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Brimonidine / dorzolamide / latanoprost / timolol ophthalmic Disease Interactions

There are 24 disease interactions with brimonidine / dorzolamide / latanoprost / timolol ophthalmic:

Major

Latanoprost (applies to brimonidine/dorzolamide/latanoprost/timolol ophthalmic) herpes simplex

Major Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility. Applicable conditions: Ocular Herpes Simplex

Latanoprost should be used with caution in patients with a history of herpetic keratitis and it should be avoided in cases of active simplex keratitis because of the risk of reactivation and inflammation.

Major

Ophthalmic beta-blockers (applies to brimonidine/dorzolamide/latanoprost/timolol ophthalmic) asthma/COPD

Major Potential Hazard, High plausibility. Applicable conditions: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Ophthalmic beta-adrenergic receptor blocking agents (aka beta-blockers) in general should not be used in patients with a current or past history of bronchial asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Topically applied beta-blockers are systemically absorbed, with the potential for producing clinically significant systemic effects even at low or undetectable plasma levels. In the respiratory tract, beta blockade may adversely affect pulmonary function by counteracting the bronchodilation produced by catecholamine stimulation of beta-2 receptors. Although agents with beta-1 selectivity (e.g., betaxolol) are considered safer in patients with bronchospastic diseases, cardioselectivity is not absolute and may be lost with larger doses or higher plasma levels.

References

  1. Raine JM, Palazzo MG, Kerr JH, Sleight P "Near-fatal bronchospasm after oral nadolol in a young asthmatic and response to ventilation with halothane." Br Med J 282 (1981): 548-9
  2. Adam WR, Meagher EJ, Barter CE "Labetalol, beta blockers, and acute deterioration of chronic airway obstruction." Clin Exp Hypertens A A4 (1982): 1419-28
  3. Benjamin KW "Toxicity of ocular medications." Int Ophthalmol Clin 19 (1979): 199-255
  4. Falliers CJ, Vincent ME, Medakovic M "Effect of single doses of labetalol, metoprolol, and placebo on ventilatory function in patients with bronchial asthma: interaction with isoproterenol." J Asthma 23 (1986): 251-60
  5. "Product Information. Betagan Liquifilm (levobunolol)." Allergan Inc, Irvine, CA.
  6. "Product Information. OptiPranolol (metipranolol)." Bausch and Lomb, Tampa, FL.
  7. Stephen SA "Unwanted effects of propranolol." Am J Cardiol 18 (1966): 463-72
  8. Charan NB, Lakshminarayan S "Pulmonary effects of topical timolol." Arch Intern Med 140 (1980): 843-4
  9. Schoenberger JA, Croog SH, Sudilovsky A, et al "Self-reported side effects from antihypertensive drugs: a clinical trial." Am J Hypertens 3 (1990): 123-32
  10. Dunn TL, Gerber MJ, Shen AS, Fernandez E, Iseman MD, Cherniak RM "The effect of topical ophthalmic instillation of timolol and betaxolol on lung function in asthmatic subjects." Am Rev Respir Dis 133 (1986): 264-8
  11. Benson MK, Berrill WT, Cruickshank JM, Sterling GS "A comparison of four B-adrenoceptor antagonists in patients with asthma." Br J Clin Pharmacol 5 (1978): 415-9
  12. Le Jeunne CL, Hugues FC, Dufier JL, Munera Y, Bringer L "Bronchial and cardiovascular effects of ocular topical B-antagonists in asthmatic subjects: comparison of timolol, carteolol, and metipranolol." J Clin Pharmacol 29 (1989): 97-101
  13. Chodosh S, Tuck J, Blasucci DJ "The effects of dilevalol, metoprolol, and placebo on ventilatory function in asthmatics." J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 11 (1988): s18-24
  14. Durant PA, Joucken K "Bronchospasm and hypotension during cardiopulmonary bypass after preoperative cimetidine and labetalol therapy." Br J Anaesth 56 (1984): 917-20
  15. Botet C, Grau J, Benito P, Coll J, Vivancos J "Timolol ophthalmic solution and respiratory arrest." Ann Intern Med 105 (1986): 306-7
  16. "Product Information. Ocupress (carteolol ophthalmic)" Ciba Vision Ophthalmics, Duluth, GA.
  17. Laursen SO, Bjerrum P "Timolol eyedrop-induced severe bronchospasm." Acta Med Scand 211 (1982): 505-6
  18. Prince DS, Carliner NH "Respiratory arrest following first dose of timolol ophthalmic solution." Chest 84 (1983): 640-1
  19. Horvath JS, Woolcock AJ, Tiller DJ, Donnelly P, Armstrong J, Caterson R "A comparison of metoprolol and propranolol on blood pressure and respiratory function in patients with hypertension." Aust N Z J Med 8 (1978): 1-6
  20. "Product Information. Timoptic (timolol ophthalmic)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  21. Odeh M, Oliven A, Bassan H "Timolol eyedrop-induced fatal bronchospasm in an asthmatic patient." J Fam Pract 32 (1991): 97-8
  22. Mashford ML, Coventry D, Hecker R, et al. "Adverse Drug Reactions Advisory Committee: ADRAC report for 1980." Med J Aust 1 (1982): 416-9
  23. Uusitalo RJ, Palkama A "Efficacy and safety of timolol pilocarpine combination drops in glaucoma patients." Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh) 72 (1994): 496-504
  24. van Zyl AI, Jennings AA, Bateman ED, Opie LH "Comparison of respiratory effects of two cardioselective beta-blockers, celiprolol and atenolol, in asthmatics with mild to moderate hypertension." Chest 95 (1989): 209-13
  25. Morris R, Bulteau P "Respiratory arrest after beta-blocker in an asthmatic patient." Med J Aust 2 (1980): 576
  26. "Product Information. Betoptic (betaxolol ophthalmic)." Alcon Laboratories Inc, Fort Worth, TX.
  27. "Product Information. Betaxon (levobetaxolol ophthalmic)" Alza, Palo Alto, CA.
View all 27 references
Major

Ophthalmic beta-blockers (applies to brimonidine/dorzolamide/latanoprost/timolol ophthalmic) bradycardia/AV block

Major Potential Hazard, High plausibility. Applicable conditions: Sinus Node Dysfunction, Heart Block

The use of ophthalmic beta-adrenergic receptor blocking agents (aka beta-blockers) is considered by manufacturers to be contraindicated in patients with sinus bradyarrhythmia or heart block greater than the first degree (unless a functioning pacemaker is present). Topically applied beta-blockers are systemically absorbed, with the potential for producing clinically significant systemic effects even at low or undetectable plasma levels. In cardiac tissues, beta blockade causes a reduction in inotropic as well as chronotropic activity, which may further depress cardiac function in such patients.

References

  1. "Product Information. Betagan Liquifilm (levobunolol)." Allergan Inc, Irvine, CA.
  2. "Product Information. OptiPranolol (metipranolol)." Bausch and Lomb, Tampa, FL.
  3. Edeki TI, He H, Wood AJ "Pharmacogenetic explanation for excessive B-blockade following timolol eye drops." JAMA 274 (1995): 1611-3
  4. Crean PA, Williams DO "Effect of intravenous and oral acebutolol in patients with bundle branch block." Int J Cardiol 10 (1986): 119-26
  5. Shiuey Y, Eisenberg MJ "Cardiovascular effects of commonly used ophthalmic medications." Clin Cardiol 19 (1996): 5-8
  6. Uusitalo RJ, Palkama A "Efficacy and safety of timolol pilocarpine combination drops in glaucoma patients." Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh) 72 (1994): 496-504
  7. Treseder AS, Thomas TP "Sinus arrest due to timolol eye drops." Br J Clin Pract 40 (1986): 256-8
  8. "Product Information. Betaxon (levobetaxolol ophthalmic)" Alza, Palo Alto, CA.
  9. Benjamin KW "Toxicity of ocular medications." Int Ophthalmol Clin 19 (1979): 199-255
  10. "Product Information. Timoptic (timolol ophthalmic)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  11. Mashford ML, Coventry D, Hecker R, et al. "Adverse Drug Reactions Advisory Committee: ADRAC report for 1980." Med J Aust 1 (1982): 416-9
  12. "Product Information. Betoptic (betaxolol ophthalmic)." Alcon Laboratories Inc, Fort Worth, TX.
  13. "Product Information. Ocupress (carteolol ophthalmic)" Ciba Vision Ophthalmics, Duluth, GA.
View all 13 references
Major

Ophthalmic beta-blockers (applies to brimonidine/dorzolamide/latanoprost/timolol ophthalmic) cardiogenic shock

Major Potential Hazard, High plausibility.

