurf-treated patients (2%) compared to no patients on placebo.

Metastatic Gastric Cancer

The safety of Lonsurf was evaluated in TAGS, an international, randomized (2:1), double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in patients with metastatic gastric or gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) adenocarcinoma who were previously treated with at least 2 prior chemotherapy regimens for advanced disease [see Clinical Studies (14.2)]. Previous treatments must have included a fluoropyrimidine, a platinum, and either a taxane or irinotecan. Patients with HER2/neu-positive tumors must have received prior HER2/neu-targeted therapy, if available. Adjuvant chemotherapy could be counted as one prior regimen in patients who had recurrence during or within 6 months of completion of the adjuvant chemotherapy. Patients received Lonsurf 35 mg/m2/dose (n=335) or placebo (n=168) twice daily on Days 1 through 5 and Days 8 through 12 of each 28-day cycle with best supportive care. In TAGS, 10% of patients received Lonsurf for more than 6 months and 0.9% of patients received Lonsurf for more than 1 year.

The study population characteristics were: median age 63 years (24 to 89 years); 73% male; 70% White, 16% Asian, and 1% Black.

The most common adverse reactions or laboratory abnormalities (≥10% in incidence) in patients treated with Lonsurf at a rate that exceeds the rate in patients receiving placebo were neutropenia, anemia, nausea, decreased appetite, thrombocytopenia, vomiting, and diarrhea.

In TAGS, 13% of patients discontinued Lonsurf for an adverse reaction and 11% of patients required a dose reduction. The most common adverse reactions or laboratory abnormalities leading to dose reduction were neutropenia, anemia, febrile neutropenia, and diarrhea.

Tables 4 and 5 list the adverse reactions and laboratory abnormalities (graded using CTCAE v4.03), respectively, observed in TAGS.

Table 4 Adverse Reactions (≥5%) in Patients Receiving Lonsurf and at a Higher Incidence (>2%) than in Patients Receiving Placebo in TAGS

*No Grade 4 definition for nausea or fatigue in NCI CTCAE, version 4.03.

Incidence reflects 46 preferred terms in the Infections and Infestations system organ class.

Adverse Reactions Lonsurf
(N=533)
Placebo
(N=265)
All Grades
(%)
Grades 3-4*
(%)
All Grades
(%)
Grades 3-4*
(%)
Gastrointestinal
Nausea 37 3 32 3
Vomiting 25 4 20 2
Diarrhea 23 3 14 2
Metabolism and nutrition
Decreased appetite 34 9 31 7
Infections 23 5 16 5
Table 5 Laboratory Abnormalities in TAGS

*Worst Grade at least one Grade higher than baseline, with percent based on number of patients with post-baseline samples which may be <335 (Lonsurf) or 168 (placebo)

Anemia: No Grade 4 definition in CTCAE, v4.03

Laboratory Parameter* Lonsurf Placebo
All Grades
(%)
Grades 3-4
(%)
All Grades
(%)
Grades 3-4
(%)
Hematologic
Neutropenia 66 38 4 0
Anemia 63 19 38 7
Thrombocytopenia 34 6 9 0

In TAGS, pulmonary emboli occurred more frequently in Lonsurf-treated patients (3.1%) compared to 1.8% for patients on placebo.

Additional Clinical Experience

Interstitial lung disease was reported in 15 (0.2%) patients, 3 of which were fatal, among approximately 7,000 patients exposed to Lonsurf in clinical studies and clinical practice settings in Asia.

USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

Pregnancy

Risk Summary

Based on animal data and its mechanism of action [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.2)], Lonsurf can cause fetal harm. Lonsurf caused embryo-fetal lethality and embryo-fetal toxicity in pregnant rats when given during gestation at doses resulting in exposures lower than or similar to human exposures at the recommended clinical dose (see Data). There are no available data on Lonsurf use in pregnant women. Advise pregnant women of the potential risk to a fetus.

In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2-4% and 15-20%, respectively.

