Skip to main content

Patiromer

Class: Potassium-removing Agents
Chemical Name: Hydrolyzed divinylbenzene-Me 2-fluoro-2-propenoate-1,7-octadiene polymer sorbitol complexes calcium
Molecular Formula: [[C3H2FO2)2Ca]x[C8H14]z[C10H10]y,[C6H14O6]w]n
CAS Number: 1415477-49-4
Brands: Veltassa

Medically reviewed by Drugs.com on Nov 2, 2021. Written by ASHP.

Introduction

Nonabsorbed, cation-exchange polymer used for the removal of excess potassium.

Uses for Patiromer

Hyperkalemia

Treatment of hyperkalemia.

Efficacy in decreasing elevated serum potassium concentrations and reducing recurrence of hyperkalemia established in patients with chronic kidney disease receiving drugs that inhibit the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Efficacy maintained during treatment for up to 1 year.

Not used as an emergency treatment for life-threatening hyperkalemia because of its delayed onset of action.

Patiromer Dosage and Administration

Administration

Oral Administration

Administer ≥3 hours before or ≥3 hours after other oral drugs. (See Interactions.)

Administer without regard to food.

Do not heat (e.g., in microwave) or add to heated foods or liquids.

Administer as oral suspension; do not administer in dry form.

Preparation of Oral Suspension

Empty entire contents of the packet(s) containing patiromer into glass or cup containing approximately 40 mL of water. Stir, then add additional 40 mL of water. Stir thoroughly; may add more water to achieve desired consistency. Administer immediately.

If powder remains in glass after initial administration, add more water, stir, and administer immediately; repeat, as needed, until the entire dose is administered.

Dosage

Available as patiromer sorbitex calcium; dosage expressed in terms of patiromer.

Adults

Hyperkalemia
Oral

Initially, 8.4 g once daily. Monitor serum potassium concentration; dosage may be increased (in 8.4-g increments at intervals of ≥1 week, up to 25.2 g daily) or reduced based on serum potassium concentration and desired target range.

Prescribing Limits

Adults

Hyperkalemia
Oral

Maximum 25.2 g once daily.

Special Populations

Hepatic Impairment

No special dosage recommendations.

Renal Impairment

Dosage adjustments not necessary.

Geriatric Patients

No special dosage recommendations.

Cautions for Patiromer

Contraindications

  • Known hypersensitivity to patiromer or to any ingredient in the formulation.

Warnings/Precautions

Worsening of GI Motility Disorders

Clinical studies excluded patients with history of bowel obstruction or major GI surgery, severe GI disorders, or swallowing disorders.

Avoid use in patients with severe constipation, bowel obstruction, or fecal impaction, including abnormal postoperative bowel motility disorders, because the drug may not be effective and may worsen GI conditions.

Hypomagnesemia

Binds to magnesium in the colon, which can lead to hypomagnesemia. Monitor serum magnesium concentrations, and consider magnesium supplementation in patients with low serum magnesium concentrations.

Specific Populations

Pregnancy

Not expected to cause fetal harm when administered to pregnant women because patiromer is not absorbed systemically following oral administration.

Lactation

Breast-feeding not expected to result in risk to infants of patiromer-treated women because the drug is not absorbed systemically following oral administration.

Pediatric Use

Safety and efficacy not established in pediatric patients.

Geriatric Use

No overall differences in efficacy observed between geriatric patients and younger adults. However, adverse GI effects reported more frequently in those ≥65 years of age.

Common Adverse Effects

Constipation, hypomagnesemia, diarrhea, nausea, abdominal discomfort, flatulence.

Interactions for Patiromer

Effects on GI Absorption of Drugs

Binds to approximately 50% of the oral drugs tested in vitro; clinical interaction studies indicate that concomitant oral administration with patiromer alters bioavailability of some of these drugs. (See Specific Drugs under Interactions.)

Binding could reduce GI absorption of oral drugs and result in loss of efficacy when administration times are close to those of patiromer. Administer other oral agents ≥3 hours before or ≥3 hours following administration of patiromer.