The use of ophthalmic beta-adrenergic receptor blocking agents (aka beta-blockers) is considered by manufacturers to be contraindicated in patients with cardiogenic shock. Topically applied beta-blockers are systemically absorbed, with the potential for producing clinically significant systemic effects even at low or undetectable plasma levels. In cardiac tissues, beta blockade causes a reduction in inotropic as well as chronotropic activity, which may further depress cardiac output and blood pressure in such patients.

References

  1. Benjamin KW "Toxicity of ocular medications." Int Ophthalmol Clin 19 (1979): 199-255
  2. "Product Information. Betoptic (betaxolol ophthalmic)." Alcon Laboratories Inc, Fort Worth, TX.
  3. "Product Information. OptiPranolol (metipranolol)." Bausch and Lomb, Tampa, FL.
  4. "Product Information. Timoptic (timolol ophthalmic)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  5. Edeki TI, He H, Wood AJ "Pharmacogenetic explanation for excessive B-blockade following timolol eye drops." JAMA 274 (1995): 1611-3
  6. Tirlapur VG, Evans PJ, Jones MK "Shock syndrome after acebutolol." Br J Clin Pract 40 (1986): 33-4
  7. Uusitalo RJ, Palkama A "Efficacy and safety of timolol pilocarpine combination drops in glaucoma patients." Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh) 72 (1994): 496-504
  8. "Product Information. Betagan Liquifilm (levobunolol)." Allergan Inc, Irvine, CA.
  9. Shiuey Y, Eisenberg MJ "Cardiovascular effects of commonly used ophthalmic medications." Clin Cardiol 19 (1996): 5-8
  10. "Product Information. Betaxon (levobetaxolol ophthalmic)" Alza, Palo Alto, CA.
  11. Kholeif M, Isles C "Profound hypotension after atenolol in severe hypertension." Br Med J 298 (1989): 161-2
  12. "Product Information. Ocupress (carteolol ophthalmic)" Ciba Vision Ophthalmics, Duluth, GA.
View all 12 references
Major

Ophthalmic beta-blockers (applies to brimonidine/dorzolamide/latanoprost/timolol ophthalmic) CHF

Major Potential Hazard, High plausibility. Applicable conditions: Congestive Heart Failure

The use of ophthalmic beta-adrenergic receptor blocking agents (aka beta-blockers) is considered by manufacturers to be contraindicated in patients with overt congestive heart failure (CHF). Topically applied beta-blockers are systemically absorbed, with the potential for producing clinically significant systemic effects even at low or undetectable plasma levels. Since sympathetic stimulation may be important in maintaining the hemodynamic function in patients with CHF, beta blockade can worsen the heart failure. However, therapy with ophthalmic beta-blockers can be administered cautiously in some CHF patients provided they are well compensated and receiving digitalis, diuretics, an ACE inhibitor, and/or nitrates. Beta-blockers should be discontinued if cardiac failure develops or worsens during therapy.

References

  1. "Product Information. Betagan Liquifilm (levobunolol)." Allergan Inc, Irvine, CA.
  2. "Product Information. Timoptic (timolol ophthalmic)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  3. "Product Information. Ocupress (carteolol ophthalmic)" Ciba Vision Ophthalmics, Duluth, GA.
  4. Shiuey Y, Eisenberg MJ "Cardiovascular effects of commonly used ophthalmic medications." Clin Cardiol 19 (1996): 5-8
  5. Edeki TI, He H, Wood AJ "Pharmacogenetic explanation for excessive B-blockade following timolol eye drops." JAMA 274 (1995): 1611-3
  6. Benjamin KW "Toxicity of ocular medications." Int Ophthalmol Clin 19 (1979): 199-255
  7. "Product Information. OptiPranolol (metipranolol)." Bausch and Lomb, Tampa, FL.
  8. Mashford ML, Coventry D, Hecker R, et al. "Adverse Drug Reactions Advisory Committee: ADRAC report for 1980." Med J Aust 1 (1982): 416-9
  9. Uusitalo RJ, Palkama A "Efficacy and safety of timolol pilocarpine combination drops in glaucoma patients." Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh) 72 (1994): 496-504
  10. Altus P "Timolol-induced congestive heart failure." South Med J 74 (1981): 88
  11. "Product Information. Betaxon (levobetaxolol ophthalmic)" Alza, Palo Alto, CA.
  12. "Product Information. Betoptic (betaxolol ophthalmic)." Alcon Laboratories Inc, Fort Worth, TX.
View all 12 references
Major

Ophthalmic beta-blockers (applies to brimonidine/dorzolamide/latanoprost/timolol ophthalmic) diabetes

Major Potential Hazard, High plausibility. Applicable conditions: Diabetes Mellitus

Beta-adrenergic receptor blocking agents (aka beta-blockers) may mask symptoms of hypoglycemia such as tremors, tachycardia and blood pressure changes. In addition, the nonselective beta-blockers (e.g., timolol, carteolol) may inhibit catecholamine-mediated glycogenolysis, thereby potentiating insulin-induced hypoglycemia and delaying the recovery of normal blood glucose levels. Since topically applied beta-blockers are systemically absorbed and may produce clinically significant systemic effects even at low or undetectable plasma levels, therapy with ophthalmic beta-blockers should be administered cautiously in patients with diabetes or predisposed to spontaneous hypoglycemia.

References

  1. "Product Information. Betoptic (betaxolol ophthalmic)." Alcon Laboratories Inc, Fort Worth, TX.
  2. "Product Information. Betaxon (levobetaxolol ophthalmic)" Alza, Palo Alto, CA.
  3. Velde TM, Kaiser FE "Ophthalmic timolol treatment causing altered hypoglycemic response in a diabetic patient." Arch Intern Med 143 (1983): 1627
  4. "Product Information. Timoptic (timolol ophthalmic)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  5. Giugliano D, Acampora R, Marfella R, DeRosa N, Ziccardi P, Ragone R, DeAngelis L, DOnofrio F "Metabolic and cardiovascular effects of carvedilol and atenolol in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and hypertension - A randomized, controlled trial." Ann Intern Med 126 (1997): 955-9
  6. Uusitupa M, Aro A, Pietikainen M "Severe hypoglycaemia caused by physical strain and pindolol therapy." Ann Clin Res 12 (1980): 25-7
  7. "Product Information. Ocupress (carteolol ophthalmic)" Ciba Vision Ophthalmics, Duluth, GA.
  8. Benjamin KW "Toxicity of ocular medications." Int Ophthalmol Clin 19 (1979): 199-255
  9. "Product Information. Betagan Liquifilm (levobunolol)." Allergan Inc, Irvine, CA.
  10. Darga LL, Hakim MJ, Lucas CP, Franklin BA "Comparison of the effects of guanadrel sulfate and propranolol on blood pressure, functional capacity, serum lipoproteins and glucose in systemic hypertension." Am J Cardiol 67 (1991): 590-6
  11. "Product Information. OptiPranolol (metipranolol)." Bausch and Lomb, Tampa, FL.
  12. Grimaldi A, Bennett P, Delas B, et al "Beta-blockers and hypoglycaemia: assessment of cardioselective and intrinsic sympathomimetic properties in relation to severity of hypoglycaemia." Curr Ther Res Clin Exp 36 (1984): 361-73
View all 12 references
Major

Ophthalmic beta-blockers (applies to brimonidine/dorzolamide/latanoprost/timolol ophthalmic) hypersensitivity

Major Potential Hazard, High plausibility. Applicable conditions: Allergies

Topically applied beta-adrenergic receptor blocking agents (aka beta-blockers) are systemically absorbed, with the potential for producing clinically significant systemic effects even at low or undetectable plasma levels. The use of beta-blockers in patients with a history of allergic reactions or anaphylaxis may be associated with heightened reactivity to culprit allergens. The frequency and/or severity of attacks may be increased during beta-blocker therapy. In addition, these patients may be refractory to the usual doses of epinephrine used to treat acute hypersensitivity reactions and may require a beta-agonist such as isoproterenol.