Data

Animal Data

Trifluridine/tipiracil was administered orally once daily to female rats during organogenesis at dose levels of 15, 50, and 150 mg/kg [trifluridine (FTD) equivalent]. Decreased fetal weight was observed at FTD doses ≥50 mg/kg (approximately 0.33 times the FTD exposure at the clinical dose of 35 mg/m2 twice daily). At the FTD dose of 150 mg/kg (approximately 0.92 times the FTD exposure at the clinical dose of 35 mg/m2 twice daily) embryolethality and structural anomalies (kinked tail, cleft palate, ectrodactyly, anasarca, alterations in great vessels, and skeletal anomalies) were observed.

Lactation

Risk Summary

There are no data on the presence of trifluridine, tipiracil or its metabolites in human milk or its effects on the breastfed child or on milk production. In nursing rats, trifluridine and tipiracil or their metabolites were present in breast milk (see Data). Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in breastfed children, advise women not to breastfeed during treatment with Lonsurf and for 1 day following the final dose.

Data

Radioactivity was excreted in the milk of nursing rats dosed with trifluridine/tipiracil containing 14C-FTD or 14C-tipiracil (TPI). Levels of FTD-derived radioactivity were as high as approximately 50% of the exposure in maternal plasma an hour after dosing with trifluridine/tipiracil and were approximately the same as those in maternal plasma for up to 12 hours following dosing. Exposure to TPI-derived radioactivity was higher in milk than in maternal plasma beginning 2 hours after dosing and continuing for at least 12 hours following administration of trifluridine/tipiracil.

Females and Males of Reproductive Potential

Pregnancy Testing

Verify pregnancy status in females of reproductive potential prior to initiating Lonsurf [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1)].

Contraception

Lonsurf can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1)].

Females

Advise females of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment with Lonsurf and for at least 6 months after the final dose.

Males

Because of the potential for genotoxicity, advise males with female partners of reproductive potential to use condoms during treatment with Lonsurf and for at least 3 months after the final dose. [see Nonclinical Toxicology (13.1)].

Pediatric Use

Safety and effectiveness of Lonsurf in pediatric patients have not been established.

Juvenile Animal Toxicity Data

Dental toxicity including whitening, breakage, and malocclusion (degeneration and disarrangement in the ameloblasts, papillary layer cells and odontoblasts) were observed in rats treated with trifluridine/tipiracil at doses ≥ 50 mg/kg (approximately 0.33 times the exposure at the clinical dose of 35 mg/m2 twice daily).

Geriatric Use

In RECOURSE and TAGS, 868 patients received Lonsurf; 45% were 65 years of age or over, while 10% were 75 and over. No overall differences in effectiveness were observed in patients 65 or older versus younger patients. Patients 65 years of age or older who received Lonsurf had a higher incidence of the following hematologic laboratory abnormalities compared to patients younger than 65 years: Grade 3 or 4 neutropenia (46% vs. 32%), Grade 3 anemia (22% vs. 16%), and Grade 3 or 4 thrombocytopenia (7% vs. 4%).

Renal Impairment

No adjustment to the starting dosage of Lonsurf is recommended in patients with mild or moderate renal impairment (CLcr of 30 to 89 mL/min). Patients with severe renal impairment (CLcr < 30 mL/min) were not studied [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

Hepatic Impairment

No adjustment to the starting dosage of Lonsurf is recommended for patients with mild hepatic impairment. Do not initiate Lonsurf in patients with baseline moderate or severe (total bilirubin >1.5 times ULN and any AST) hepatic impairment [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

Lonsurf Description

Lonsurf contains trifluridine and tipiracil hydrochloride at a molar ratio of 1:0.5.

Trifluridine

Trifluridine, a nucleoside metabolic inhibitor, is described chemically as 2’-deoxy-5-(trifluoromethyl) uridine, and has the following structural formula:

Trifluridine has a molecular formula C10H11F3N2O5 and a molecular weight of 296.20. Trifluridine is a white crystalline powder, soluble in water, ethanol, 0.01 mol/L hydrochloric acid, 0.01 mol/L sodium hydroxide solution; freely soluble in methanol, acetone; sparingly soluble in 2-propanol, acetonitrile; slightly soluble in diethyl ether; and very slightly soluble in isopropyl ether.