Specific Drugs

Drug

Interaction

Comments

Allopurinol

No pharmacokinetic interaction in vitro

Amlodipine

Pharmacokinetic interaction in vitro; no effect on systemic exposure of amlodipine in vivo

Amoxicillin

No pharmacokinetic interaction in vitro

Apixaban

No pharmacokinetic interaction in vitro

Aspirin

No pharmacokinetic interaction in vitro

Atorvastatin

No pharmacokinetic interaction in vitro

Cephalexin

No pharmacokinetic interaction in vitro

Cinacalcet

Pharmacokinetic interaction in vitro; no effect on systemic exposure of cinacalcet in vivo

Ciprofloxacin

Concomitant oral administration resulted in decreased systemic exposure of ciprofloxacin; no interaction when administration times separated by 3 hours

Separate administration times by ≥3 hours

Clopidogrel

Pharmacokinetic interaction in vitro; no effect on systemic exposure of clopidogrel in vivo

Digoxin

No pharmacokinetic interaction in vitro

Furosemide

Pharmacokinetic interaction in vitro; no effect on systemic exposure of furosemide in vivo

Glipizide

No pharmacokinetic interaction in vitro

Levothyroxine

Concomitant oral administration resulted in decreased systemic exposure of levothyroxine; no interaction when administration times separated by 3 hours

Separate administration times by ≥3 hours

Lisinopril

No pharmacokinetic interaction in vitro

Lithium

Pharmacokinetic interaction in vitro; no effect on systemic exposure of lithium in vivo

Metformin

Concomitant oral administration resulted in decreased systemic exposure of metformin; no interaction when administration times separated by 3 hours

Separate administration times by ≥3 hours

Metoprolol

Pharmacokinetic interaction in vitro; no effect on systemic exposure of metoprolol in vivo

Phenytoin

No pharmacokinetic interaction in vitro

Riboflavin

No pharmacokinetic interaction in vitro

Rivaroxaban

No pharmacokinetic interaction in vitro

Spironolactone

No pharmacokinetic interaction in vitro

Trimethoprim

Pharmacokinetic interaction in vitro; no effect on systemic exposure of trimethoprim in vivo

Valsartan

No pharmacokinetic interaction in vitro

Verapamil

Pharmacokinetic interaction in vitro; no effect on systemic exposure of verapamil in vivo

Warfarin

Pharmacokinetic interaction in vitro; no effect on systemic exposure of warfarin in vivo

Patiromer Pharmacokinetics

Absorption

Bioavailability

Not absorbed systemically after oral administration.

Onset

Onset of lowering of serum potassium observed in 7 hours. Maximum (steady-state) effects attained within 7–14 days with twice-daily dosing. (See Actions.)

Food

Mean dosage and effects on serum potassium concentration are similar whether patiromer is administered with or without food.

Elimination

Elimination Route

Excreted in feces.

Stability

Storage

Oral

Powder for Suspension

2–8°C; if stored at 25°C, use within 3 months. Do not expose to >40°C.

Actions

  • Patiromer sorbitex calcium consists of patiromer, a nonabsorbed cation-exchange polymer, and a calcium-sorbitol counterion; used for the removal of excess potassium.

  • Increases fecal potassium excretion via binding of potassium in the GI lumen, which decreases the free potassium concentration in the GI lumen and, consequently, reduces serum potassium concentrations.

  • In patients with chronic kidney disease and hyperkalemia (mean serum potassium concentration of 5.9 mEq/L), patiromer (16.8 g daily in divided doses for 2 days) reduced serum potassium concentrations by 0.2 and 0.8 mEq/L at 7 and 48 hours, respectively; potassium concentrations stable for 24 hours after last dose, then began to increase.

  • In healthy individuals, exhibits a dose-dependent increase in fecal potassium excretion and corresponding dose-dependent decrease in urinary potassium excretion, with no change in serum potassium concentrations. Effects on fecal and urinary potassium excretion similar whether administered as single daily dose or in 2 or 3 divided doses daily.

Advice to Patients

  • Importance of administering other oral drugs ≥3 hours before or ≥3 hours after administration of patiromer.

  • Importance of adhering to prescribed diet; may take patiromer without regard to food.

  • Importance of preparing each dose immediately before administration according to manufacturer's instructions. Do not heat (e.g., in microwave) or add to heated foods or liquids; do not administer patiromer in its dry form.

  • Importance of women informing clinicians if they are or plan to become pregnant or plan to breast-feed.

  • Importance of informing clinicians of existing or contemplated concomitant therapy, including prescription and OTC drugs, as well as any concomitant illnesses.

  • Importance of informing patients of other important precautionary information. (See Cautions.)

Preparations

Excipients in commercially available drug preparations may have clinically important effects in some individuals; consult specific product labeling for details.

Please refer to the ASHP Drug Shortages Resource Center for information on shortages of one or more of these preparations.

Patiromer Sorbitex Calcium

Routes

Dosage Forms

Strengths

Brand Names

Manufacturer

Oral

For suspension

8.4 g (of patiromer) per packet

Veltassa

Relypsa

16.8 g (of patiromer) per packet

Veltassa

Relypsa

25.2 g (of patiromer) per packet

Veltassa

Relypsa

AHFS DI Essentials™. © Copyright 2022, Selected Revisions November 12, 2018. American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc., 4500 East-West Highway, Suite 900, Bethesda, Maryland 20814.

Show article references