References

  1. "Product Information. Betaxon (levobetaxolol ophthalmic)" Alza, Palo Alto, CA.
  2. "Product Information. OptiPranolol (metipranolol)." Bausch and Lomb, Tampa, FL.
  3. "Product Information. Betoptic (betaxolol ophthalmic)." Alcon Laboratories Inc, Fort Worth, TX.
  4. "Product Information. Betagan Liquifilm (levobunolol)." Allergan Inc, Irvine, CA.
  5. "Product Information. Ocupress (carteolol ophthalmic)" Ciba Vision Ophthalmics, Duluth, GA.
  6. "Product Information. Timoptic (timolol ophthalmic)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
View all 6 references
Major

Ophthalmic beta-blockers (applies to brimonidine/dorzolamide/latanoprost/timolol ophthalmic) hyperthyroidism

Major Potential Hazard, High plausibility.

Beta-adrenergic receptor blocking agents (aka beta-blockers) may mask some symptoms of hyperthyroidism such as tachycardia, anxiety, tremor, and heat intolerance. Abrupt withdrawal of beta-blocker therapy in thyrotoxic patients may exacerbate symptoms of hyperthyroidism or precipitate a thyroid storm. Since topically applied beta-blockers are systemically absorbed and may produce clinically significant systemic effects even at low or undetectable plasma levels, therapy with ophthalmic beta-blockers should be administered cautiously in patients with or suspected of having hyperthyroidism. Cessation of beta-blocker therapy, when necessary, should occur gradually over a period of 1 to 2 weeks. Patients should be advised not to discontinue treatment without first consulting with the physician. Close monitoring is recommended during and after therapy withdrawal.

References

  1. "Product Information. Betoptic (betaxolol ophthalmic)." Alcon Laboratories Inc, Fort Worth, TX.
  2. "Product Information. Betaxon (levobetaxolol ophthalmic)" Alza, Palo Alto, CA.
  3. "Product Information. OptiPranolol (metipranolol)." Bausch and Lomb, Tampa, FL.
  4. "Product Information. Timoptic (timolol ophthalmic)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  5. "Product Information. Ocupress (carteolol ophthalmic)" Ciba Vision Ophthalmics, Duluth, GA.
  6. "Product Information. Betagan Liquifilm (levobunolol)." Allergan Inc, Irvine, CA.
View all 6 references
Major

Ophthalmic beta-blockers (applies to brimonidine/dorzolamide/latanoprost/timolol ophthalmic) PVD

Major Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility. Applicable conditions: Cerebrovascular Insufficiency, Peripheral Arterial Disease

Due to their negative inotropic and chronotropic effects on the heart, beta-adrenergic receptor blocking agents (aka beta-blockers) reduce cardiac output and may precipitate or aggravate symptoms of arterial insufficiency in patients with peripheral vascular disease. In addition, the nonselective beta-blockers (e.g., timolol, carteolol) may attenuate catecholamine-mediated vasodilation during exercise by blocking beta-2 receptors in peripheral vessels. Since topically applied beta-blockers are systemically absorbed and may produce clinically significant systemic effects even at low or undetectable plasma levels, therapy with ophthalmic beta-blockers should be administered cautiously in patients with peripheral vascular disease. Close monitoring for progression of arterial obstruction is advised.

References

  1. Eliasson K, Danielson M, Hylander B, Lindblad LE "Raynaud's phenomenon caused by beta-receptor blocking drugs." Acta Med Scand 215 (1984): 333-9
  2. "Product Information. Betagan Liquifilm (levobunolol)." Allergan Inc, Irvine, CA.
  3. "Product Information. OptiPranolol (metipranolol)." Bausch and Lomb, Tampa, FL.
  4. "Product Information. Timoptic (timolol ophthalmic)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  5. Edeki TI, He H, Wood AJ "Pharmacogenetic explanation for excessive B-blockade following timolol eye drops." JAMA 274 (1995): 1611-3
  6. Shiuey Y, Eisenberg MJ "Cardiovascular effects of commonly used ophthalmic medications." Clin Cardiol 19 (1996): 5-8
  7. Uusitalo RJ, Palkama A "Efficacy and safety of timolol pilocarpine combination drops in glaucoma patients." Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh) 72 (1994): 496-504
  8. Mashford ML, Coventry D, Hecker R, et al. "Adverse Drug Reactions Advisory Committee: ADRAC report for 1980." Med J Aust 1 (1982): 416-9
  9. "Product Information. Betaxon (levobetaxolol ophthalmic)" Alza, Palo Alto, CA.
  10. "Product Information. Betoptic (betaxolol ophthalmic)." Alcon Laboratories Inc, Fort Worth, TX.
  11. Holti G "A double-blind study of the peripheral vasoconstrictor effects of the beta-blocking drug penbutolol in patients with Raynaud's phenomenon." Curr Med Res Opin 6 (1979): 267-70
  12. "Product Information. Ocupress (carteolol ophthalmic)" Ciba Vision Ophthalmics, Duluth, GA.
  13. Broeder CE, Thomas EL, Martin NB, Hofman Z, Jesek JK, Scruggs KD, Wambsgans KC, Wilmore JH "Effects of propranolol and pindolol on cardiac output during extended periods of low-intensity physical activity." Am J Cardiol 72 (1993): 1188-95
  14. Coppeto JR "Transient ischemic attacks and amaurosis fugax from timolol." Ann Ophthalmol 17 (1985): 64-5
  15. Benjamin KW "Toxicity of ocular medications." Int Ophthalmol Clin 19 (1979): 199-255
  16. Eliasson K, Lins L-E, Sundqvist K "Peripheral vasospasm during beta-receptor blockade: a comparison between metoprolol and pindolol." Acta Med Scand 665 (1982): 109-12
  17. Breckenridge A, Roberts DH "Antihypertensive treatment in concomitant peripheral vascular disease: current experience and the potential of carvedilol." J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 18 Suppl 4 (1991): s78-81
  18. Lepantalo M "Beta blockade and intermittent claudication." Acta Med Scand 700 (1985): 1-48
View all 18 references
Major

Topical sulfonamides (applies to brimonidine/dorzolamide/latanoprost/timolol ophthalmic) hematologic toxicity

Major Potential Hazard, Low plausibility. Applicable conditions: Bone Marrow Depression/Low Blood Counts

Sulfonamides may be systemically absorbed when applied to the skin, eye, or mucosal membranes. The use of sulfonamides has been associated with hematologic toxicity, including methemoglobinemia, sulfhemoglobinemia, leukopenia, granulocytopenia, eosinophilia, hemolytic anemia, aplastic anemia, purpura, clotting disorder, thrombocytopenia, hypofibrinogenemia, and hypoprothrombinemia. Therapy with topical sulfonamides should be administered cautiously in patients with preexisting blood dyscrasias or bone marrow suppression. Complete blood counts should be obtained regularly during prolonged therapy (>2 weeks), and patients should be instructed to immediately report any signs or symptoms suggestive of blood dyscrasia such as fever, sore throat, local infection, bleeding, pallor, dizziness, or jaundice.