Tipiracil hydrochloride

Tipiracil hydrochloride, a thymidine phosphorylase inhibitor, is described chemically as 5-chloro-6-[(2-iminopyrrolidin-1-yl)methyl]pyrimidine-2,4-(1H,3H)-dione monohydrochloride or 2,4(1H,3H)-Pyrimidinedione, 5-chloro-6-[(2-imino-1-pyrrolidinyl)methyl]-, hydrochloride (1:1) and has the following structural formula:

Tipiracil hydrochloride has a molecular formula C9H11ClN4O2•HCl and a molecular weight of 279.12. Tipiracil hydrochloride is a white crystalline powder, soluble in water, 0.01 mol/L hydrochloric acid, and 0.01 mol/L sodium hydroxide; slightly soluble in methanol; very slightly soluble in ethanol; and practically insoluble in acetonitrile, 2-propanol, acetone, diisopropyl ether, and diethyl ether.

Lonsurf (trifluridine and tipracil) tablets for oral use contain 15 mg of trifluridine and 6.14 mg of tipiracil equivalent to 7.065 mg of tipiracil hydrochloride or 20 mg of trifluridine and 8.19 mg of tipiracil equivalent to 9.420 mg of tipiracil hydrochloride.

Lonsurf tablets contain the following inactive ingredients: lactose monohydrate, pregelatinized starch, stearic acid, hypromellose, polyethylene glycol, titanium dioxide, ferric oxide, and magnesium stearate. The tablets are imprinted with ink containing shellac, ferric oxide red, ferric oxide yellow, titanium dioxide, FD&C Blue No. 2 Aluminum Lake, carnauba wax, and talc.

Lonsurf - Clinical Pharmacology

Mechanism of Action

Lonsurf consists of a thymidine-based nucleoside analog, trifluridine, and the thymidine phosphorylase inhibitor, tipiracil, at a molar ratio 1:0.5 (weight ratio, 1:0.471). Inclusion of tipiracil increases trifluridine exposure by inhibiting its metabolism by thymidine phosphorylase.

Following uptake into cancer cells, trifluridine is incorporated into DNA, interferes with DNA synthesis and inhibits cell proliferation. Trifluridine/tipiracil demonstrated anti-tumor activity against KRAS wild-type and mutant human colorectal cancer xenografts in mice.

Pharmacodynamics

Cardiac Electrophysiology

Lonsurf administered to 42 patients with advanced solid tumors at the recommended dosage had no large effect (i.e. >20 ms) in the mean QTc interval when compared to placebo and no exposure-QT relationship was identified. Two of 42 patients (4.8%) had QTc >500 msec and 2.4% had a QTc increase from baseline >60 msec.

Pharmacokinetics

After twice daily dosing of Lonsurf, systemic exposure (AUC) of trifluridine increased more than dose-proportionally over the dose range of 15 mg/m2 (0.43 times the recommended dose) to 35 mg/m2.

The accumulation of trifluridine was 3-fold for AUC0-12hr and 2-fold for Cmax at steady state while no accumulation was observed for tipiracil.

Administration of a single dose of Lonsurf 35 mg/m2 increased the mean AUC0-last of trifluridine by 37-fold and Cmax by 22-fold with reduced variability compared to administration of a single dose of trifluridine 35 mg/m2 alone.

Absorption

Following a single oral administration of Lonsurf at 35 mg/m2 in patients with cancer, the mean time to peak plasma concentration (Tmax) of trifluridine was around 2 hours.

Food Effect

A standardized high-fat, high-calorie meal decreased trifluridine Cmax, tipiracil Cmax and AUC by approximately 40%, but did not change trifluridine AUC compared to those in a fasting state in patients with cancer following administration of a single dose of Lonsurf 35 mg/m2.

Distribution

Trifluridine mainly binds to human serum albumin. The in vitro protein binding of trifluridine in human plasma is ≥96%, independent of drug concentration and presence of tipiracil. Plasma protein binding of tipiracil is below 8%.

Elimination

After administration of Lonsurf 35 mg/m2, the mean elimination half-life (t1/2) of trifluridine was 1.4 hours and of tipiracil was 2.1 hours after a single dose. The mean elimination half-life at steady state of trifluridine was 2.1 hours and of tipiracil was 2.4 hours.