References

  1. "Product Information. Gantrisin (sulfisoxazole ophthalmic)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
  2. Davies GE, Palek J "Selective erythroid and magakaryocytic aplasia after sulfasalazine administration." Arch Intern Med 140 (1980): 1122
  3. "Product Information. Sultrin (triple sulfa topical)" Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Titusville, NJ.
  4. Pena JM, Gonzalez-Garcia JJ, Garcia-Alegria J, Barbado FJ, Vazquez JJ "Thrombocytopenia and sulfasalazine." Ann Intern Med 102 (1985): 277-8
  5. "Product Information. Sulamyd Ophthalmic Solution (sodium sulfacetamide ophthalmic)." Schering Corporation, Kenilworth, NJ.
  6. Jacobson IM, Kelsey PB, Blyden GT, Demirjian ZN, Isselbacher KJ "Sulfasalazine-induced agranulocytosis." Am J Gastroenterol 80 (1985): 118-21
  7. "Product Information. Sulfacet-R (sulfacetamide sodium topical)" Dermik Laboratories, Collegeville, PA.
  8. Mechanick JI "Coombs' positive hemolytic anemia following sulfasalazine therapy in ulcerative colitis: case reports, review, and discussion of pathogenesis." Mt Sinai J Med 52 (1985): 667-70
  9. "Product Information. Trusopt (dorzolamide ophthalmic)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  10. Betkowski AS, Lubin A "Sulfamethoxazole-related antiplatelet antibody." Blood 82 (1993): 1683
  11. Damergis J, Stoker J, Abadie J "Methemoglobinemia after sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim therapy." JAMA 249 (1983): 590-1
  12. Chan M, Beale D, Moorhead J "Acute megaloblastosis due to cotrimoxazole." Br J Clin Pract 34 (1980): 87-8
  13. Youssef PP, Bertouch JV "Sulphasalazine induced aplastic anaemia." Aust N Z J Med 22 (1992): 391-2
  14. Barak S, Shaked Y, Bar A, Samra Y "Drug-induced post-surgical hemorrhage resulting from trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole." Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 18 (1989): 206-7
  15. Guillemin F, Aussedat R, Guerci A, Lederlin P, Trechot P, Pourel J "Fatal agranulocytosis in sulfasalazine treated rheumatoid arthritis." J Rheumatol 16 (1989): 1166-7
  16. Gales BJ, Gales MA "Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor for sulfasalazine-induced agranulocytosis." Ann Pharmacother 27 (1993): 1052-4
  17. Mitrane MP, Singh A, Seibold JR "Cholestasis and fatal agranulocytosis complicating sulfasalazine therapy: case report and review of the literature." J Rheumatol 13 (1986): 969-72
  18. "Product Information. Azopt (brinzolamide ophthalmic)." Alcon Laboratories Inc, Fort Worth, TX.
  19. Kuipers EJ, Vellenga E, de Wolf JT, Hazenberg BP "Sulfasalazine induced agranulocytosis treated with GM-CSF." J Rheumatol 19 (1992): 621-2
  20. Wheelan KR, Cooper B, Stone MJ "Multiple haematologic abnormalities associated with sulfasalazine." Ann Intern Med 97 (1982): 726-7
  21. "Product Information. Klaron (sulfacetamide sodium topical)." Dermik Laboratories, Collegeville, PA.
  22. Keisu M, Ekman E "Sulfasalazine associated agranulocytosis in sweden 1972-1989: clinical features, and estimation of its incidence." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 43 (1992): 215-8
  23. "Product Information. AVC Cream (sulfanilamide topical)" Aventis Pharmaceuticals, Swiftwater, PA.
View all 23 references
Major

Topical sulfonamides (applies to brimonidine/dorzolamide/latanoprost/timolol ophthalmic) hypersensitivity reactions

Major Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility. Applicable conditions: Allergies, Asthma, HIV Infection

Sulfonamides may be systemically absorbed when applied to the skin, eye, or mucosal membranes. The use of sulfonamides is associated with large increases in the risk of Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis and other serious dermatologic reactions, although these phenomena are rare as a whole. Hepatitis, pneumonitis, and interstitial nephritis have also occurred in association with sulfonamide hypersensitivity. Therapy with topical sulfonamides should be administered cautiously in patients with severe allergies, bronchial asthma or AIDS, since these patients may be at increased risk for potentially severe hypersensitivity reactions. Patients should be instructed to promptly report signs and symptoms that may precede the onset of cutaneous manifestations of the Stevens-Johnson syndrome, such as high fever, severe headache, stomatitis, conjunctivitis, rhinitis, urethritis, and balanitis. Sulfonamide therapy should be stopped at once if a rash develops.

References

  1. "Product Information. Azopt (brinzolamide ophthalmic)." Alcon Laboratories Inc, Fort Worth, TX.
  2. Williams T, Eidus L, Thomas P "Fibrosing alveolitis, bronchiolitis obliterans, and sulfasalazine therapy." Chest 81 (1982): 766-8
  3. "Product Information. Sulfacet-R (sulfacetamide sodium topical)" Dermik Laboratories, Collegeville, PA.
  4. Sotolongo RP, Neefe LI, Rudzki C, Ishak KG "Hypersensitivity reaction to sulfasalazine with severe hepatotoxicity." Gastroenterology 75 (1978): 95-9
  5. "Product Information. Trusopt (dorzolamide ophthalmic)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  6. Yaffe BH, Korelitz BI "Sulfasalazine pneumonitis." Am J Gastroenterol 78 (1983): 493-4
  7. Leroux JL, Ghezail M, Chertok P, Blotman F "Hypersensitivity reactions to sulfasalazine: skin rash, fever, hepatitis and activated lymphocytes." Clin Exp Rheumatol 10 (1992): 427
  8. Faintuch J, Mott CB, Machado MC "Pancreatitis and pancreatic necrosis during sulfasalazine therapy." Int Surg 70 (1985): 271-2
  9. Robson M, Levi J, Dolberg L, Rosenfeld J "Acute tubulo-interstitial nephritis following sulfadiazine therapy." Isr J Med Sci 6 (1970): 561-6
  10. Namias A, Bhalotra R, Donowitz M "Reversible sulfasalazine-induced granulomatous hepatitis." J Clin Gastroenterol 3 (1981): 193-8
  11. Kawada A, Kobayashi T, Noguchi H, Hiruma M, Ishibashi A, Marshall J "Fixed drug eruption induced by sulfasalazine." Contact Dermatitis 34 (1996): 155-6
  12. Johnson M, Goodwin D, Shands J "Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole anaphylactoid reactions in patients with AIDS: case reports and literature review." Pharmacotherapy 10 (1990): 413-16
  13. Fich A, Schwartz J, Braverman D, Zifroni A, Rachmilewitz D "Sulfasalazine hepatotoxicity." Am J Gastroenterol 79 (1984): 401-2
  14. Pearl RK, Nelson RL, Prasad ML, Orsay CP, Abcarian H "Serious complications of sulfasalazine." Dis Colon Rectum 29 (1986): 201-2
  15. Kanner RS, Tedesco FJ, Kalser MH "Azulfidine- (sulfasalazine-) induced hepatic injury." Am J Dig Dis 23 (1978): 956-8
  16. Tenant-Flowers M, Boyle M, Carey D, et al "Sulphadiazine desenitization in patients with AIDS and cerebral toxoplasmosis." AIDS 5 (1991): 311-5
  17. Hofer T, Becker EW, Weigand K, Berg PA "Demonstration of sensititzed lymphocytes to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and ofloxacin in a patient with cholestatic hepatitis." J Hepatol 15 (1992): 262-3
  18. Valcke Y, Pauwels R, Van der Straeten M "Bronchoalveolar lavage in acute hypersensitivity pneumonitis caused by sulfasalazine." Chest 92 (1987): 572-3
  19. "Product Information. Gantrisin (sulfisoxazole ophthalmic)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
  20. Pisanty S, Brayer L "Erythema multiforme-like eruption due to sulfadiazine." J Dent Med 20 (1965): 154-7
  21. Roujeau JC, Kelly JP, Naldi L, et al. "Medication use and the risk of Stevens-Johnson syndrome or toxic epidermal necrolysis." N Engl J Med 333 (1995): 1600-7
  22. Goadsby P, Donaghy A, Lloyd A, Wakefield D "Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and sulfadiazine-associated acute renal failure." Ann Intern Med 107 (1987): 783-4
  23. Steinbrecher U, Mishkin S "Sulfamethoxazole-induced hepatic injury." Dig Dis Sci 26 (1981): 756-9
  24. Averbuch M, Halpern Z, Hallak A, Topilsky M, Levo Y "Sulfasalazine pneumonitis." Am J Gastroenterol 80 (1985): 343-5
  25. Rubin R "Sulfasalazine-induced fulminant hepatic failure and necrotizing pancreatitis." Am J Gastroenterol 89 (1994): 789-91
  26. Marinac JS, Stanford JF "A severe hypersensitive reaction to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in a patient infected with human immunodeficiency virus." Clin Infect Dis 16 (1993): 178-9
  27. "Product Information. Sulamyd Ophthalmic Solution (sodium sulfacetamide ophthalmic)." Schering Corporation, Kenilworth, NJ.
  28. Stevenson D, Christie D, Haas J "Hepatic injury in a child caused by trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole." Pediatrics 61 (1978): 864-6
  29. Poland GA, Love KR "Marked atypical lymphocytosis, hepatitis, and skin rash in sulfasalazine drug allergy." Am J Med 81 (1986): 707-8
  30. "Product Information. Sultrin (triple sulfa topical)" Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Titusville, NJ.
  31. Ulstad D, Ampel N, Shon B, Galgiani JN, Cutcher AB "Reaction after re-exposure to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole." Chest 95 (1989): 937-8
  32. Rudra T, Webb D, Evans A "Acute tubular necrosis following co-trimoxazole therapy." Nephron 53 (1989): 85-6
  33. Smith E, Light J, Filo R, Yum M "Interstitial nephritis caused by trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in renal transplant recipients." JAMA 244 (1980): 360-1
  34. Gibson J "Recurrent trimethoprim-associated fixed skin eruption." Br Med J 284 (1982): 1529-30
  35. Wang KK, Bowyer BA, Fleming CR, Schroeder KW "Pulmonary infiltrates and eosinophilia associated with sulfasalazine." Mayo Clin Proc 59 (1984): 343-6
  36. Heer M, Altorfer J, Burger H, Walti M "Bullous esophageal lesions due to co-trimoxazole: an immune-mediated process?" Gastroenterology 88 (1985): 1954-7
  37. Haines JD, Jr "Hepatotoxicity after treatment with sulfasalazine." Postgrad Med 79 (1986): 193-4,
  38. Gabazza EC, Taguchi O, Yamakami T, Machishi M, Ibata H, Suzuki S, Matsumoto K, Kitagawa T, Yamamoto J "Pulmonary infiltrates and skin pigmentation associated with sulfasalazine." Am J Gastroenterol 87 (1992): 1654-7
  39. Holdcroft C, Ellison R "Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole reaction simulating pneumocystis carinii pneumonia." AIDS 5 (1991): 1029-42
  40. Ribe J, Benkov KJ, Thung SN, Shen SC, LeLeiko NS "Fatal massive hepatic necrosis: a probable hypersensitivity reaction to sulfasalazine." Am J Gastroenterol 81 (1986): 205-8
  41. Horak J, Mertl L, Hrabal P "Severe liver injuries due to sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim and sulfamethoxydiazine." Hepatogastroenterology 31 (1984): 199-200
  42. "Product Information. Klaron (sulfacetamide sodium topical)." Dermik Laboratories, Collegeville, PA.
  43. Whittington R "Toxic epidermal necrolysis and co-trimoxazole." Lancet 2 (1989): 574
  44. Carbone L, Bendixen B, Appel G "Sulfadiazine-associated obstructive nephropathy occurring in a patient with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome." Am J Kidney Dis 12 (1988): 72-5
  45. "Product Information. AVC Cream (sulfanilamide topical)" Aventis Pharmaceuticals, Swiftwater, PA.
  46. Losek JD, Werlin SL "Sulfasalazine hepatotoxicity." Am J Dis Child 135 (1981): 1070-2
  47. Kelly W, Dooley D, Lattuada C, Smith C "A severe, unusual reaction to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus." Clin Infect Dis 14 (1992): 1034-9
  48. Hamadeh MA, Atkinson J, Smith LJ "Sulfasalazine-induced pulmonary disease." Chest 101 (1992): 1033-7
  49. Taffet SL, Das KM "Sulfasalazine. Adverse effects and desensitization." Dig Dis Sci 28 (1983): 833-42
  50. Gremse DA, Bancroft J, Moyer MS "Sulfasalazine hypersensitivity with hepatotoxicity, thrombocytopenia, and erythroid hypoplasia." J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 9 (1989): 261-3
  51. Marinos G, Riley J, Painter DM, McCaughan GW "Sulfasalazine-induced fulminant hepatic failure." J Clin Gastroenterol 14 (1992): 132-5
View all 51 references
Major

Topical sulfonamides (applies to brimonidine/dorzolamide/latanoprost/timolol ophthalmic) porphyria

Major Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility.

Sulfonamides may be systemically absorbed when applied to the skin, eye, or mucosal membranes. Therapy with topical sulfonamides should be administered cautiously in patients with porphyria, since these drugs can precipitate an acute attack. The use of oral sulfonamides is considered contraindicated in patients with porphyria.

References

  1. "Product Information. Gantrisin (sulfisoxazole ophthalmic)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
  2. "Product Information. Sulamyd Ophthalmic Solution (sodium sulfacetamide ophthalmic)." Schering Corporation, Kenilworth, NJ.
  3. "Product Information. Sultrin (triple sulfa topical)" Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Titusville, NJ.
  4. "Product Information. Klaron (sulfacetamide sodium topical)." Dermik Laboratories, Collegeville, PA.
  5. "Product Information. AVC Cream (sulfanilamide topical)" Aventis Pharmaceuticals, Swiftwater, PA.
  6. "Product Information. Azopt (brinzolamide ophthalmic)." Alcon Laboratories Inc, Fort Worth, TX.
  7. "Product Information. Trusopt (dorzolamide ophthalmic)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  8. "Product Information. Sulfacet-R (sulfacetamide sodium topical)" Dermik Laboratories, Collegeville, PA.
View all 8 references
Moderate

Latanoprost (applies to brimonidine/dorzolamide/latanoprost/timolol ophthalmic) respiratory disorders

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility. Applicable conditions: Pulmonary Impairment

Latanoprost should be used with caution in patients with respiratory disorders as there have been reported post marketing cases of asthma and exacerbation of asthma, and dyspnea.

Moderate

Ophthalmic alpha-2 adrenergics (applies to brimonidine/dorzolamide/latanoprost/timolol ophthalmic) cardiovascular

Moderate Potential Hazard, Low plausibility. Applicable conditions: Cardiovascular Disease, Cerebrovascular Insufficiency, Hypotension

Topically applied alpha-2 adrenergic receptor agonists are systemically absorbed, with the potential for producing rare but clinically significant systemic effects. In the central nervous system, alpha adrenergic stimulation causes an inhibition of sympathetic vasomotor centers, resulting in decreased peripheral resistance and bradycardia. While the commercially available agents in the U.S. (apraclonidine and brimonidine) are hydrophilic and do not readily distribute across the ocular-blood barrier into the CNS, prolonged use may increase the risk of systemic effects. There have been occasional reports of bradycardia, chest heaviness or burning, palpitation, reduced blood pressure, and orthostatic hypotension when apraclonidine 1% was administered once or twice a day for 4 weeks to individuals not undergoing laser surgery. Therapy with ophthalmic alpha-2 adrenergic agents should be administered cautiously in patients with severe, uncontrolled cardiovascular disease, including hypertension, coronary or cerebrovascular insufficiency, recent myocardial infarction, chronic renal failure, Raynaud's disease, thromboangiitis obliterans, and a predisposition for orthostatic hypotension.