Metabolism

Trifluridine and tipiracil are not metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. Trifluridine is mainly eliminated by metabolism via thymidine phosphorylase to form an inactive metabolite, 5-(trifluoromethyl) uracil (FTY). No other major metabolites were detected in plasma or urine.

Excretion

After single oral administration of Lonsurf (60 mg) with [14C]-trifluridine, the total cumulative excretion of radioactivity was 60% of the administered dose. The majority of recovered radioactivity was eliminated into urine (55% of the dose) as FTY and trifluridine glucuronide isomers within 24 hours, and the excretion into feces and expired air was <3% for both. The unchanged trifluridine was <3% of administered dose recovered in the urine and feces.

After single oral administration of Lonsurf (60 mg) with [14C]-tipiracil hydrochloride, recovered radioactivity was 77% of the dose, which consisted of 27% urinary excretion and 50% fecal excretion. Tipiracil was the major component and 6-HMU was the major metabolite in urine, and feces.

Specific Populations

Based on the population pharmacokinetic analysis, there is no clinically relevant effect of age, sex, or race (White or Asian) on the pharmacokinetics of trifluridine or tipiracil.

Patients with Renal Impairment

In RECOURSE, using the Cockcroft-Gault formula for creatinine clearance, the estimated mean AUC of trifluridine at steady state was 31% higher in patients with mild renal impairment (CLcr = 60 to 89 mL/min) and 43% higher in patients with moderate renal impairment (CLcr = 30 to 59 mL/min) than that in patient with normal renal function (CLcr ≥ 90 mL/min). The estimated mean AUC of tipiracil was 34% higher in patients with mild renal impairment and 65% higher in patients with moderate renal impairment than that in patients with normal renal function. The pharmacokinetics of trifluridine and tipiracil have not been studied in patients with severe renal impairment (CLcr < 30 mL/min) or end-stage renal disease [see Use in Specific Populations (8.7)].

Patients with Hepatic Impairment

No clinically important differences in the mean exposures of trifluridine and tipiracil were observed between patients with mild hepatic impairment (total bilirubin ≤ ULN and AST > ULN or total bilirubin <1 to 1.5 times ULN and any AST) to moderate hepatic impairment (total bilirubin >1.5 to 3 times ULN and any AST) and patients with normal hepatic function (total bilirubin and AST ≤ ULN); however, 5 of 6 patients with moderate hepatic impairment experienced Grade 3 or 4 increased bilirubin levels. The pharmacokinetics of trifluridine and tipiracil have not been studied in patients with severe hepatic impairment [see Dosage Modifications (2.2), Use in Specific Populations (8.6)].

Drug Interaction Studies

In vitro studies indicated that trifluridine, tipiracil, and FTY did not inhibit the CYP enzymes and had no inductive effect on CYP1A2, CYP2B6, or CYP3A4/5.

In vitro studies indicated that trifluridine was not an inhibitor of or substrate for human uptake and efflux transporters.

Nonclinical Toxicology

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

No long-term studies evaluating the carcinogenic potential of trifluridine/tipiracil in animals have been performed. Trifluridine/tipiracil was genotoxic in a reverse mutation test in bacteria, a chromosomal aberration test in mammalian-cultured cells, and a micronucleus test in mice.

Animal studies did not indicate an effect of trifluridine/tipiracil on male fertility in rats. Dose-related increases in the corpus luteum count and implanted embryo count were observed, but female fertility was not affected.

Clinical Studies

Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

The efficacy of Lonsurf was evaluated in RECOURSE (NCT01607957), an international, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study conducted in patients with previously treated metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Key eligibility criteria included prior treatment with at least 2 lines of standard chemotherapy for metastatic CRC, ECOG performance status (PS) 0-1, absence of brain metastasis, and absence of ascites requiring drainage in the past four weeks. Patients were randomized 2:1 to receive Lonsurf 35 mg/m2 or matching placebo orally twice daily after meals on Days 1-5 and 8-12 of each 28-day cycle until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Randomization was stratified by KRAS status (wild-type vs. mutant), time since diagnosis of first metastasis (<18 months vs. ≥ 18 months), and region (Japan vs. US, Europe and Australia). The major efficacy outcome measure was overall survival (OS) and an additional efficacy outcome measure was progression-free survival (PFS).