References

  1. "Product Information. Alphagan (brimonidine ophthalmic)." Allergan Inc, Irvine, CA.
  2. Sridharrao B, Badrinath SS "Efficacy and safety of apraclonidine in patients undergoing anterior segment laser surgery." Br J Ophthalmol 73 (1989): 884-7
  3. King MH, Richards DW "Near syncope and chest tightness after administration of apraclonidine before argon laser iridotomy." Am J Ophthalmol 110 (1990): 308-9
  4. Coleman AL, Robin AL, Pollack IP, Rudikoff MT, Enger C, Mayer PR "Cardiovascular and intraocular pressure effects and plasma concentrations of apraclonidine." Arch Ophthalmol 108 (1990): 1264-7
  5. "Product Information. Iopidine (apraclonidine)." Alcon Laboratories Inc, Fort Worth, TX.
  6. Nordlund JR, Pasquale LR, Robin AL, Rudikoff MT, Ordman J, Chen KS, Walt J "The cardiovascular, pulmonary, and ocular hypotensive effects of 0.2% brimonidine." Arch Ophthalmol 113 (1995): 77-83
View all 6 references
Moderate

Ophthalmic alpha-2 adrenergics (applies to brimonidine/dorzolamide/latanoprost/timolol ophthalmic) depression

Moderate Potential Hazard, Low plausibility.

Topically applied alpha-2 adrenergic receptor agonists are systemically absorbed, with the potential for producing rare but clinically significant systemic effects. Depression has infrequently been associated with the ocular use of these drugs due to their inhibiting effect on the sympathetic nervous system. Depressed patients should be monitored for exacerbation of their condition during therapy with ophthalmic alpha-2 adrenergic agents.

References

  1. "Product Information. Alphagan (brimonidine ophthalmic)." Allergan Inc, Irvine, CA.
  2. "Product Information. Iopidine (apraclonidine)." Alcon Laboratories Inc, Fort Worth, TX.
Moderate

Ophthalmic alpha-2 adrenergics (applies to brimonidine/dorzolamide/latanoprost/timolol ophthalmic) renal/liver

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility. Applicable conditions: Renal Dysfunction, Liver Disease

Topically applied alpha-2 adrenergic receptor agonists are systemically absorbed, with the potential for producing rare but clinically significant systemic effects. There are limited data concerning the pharmacokinetic disposition or the clinical use of these drugs in patients with renal and/or liver disease. Therapy with ophthalmic alpha-2 adrenergic agents should be administered cautiously in patients with significantly impaired renal or hepatic function.

References

  1. "Product Information. Iopidine (apraclonidine)." Alcon Laboratories Inc, Fort Worth, TX.
  2. "Product Information. Alphagan (brimonidine ophthalmic)." Allergan Inc, Irvine, CA.
Moderate

Ophthalmic beta-blockers (applies to brimonidine/dorzolamide/latanoprost/timolol ophthalmic) myasthenia gravis

Moderate Potential Hazard, Low plausibility. Applicable conditions: Myoneural Disorder

Topically applied beta-adrenergic receptor blocking agents (aka beta-blockers) are systemically absorbed, with the potential for producing clinically significant systemic effects even at low or undetectable plasma levels. In the nervous and musculoskeletal systems, beta blockade may potentiate muscle weakness consistent with certain myasthenic symptoms such as diplopia, ptosis, and generalized weakness. Several beta-blockers have been associated rarely with aggravation of muscle weakness in patients with preexisting myasthenia gravis or myasthenic symptoms.

References

  1. "Product Information. OptiPranolol (metipranolol)." Bausch and Lomb, Tampa, FL.
  2. Confavreux C, Charles N, Aimard G "Fulminant myasthenia gravis soon after initiation of acebutolol therapy." Eur Neurol 30 (1990): 279-81
  3. "Product Information. Betagan Liquifilm (levobunolol)." Allergan Inc, Irvine, CA.
  4. "Product Information. Timoptic (timolol ophthalmic)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  5. Herishanu Y, Rosenberg P "Beta-blockers and myasthenia gravis." Ann Intern Med 83 (1975): 834-5
  6. "Product Information. Ocupress (carteolol ophthalmic)" Ciba Vision Ophthalmics, Duluth, GA.
  7. Choi KL, Wat MS, Ip TP, Kung AWC, Lam KSL "Phaeochromocytoma associated with myasthenia gravis precipitated by propranolol treatment." Aust N Z J Med 25 (1995): 257
  8. Berstein LP, Henkind P "Additional information on adverse reactions to timolol." Am J Ophthalmol 92 (1981): 295-6
  9. Benjamin KW "Toxicity of ocular medications." Int Ophthalmol Clin 19 (1979): 199-255
  10. Coppeto JR "Timolol-associated myasthenia gravis." Am J Ophthalmol 98 (1984): 244-5
  11. "Product Information. Betoptic (betaxolol ophthalmic)." Alcon Laboratories Inc, Fort Worth, TX.
  12. Verkijk A "Worsening of myasthenia gravis with timolol maleate eyedrops." Ann Neurol 17 (1985): 211-2
  13. "Product Information. Betaxon (levobetaxolol ophthalmic)" Alza, Palo Alto, CA.
View all 13 references
Moderate

Ophthalmic PG analogues (applies to brimonidine/dorzolamide/latanoprost/timolol ophthalmic) macular edema

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility. Applicable conditions: Pseudophakia, Retinal Disorder

Macular edema, including cystoid macular edema, has been reported during treatment with ophthalmic prostaglandin analogues. Most cases occurred in patients with aphakia, pseudophakia with a torn posterior lens capsule, or known risk factors for macular edema (e.g., posterior uveitis, certain retinal disorders). Therapy with ophthalmic prostaglandin analogues should be administered cautiously in these patients.

References

  1. "Product Information. Lumigan (bimatoprost ophthalmic)" Allergan Inc, Irvine, CA.
  2. "Product Information. Travatan (travoprost ophthalmic)" Alcon Laboratories Inc, Fort Worth, TX.
  3. "Product Information. Xalatan (latanoprost ophthalmic)." Pharmacia and Upjohn, Kalamazoo, MI.
Moderate

Ophthalmic PG analogues (applies to brimonidine/dorzolamide/latanoprost/timolol ophthalmic) uveitis

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility.

Bimatoprost, latanoprost, and travoprost are synthetic prostaglandin analogues. Theoretically, these agents may mimic endogenous prostaglandins and mediate ocular inflammatory responses. In clinical trials, uveitis and iritis have been reported rarely. Therapy with ophthalmic prostaglandin analogues should be administered cautiously in patients with active intraocular inflammation.

References

  1. "Product Information. Xalatan (latanoprost ophthalmic)." Pharmacia and Upjohn, Kalamazoo, MI.
  2. "Product Information. Lumigan (bimatoprost ophthalmic)" Allergan Inc, Irvine, CA.
  3. "Product Information. Travatan (travoprost ophthalmic)" Alcon Laboratories Inc, Fort Worth, TX.
Moderate

Ophthalmic PGF2a analogues- renal/liver disease

Moderate Potential Hazard, Low plausibility. Applicable conditions: Renal Dysfunction

Prostaglandin F2-alpha analogues are hydrolyzed by esterases in the cornea to their corresponding active free acid form, which is absorbed systemically and metabolized by the liver via fatty acid beta-oxidation, then eliminated by the kidney. These agents have not been adequately studied in the treatment of patients with impaired renal and/or hepatic function. Therapy with ophthalmic prostaglandin F2-alpha analogues should be administered cautiously in such patients.

References

  1. "Product Information. Xalatan (latanoprost ophthalmic)." Pharmacia and Upjohn, Kalamazoo, MI.
  2. "Product Information. Travatan (travoprost ophthalmic)" Alcon Laboratories Inc, Fort Worth, TX.
Moderate

Topical sulfonamides (applies to brimonidine/dorzolamide/latanoprost/timolol ophthalmic) crystalluria

Moderate Potential Hazard, Low plausibility. Applicable conditions: Dehydration, Diarrhea, Vomiting

Sulfonamides may be systemically absorbed when applied to the skin, eye, or mucosal membranes. The use of sulfonamides has been associated with crystalluria due to precipitation of the sulfonamide and/or its N4-acetyl metabolite in the urinary tract. Renal toxicity such as uro- and nephrolithiasis, nephritis, toxic nephrosis, hematuria, proteinuria, and elevated BUN and creatinine has been reported. Hydration and adequate urinary output (> 1.5 L/day) should be maintained during sulfonamide administration. Patients who are dehydrated (e.g., due to severe diarrhea or vomiting) may be at increased risk for the development of crystalluria and lithiasis and should be encouraged to consume additional amounts of liquid. Renal function tests and urinalysis should be performed regularly during prolonged therapy (> 2 weeks).

References

  1. Molina J, Belenfant X, Doco-Lecompte T, et al "Sulfadiazine-induced crystalluria in AIDS patients with toxoplasma encephalitis." AIDS 5 (1991): 587-9
  2. Hein R, Brunkhorst R, Thon WF, Schedel I, Schmidt RE "Symptomatic sulfadiazine crystalluria in AIDS patients: a report of two cases." Clin Nephrol 39 (1993): 254-6
  3. "Product Information. Azopt (brinzolamide ophthalmic)." Alcon Laboratories Inc, Fort Worth, TX.
  4. "Product Information. Sulfacet-R (sulfacetamide sodium topical)" Dermik Laboratories, Collegeville, PA.
  5. Robson M, Levi J, Dolberg L, Rosenfeld J "Acute tubulo-interstitial nephritis following sulfadiazine therapy." Isr J Med Sci 6 (1970): 561-6
  6. Simon D, Brosius F, Rothstein D "Sulfadiazine crystalluria revisited." Arch Intern Med 150 (1990): 2379-84
  7. "Product Information. Trusopt (dorzolamide ophthalmic)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  8. "Product Information. Klaron (sulfacetamide sodium topical)." Dermik Laboratories, Collegeville, PA.
  9. "Product Information. AVC Cream (sulfanilamide topical)" Aventis Pharmaceuticals, Swiftwater, PA.
  10. Sahai J, Heimberger R, Collins K, Kaplowitz L, Polk R "Sulfadiazine-induced crystalluria in a patient with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a reminder." Am J Med 84 (1988): 791-2
  11. Erturk E, Casemento JB, Guertin KR, Kende AS "Bilateral acetylsulfapyridine nephrolithiasis associated with chronic sulfasalazine therapy." J Urol 151 (1994): 1605-6
  12. "Product Information. Sultrin (triple sulfa topical)" Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Titusville, NJ.
  13. "Product Information. Sulamyd Ophthalmic Solution (sodium sulfacetamide ophthalmic)." Schering Corporation, Kenilworth, NJ.
  14. Sasson JP, Dratch PL, Shortsleeve MJ "Renal US findings in sulfadiazine-induced crystalluria." Radiology 185 (1992): 739-40
  15. "Product Information. Gantrisin (sulfisoxazole ophthalmic)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
View all 15 references
Moderate

Topical sulfonamides (applies to brimonidine/dorzolamide/latanoprost/timolol ophthalmic) liver disease

Moderate Potential Hazard, Low plausibility.

Sulfonamides may be systemically absorbed when applied to the skin, eye, or mucosal membranes. Hepatotoxicity, including jaundice, diffuse hepatocellular necrosis, hypersensitivity hepatitis and hepatic failure, has rarely been reported in patients receiving sulfonamides. In addition, sulfonamides are partially metabolized by the liver and may accumulate in patients with hepatic impairment. Therapy with topical sulfonamides should be administered cautiously in patients with liver disease.

References

  1. Horak J, Mertl L, Hrabal P "Severe liver injuries due to sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim and sulfamethoxydiazine." Hepatogastroenterology 31 (1984): 199-200
  2. Ribe J, Benkov KJ, Thung SN, Shen SC, LeLeiko NS "Fatal massive hepatic necrosis: a probable hypersensitivity reaction to sulfasalazine." Am J Gastroenterol 81 (1986): 205-8
  3. Ransohoff D, Jacobs G "Terminal hepatic failure following a small dose of sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim." Gastroenterology 80 (1981): 816-9
  4. "Product Information. Klaron (sulfacetamide sodium topical)." Dermik Laboratories, Collegeville, PA.
  5. Gremse DA, Bancroft J, Moyer MS "Sulfasalazine hypersensitivity with hepatotoxicity, thrombocytopenia, and erythroid hypoplasia." J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 9 (1989): 261-3
  6. Klotz U "Clinical pharmacokinetics of sulphasalazine, its metabolites and other prodrugs of 5-aminosalicylic acid." Clin Pharmacokinet 10 (1985): 285-302
  7. "Product Information. Azopt (brinzolamide ophthalmic)." Alcon Laboratories Inc, Fort Worth, TX.
  8. "Product Information. Sulfacet-R (sulfacetamide sodium topical)" Dermik Laboratories, Collegeville, PA.
  9. Madsen S "A comparative study of the excretion of sulfonamide-metabolites in cases of renal failure and hepatitis." Chemotherapy 11 (1966): 1-9
  10. Stachowska B, Senczuk W "Studies on kinetics of sulfadiazine and trimethoprim excretion in man." Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol 25 (1987): 81-5
  11. Fich A, Schwartz J, Braverman D, Zifroni A, Rachmilewitz D "Sulfasalazine hepatotoxicity." Am J Gastroenterol 79 (1984): 401-2
  12. Ortengren B, Magni L, Bergan T "Development of sulphonamide-trimethoprim combinations for urinary tract infections. part 3: pharmacokinetic characterization of sulphadiazine and sulphamethoxazole." Infection 7 (1979): s371-81
  13. Namias A, Bhalotra R, Donowitz M "Reversible sulfasalazine-induced granulomatous hepatitis." J Clin Gastroenterol 3 (1981): 193-8
  14. Kremers P, Duvivier J, Heusghem C "Pharmacokinetic studies of co-trimoxazole in man after single and repeated doses." J Clin Pharmacol 14 (1974): 112-7
  15. Kanner RS, Tedesco FJ, Kalser MH "Azulfidine- (sulfasalazine-) induced hepatic injury." Am J Dig Dis 23 (1978): 956-8
  16. Kowdley K, Keeffe E, Fawaz K "Prolonged cholestasis due to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole." Gastroenterology 102 (1992): 2148-50
  17. Schroder H, Campbell DE "Absorption, metabolism, and excretion of salicylazosulfapyridine in man." Clin Pharmacol Ther 13 (1972): 539-51
  18. Poland GA, Love KR "Marked atypical lymphocytosis, hepatitis, and skin rash in sulfasalazine drug allergy." Am J Med 81 (1986): 707-8
  19. "Product Information. Sultrin (triple sulfa topical)" Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Titusville, NJ.
  20. "Product Information. Gantrisin (sulfisoxazole ophthalmic)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
  21. Hofer T, Becker EW, Weigand K, Berg PA "Demonstration of sensititzed lymphocytes to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and ofloxacin in a patient with cholestatic hepatitis." J Hepatol 15 (1992): 262-3
  22. Ortengren B, Fellner H, Bergan T "Development of sulphonamide-trimethoprim combinations for urinary tract infections. Part 2: Comparative pharmacokinetics of five sulphonamides." Infection 7 Suppl 4 (1979): s367-70
  23. Steinbrecher U, Mishkin S "Sulfamethoxazole-induced hepatic injury." Dig Dis Sci 26 (1981): 756-9
  24. "Product Information. Sulamyd Ophthalmic Solution (sodium sulfacetamide ophthalmic)." Schering Corporation, Kenilworth, NJ.
  25. Marinos G, Riley J, Painter DM, McCaughan GW "Sulfasalazine-induced fulminant hepatic failure." J Clin Gastroenterol 14 (1992): 132-5
  26. Leroux JL, Ghezail M, Chertok P, Blotman F "Hypersensitivity reactions to sulfasalazine: skin rash, fever, hepatitis and activated lymphocytes." Clin Exp Rheumatol 10 (1992): 427
  27. Haines JD, Jr "Hepatotoxicity after treatment with sulfasalazine." Postgrad Med 79 (1986): 193-4,
  28. Andreasen F, Elsborg L, Husted S, Thomsen O "Pharmacokinetics of sulfadiazine and trimethoprim in man." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 14 (1978): 57-67
  29. "Product Information. Trusopt (dorzolamide ophthalmic)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  30. Simma B, Meister B, Deutsch J, Sperl W, Fend F, Ofner D, Margreiter R, Vogel W "Fulminant hepatic failure in a child as a potential adverse effect of trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole." Eur J Pediatr 154 (1995): 530-3
  31. Alberti-Flor JJ, Hernandez ME, Ferrer JP, Howell S, Jeffers L "Fulminant liver failure and pancreatitis associated with the use of sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim." Am J Gastroenterol 84 (1989): 1577-9
  32. Sotolongo RP, Neefe LI, Rudzki C, Ishak KG "Hypersensitivity reaction to sulfasalazine with severe hepatotoxicity." Gastroenterology 75 (1978): 95-9
  33. "Product Information. AVC Cream (sulfanilamide topical)" Aventis Pharmaceuticals, Swiftwater, PA.
  34. Patel RB, Welling PG "Clinical pharmacokinetics of co-trimoxazole (trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole)." Clin Pharmacokinet 5 (1980): 405-23
  35. Rubin R "Sulfasalazine-induced fulminant hepatic failure and necrotizing pancreatitis." Am J Gastroenterol 89 (1994): 789-91
  36. Hekster C, Vree T "Clinical pharmacokinetics of sulphonamides and their N4-acetyl derivatives." Antibiot Chemother 31 (1982): 22-118
  37. Losek JD, Werlin SL "Sulfasalazine hepatotoxicity." Am J Dis Child 135 (1981): 1070-2
  38. Khan AK, Truelove SC, Aronson JK "The disposition and metabolism of sulphasalazine (salicylazosulphapyridine) in man." Br J Clin Pharmacol 13 (1982): 523-8
  39. Bergan T, Brodwall EK "Human pharmacokinetics of a sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim combination." Acta Med Scand 192 (1972): 483-92
  40. Stevenson D, Christie D, Haas J "Hepatic injury in a child caused by trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole." Pediatrics 61 (1978): 864-6
View all 40 references
Moderate