A total of 800 patients were randomized to Lonsurf (N=534) with best supportive care (BSC) or matching placebo (N=266) plus BSC. The median age was 63 years, 61% were male, 58% and 35% were White and Asian respectively, and all patients had baseline ECOG PS of 0 or 1. The primary site of disease was colon (62%) or rectum (38%). KRAS status was wild-type (49%) or mutant (51%) at study entry. All patients received prior treatment with fluoropyrimidine-, oxaliplatin-, and irinotecan-based chemotherapy. All but one patient received bevacizumab and all but two patients with KRAS wild-type tumors received panitumumab or cetuximab.

Efficacy results are summarized in Table 7 and Figure 1.

Table 7 Efficacy Results from RECOURSE
a Kaplan-Meier estimates
b Methodology of Brookmeyer and Crowley
c Stratified log-rank test (strata: KRAS status, time since diagnosis of first metastasis, region), 2-sided
Lonsurf
(N=534)
Placebo
(N=266)
Overall Survival
Number of deaths, N (%) 364 (68) 210 (79)
Median OS (months)a (95% CI)b 7.1 (6.5, 7.8) 5.3 (4.6, 6.0)
Hazard ratio (95% CI) 0.68 (0.58, 0.81)
p-valuec <0.001
Progression-Free Survival
Number of events, N (%) 472 (88) 251 (94)
Hazard ratio (95% CI) 0.47 (0.40, 0.55)
p-valuec <0.001

Figure 1 Kaplan-Meier Curves of Overall Survival in RECOURSE

Metastatic Gastric Cancer

The efficacy of Lonsurf was evaluated in TAGS (NCT02500043), an international, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in patients with metastatic gastric or gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) adenocarcinoma previously treated with at least 2 prior regimens for advanced disease. Previous treatments must have included a fluoropyrimidine, a platinum, and either a taxane or irinotecan. Patients with HER2/neu-positive tumors must have received prior HER2/neu-targeted therapy, if available. Adjuvant chemotherapy could be counted as one prior regimen in patients who had recurrence during or within 6 months of completion of the adjuvant chemotherapy. Other key eligibility criteria included ECOG performance status (PS) 0 or 1. Patients were randomized 2:1 to receive Lonsurf 35 mg/m2 orally twice daily on Days 1-5 and 8-12 of each 28-day cycle with best supportive care (BSC) or matching placebo with BSC until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Randomization was stratified by ECOG PS at baseline (0 vs. 1), prior ramucirumab (yes vs. no), and geographic region (Japan vs. rest of world). The major efficacy outcome measure was OS and an additional outcome measure was PFS.

A total of 507 patients were randomized to Lonsurf (N=337) or placebo (N=170). The median age was 63 years, 73% were male, 70% and 16% were White and Asian respectively, and 38% had a baseline ECOG PS of 0. Seventy-one percent of patients had gastric tumors, 29% had GEJ tumors, and two patients had gastric/GEJ tumors. All patients received platinum-based chemotherapy, 99% received fluoropyrimidine-based therapy, 91% received a taxane, 55% received irinotecan, and 33% received ramucirumab. The HER2 status was negative in 62%, positive in 19%, and unknown in 20% of patients. Among the 94 patients with HER2 positive tumors, 89% received prior anti-HER2 therapy.

Efficacy results are summarized in Table 8 and Figure 2.

Table 8 Efficacy Results from TAGS
a Kaplan-Meier estimates
b Methodology of Brookmeyer and Crowley
c Stratified log-rank test (strata: ECOG PS, prior ramucirumab treatment, region), 2-sided
Lonsurf
(N=337)
Placebo
(N=170)
Overall Survival
Number of deaths, N (%) 244 (72) 140 (82)
Median OS (months)a (95% CI)b 5.7 (4.8, 6.2) 3.6 (3.1, 4.1)
Hazard ratio (95% CI) 0.69 (0.56, 0.85)
p-valuec 0.0006
Progression-Free Survival
Number of events, N (%) 287 (85) 156 (92)
Hazard ratio (95% CI) 0.56 (0.46, 0.68)
p-valuec <0.0001

Figure 2 Kaplan-Meier Curves of Overall Survival in TAGS

REFERENCES

1. “OSHA Hazardous Drugs”. OSHA. http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/hazardousdrugs/index.html

How Supplied/Storage and Handling

Lonsurf 15 mg/6.14 mg tablets are supplied as white, biconvex, round, film-coated tablet, imprinted with ‘15’ on one side, and ‘102’ and ’15 mg’ on the other side, in gray ink. The tablets are packaged in HDPE bottles with child resistant closures in the following presentations:

  • 20 count: NDC 64842-1025-1
  • 40 count: NDC 64842-1025-2
  • 60 count: NDC 64842-1025-3

Lonsurf 20 mg/8.19 mg tablets are supplied as pale red, biconvex, round, film-coated tablet, imprinted with ‘20’ on one side, and ‘102’ and ‘20 mg’ on the other side, in gray ink. The tablets are packaged in HDPE bottles with child resistant closures in the following presentations:

  • 20 count: NDC 64842-1020-1
  • 40 count: NDC 64842-1020-2
  • 60 count: NDC 64842-1020-3

Store at 20°C to 25°C (68°F to 77°F); excursions are permitted from 15°C to 30°C (59°F to 86°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature].

Lonsurf is a cytotoxic drug. Follow applicable special handling and disposal procedures.1

If stored outside of original bottle, discard after 30 days.

Patient Counseling Information

Advise the patient to read the FDA-Approved Patient Labeling (Patient Information).

Severe Myelosuppression

Advise patients to immediately contact their healthcare provider if they experience signs or symptoms of infection and advise patients to keep all appointments for blood tests [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

Gastrointestinal Toxicity

Advise patients to contact their healthcare provider for severe or persistent nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or abdominal pain [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)].

Administration Instructions

Advise patients that Lonsurf is available in two strengths and they may receive both strength tablets to provide the prescribed dosage.

Advise patients to take Lonsurf with food [see Dosage and Administration (2.1)].

Advise patients that anyone else who handles their medication should wear gloves [see References (15)].

Embryo-Fetal Toxicity

Advise pregnant women and females of reproductive potential of the potential risk to the fetus. Advise females to inform their healthcare provider of a known or suspected pregnancy [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2), Use in Specific Populations (8.3)].

Advise female patients of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment with Lonsurf and for at least 6 months after the final dose [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2), Use in Specific Populations (8.3)].

Advise males with female partners of reproductive potential to use condoms during treatment with Lonsurf and for at least 3 months after the final dose [see Use in Specific Populations (8.3), Nonclinical Toxicology (13.1)].

Lactation

Advise women not to breastfeed during treatment with Lonsurf and for 1 day following the final dose [see Use in Specific Populations (8.2)].

Manufactured by: Taiho Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Japan
Manufactured for: Taiho Oncology, Inc., Princeton, NJ 08540 USA

Lonsurf is a registered trademark of Taiho Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd used under license by
Taiho Oncology, Inc.


This Patient Information has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Revised: 2/2019
PATIENT INFORMATION
Lonsurf® (LON-serf)
(trifluridine and tipiracil)
tablets
What is the most important information I should know about Lonsurf?
Your healthcare provider should do blood tests before you receive Lonsurf, at day 15 during treatment with Lonsurf, and as needed to check your blood cell counts.
Lonsurf may cause serious side effects, including
:
Low blood cell counts. Low blood counts are common with Lonsurf and can sometimes be severe and life-threatening. Lonsurf can cause a decrease in your white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets. Low white blood cells can make you more likely to get serious infections that could lead to death. Your healthcare provider may:
  • lower your dose of Lonsurf or stop Lonsurf if you have low white blood cell or low platelet counts.
Tell your healthcare provider right away if you get any of the following signs and symptoms of infection during treatment with Lonsurf:
  • fever
  • chills
  • body aches
See What are the possible side effects of Lonsurf? for more information about side effects.
What is Lonsurf?
Lonsurf is a prescription medicine used to treat people with
  • colorectal cancer that has spread to other parts of the body and who have been previously treated or cannot receive certain chemotherapy medicines.
  • a kind of stomach cancer called gastric cancer including adenocarcinoma of the gastroesophageal junction that has spread to other parts of the body and who have been previously treated or cannot receive certain chemotherapy medications.

It is not known if Lonsurf is safe and effective in children.
Before you take Lonsurf, tell your healthcare provider about all of your medical conditions, including if you:
  • have kidney or liver problems
  • are pregnant or plan to become pregnant. Lonsurf can harm your unborn baby.
    For females who can become pregnant:
    • Your healthcare provider will verify your pregnancy status before you start treatment with Lonsurf.
    • You should use effective birth control during treatment with Lonsurf and for at least 6 months after your last dose of Lonsurf.
    • Tell your healthcare provider right away if you become pregnant.
    For males:
    • You should use a condom during sex with female partners who are able to become pregnant during your treatment with Lonsurf and for 3 months after your last dose of Lonsurf. Tell your healthcare provider right away if your partner becomes pregnant while you are taking Lonsurf.
  • are breastfeeding or plan to breastfeed. It is not known if Lonsurf passes into breast milk. Do not breastfeed during treatment with Lonsurf and for one day after your last dose of Lonsurf.
Tell your healthcare provider about all the medicines you take, including prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal supplements.
How should I take Lonsurf?
  • Take Lonsurf exactly as your healthcare provider tells you.
    Lonsurf comes in two strengths. Your healthcare provider may prescribe both strengths for your prescribed dose.
  • Take Lonsurf 2 times a day with food.
  • Swallow Lonsurf tablets whole.
  • Your caregiver should wear gloves when handling Lonsurf tablets.
  • If you miss a dose of Lonsurf, do not take additional doses to make up for the missed dose. Call your healthcare provider for instructions about what to do for a missed dose.
  • Wash your hands after handling the Lonsurf tablets.
What are the possible side effects of Lonsurf?
Lonsurf may cause serious side effects, including: Tell your healthcare provider if you have nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea that is severe or that does not go away.
These are not all of the possible side effects of Lonsurf. For more information, ask your healthcare provider.
Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.
How should I store Lonsurf?
  • Store Lonsurf at room temperature between 68°F and 77°F (20°C and 25°C).
  • If you store Lonsurf outside of the original bottle, throw away (dispose of) any unused Lonsurf tablets after 30 days.
  • Talk to your healthcare provider about how to safely dispose of Lonsurf.
Keep Lonsurf and all medicines out of the reach of children.
General information about the safe and effective use of Lonsurf
Medicines are sometimes prescribed for purposes other than those listed in a Patient Information leaflet. Do not use Lonsurf for a condition for which it was not prescribed. Do not give Lonsurf to other people, even if they have the same symptoms that you have. It may harm them. If you would like more information, talk to your healthcare provider. You can ask your pharmacist or healthcare provider for information about Lonsurf that is written for health professionals.
What are the ingredients in Lonsurf?
Active ingredients: trifluridine and tipiracil hydrochloride
Other ingredients: lactose monohydrate, pregelatinized starch, stearic acid, hypromellose, polyethylene glycol, titanium dioxide, ferric oxide (20 mg tablet only), and magnesium stearate
Imprinting ink: shellac, ferric oxide red, ferric oxide yellow, titanium dioxide, FD&C Blue No. 2 Aluminum Lake, carnauba wax, and talc.
Manufactured by: Taiho Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Japan
Manufactured for: Taiho Oncology, Inc., Princeton, NJ 08540 USA
Lonsurf is a registered trademark of Taiho Oncology, Inc. For more information, go to www.Lonsurf.com or call 1-844-878-2446.

PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL - NDC: 64842-1021-1 - 15 mg Tablet 20-count Bottle

PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL - NDC: 64842-1025-1 - 15 mg Tablet 20-count Carton

PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL - NDC: 64842-1025-2 - 15 mg Tablet 40-count Bottle

PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL - NDC: 64842-1025-2 - 15 mg Tablet 40-count Carton

PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL - NDC: 64842-1025-3 - 15 mg Tablet 60-count Bottle

PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL - NDC: 64842-1025-3 - 15 mg Tablet 60-count Carton

PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL - NDC: 64842-1022-1 - 20 mg Tablet 20-count Bottle

PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL - NDC: 64842-1020-1 - 20 mg Tablet 20-count Carton

PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL - NDC: 64842-1020-2 - 20 mg Tablet 40-count Bottle

PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL - NDC: 64842-1020-2 - 20 mg Tablet 40-count Carton

PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL - NDC: 64842-1020-3 - 20 mg Tablet 60-count Bottle

PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL - NDC: 64842-1020-3 - 20 mg Tablet 60-count Carton

Lonsurf 
trifluridine and tipiracil tablet, film coated
Product Information
Product Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG LABEL Item Code (Source) NDC:64842-1025
Route of Administration ORAL DEA Schedule     
Active Ingredient/Active Moiety
Ingredient Name Basis of Strength Strength
TRIFLURIDINE (TRIFLURIDINE) TRIFLURIDINE 15 mg
TIPIRACIL HYDROCHLORIDE (TIPIRACIL) TIPIRACIL 6.14 mg
Inactive Ingredients
Ingredient Name Strength
LACTOSE MONOHYDRATE 90.735 mg
STARCH, CORN 6.000 mg
STEARIC ACID 1.200 mg
HYPROMELLOSES 2.100 mg
POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL, UNSPECIFIED 0.300 mg
TITANIUM DIOXIDE 0.300 mg
MAGNESIUM STEARATE 0.003 mg
ALCOHOL  
BUTYL ALCOHOL  
Product Characteristics
Color WHITE Score no score
Shape ROUND (biconvex) Size 7mm
Flavor Imprint Code 15;102;15;mg
Contains     
Packaging
# Item Code Package Description
1 NDC:64842-1025-1 20 TABLET, FILM COATED in 1 BOTTLE
2 NDC:64842-1025-2 40 TABLET, FILM COATED in 1 BOTTLE
3 NDC:64842-1025-3 60 TABLET, FILM COATED in 1 BOTTLE
Marketing Information
Marketing Category Application Number or Monograph Citation Marketing Start Date Marketing End Date
NDA NDA207981 09/22/2015
Lonsurf 
trifluridine and tipiracil tablet, film coated
Product Information
Product Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG LABEL Item Code (Source) NDC:64842-1020
Route of Administration ORAL DEA Schedule     
Active Ingredient/Active Moiety
Ingredient Name Basis of Strength Strength
TRIFLURIDINE (TRIFLURIDINE) TRIFLURIDINE 20 mg
TIPIRACIL HYDROCHLORIDE (TIPIRACIL) TIPIRACIL 8.19 mg
Inactive Ingredients
Ingredient Name Strength
LACTOSE MONOHYDRATE 120.980 mg
STARCH, CORN 8.000 mg
STEARIC ACID 1.600 mg
HYPROMELLOSES 2.800 mg
POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL, UNSPECIFIED 0.400 mg
TITANIUM DIOXIDE 0.400 mg
FERRIC OXIDE RED 0.040 mg
MAGNESIUM STEARATE 0.004 mg
ALCOHOL  
BUTYL ALCOHOL  
Product Characteristics
Color RED (pale red) Score no score
Shape ROUND (biconvex) Size 8mm
Flavor Imprint Code 20;102;20;mg
Contains     
Packaging
# Item Code Package Description
1 NDC:64842-1020-1 20 TABLET, FILM COATED in 1 BOTTLE
2 NDC:64842-1020-2 40 TABLET, FILM COATED in 1 BOTTLE
3 NDC:64842-1020-3 60 TABLET, FILM COATED in 1 BOTTLE
Marketing Information
Marketing Category Application Number or Monograph Citation Marketing Start Date Marketing End Date
NDA NDA207981 09/22/2015
Labeler - Taiho Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. (690548730)
Establishment
Name Address ID/FEI Operations
Yuki Gosei Kogyo Co., Ltd. 706298080 API MANUFACTURE(64842-1025, 64842-1020)
Establishment
Name Address ID/FEI Operations
Taiho Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. Saitama Plant 695734327 ANALYSIS(64842-1025, 64842-1020), API MANUFACTURE(64842-1025, 64842-1020)
Establishment
Name Address ID/FEI Operations
Taiho Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. Kitajima Plant 692199778 MANUFACTURE(64842-1025, 64842-1020), ANALYSIS(64842-1025, 64842-1020)
 
Taiho Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.

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