Topical sulfonamides (applies to brimonidine/dorzolamide/latanoprost/timolol ophthalmic) renal dysfunction

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility.

Sulfonamides may be systemically absorbed when applied to the skin, eye, or mucosal membranes. Once absorbed, sulfonamides and their metabolites are eliminated by the kidney. Patients with renal impairment may be at greater risk for adverse effects from sulfonamides due to decreased drug clearance. Additionally, sulfonamides may cause renal toxicity secondary to crystalluria, including uro- and nephrolithiasis, nephritis, toxic nephrosis, hematuria, proteinuria, and elevated BUN and creatinine. Hydration and adequate urinary output (> 1.5 L/day) should be maintained during sulfonamide administration. Renal function tests and urinalysis should be performed regularly during prolonged therapy (> 2 weeks). Some manufacturers of topical sulfonamide products do not recommend their use in patients with impaired renal function.

References

  1. Cohen M, Pocelinko R "Renal transport mechanisms for the excretion of sulfisoxazole." J Pharmacol Exp Ther 185 (1973): 703-12
  2. "Product Information. Azopt (brinzolamide ophthalmic)." Alcon Laboratories Inc, Fort Worth, TX.
  3. Christin S, Baumelou A, Bahri S, Ben Hmida M, Deray G, Jacobs C "Acute renal failure due to sulfadiazine in patients with AIDS." Nephron 55 (1990): 233-4
  4. Simon D, Brosius F, Rothstein D "Sulfadiazine crystalluria revisited." Arch Intern Med 150 (1990): 2379-84
  5. Madsen S "A comparative study of the excretion of sulfonamide-metabolites in cases of renal failure and hepatitis." Chemotherapy 11 (1966): 1-9
  6. Hekster C, Vree T "Clinical pharmacokinetics of sulphonamides and their N4-acetyl derivatives." Antibiot Chemother 31 (1982): 22-118
  7. Marques L, Silva M, Madeira E, Santos O "Obstructive renal failure due to therapy with sulfadiazine in an AIDS patient." Nephron 62 (1992): 361
  8. Hein R, Brunkhorst R, Thon WF, Schedel I, Schmidt RE "Symptomatic sulfadiazine crystalluria in AIDS patients: a report of two cases." Clin Nephrol 39 (1993): 254-6
  9. Rieder J, Schwartz DE, Fernex M, et al "Pharmacokinetics of the antibacterial combination sulfamethoxazole plus trimethoprim in patients with normal or impaired kidney function." Antibiot Chemother 18 (1974): 148-98
  10. Ohnhaus EE, Spring P "Elimination kinetics of sulfadiazine in patients with normal and impaired renal function." J Pharmacokinet Biopharm 3 (1975): 171-9
  11. "Product Information. Klaron (sulfacetamide sodium topical)." Dermik Laboratories, Collegeville, PA.
  12. Sahai J, Heimberger R, Collins K, Kaplowitz L, Polk R "Sulfadiazine-induced crystalluria in a patient with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a reminder." Am J Med 84 (1988): 791-2
  13. Carbone L, Bendixen B, Appel G "Sulfadiazine-associated obstructive nephropathy occurring in a patient with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome." Am J Kidney Dis 12 (1988): 72-5
  14. Patel RB, Welling PG "Clinical pharmacokinetics of co-trimoxazole (trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole)." Clin Pharmacokinet 5 (1980): 405-23
  15. Shermantine M, Gambertoglio J, Amend W, Vincenti F, Oie S "Pharmacokinetics of sulfisoxazole in renal transplant patients." Antimicrob Agents Chemother 28 (1985): 535-9
  16. "Product Information. Gantrisin (sulfisoxazole ophthalmic)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
  17. Goadsby P, Donaghy A, Lloyd A, Wakefield D "Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and sulfadiazine-associated acute renal failure." Ann Intern Med 107 (1987): 783-4
  18. "Product Information. AVC Cream (sulfanilamide topical)" Aventis Pharmaceuticals, Swiftwater, PA.
  19. Marques LP, Silva MT, Madeira EP, Santos OR "Obstructive renal failure due to therapy with sulfadiazine in an AIDS patient." Nephron 62 (1992): 361
  20. Ortengren B, Fellner H, Bergan T "Development of sulphonamide-trimethoprim combinations for urinary tract infections. Part 2: Comparative pharmacokinetics of five sulphonamides." Infection 7 Suppl 4 (1979): s367-70
  21. Bergan T, Brodwall E, Vik-Mo H, Anstad U "Pharmacokinetics of sulphadiazine, sulphamethoxazole and trimethoprim in patients with varying renal function." Infection 7 (1979): s382-7
  22. "Product Information. Sulamyd Ophthalmic Solution (sodium sulfacetamide ophthalmic)." Schering Corporation, Kenilworth, NJ.
  23. Kremers P, Duvivier J, Heusghem C "Pharmacokinetic studies of co-trimoxazole in man after single and repeated doses." J Clin Pharmacol 14 (1974): 112-7
  24. Bergan T, Brodwall EK, Vik-Mo H, Anstad U "Pharmacokinetics of sulphadiazine, sulphamethoxazole and trimethoprim in patients with varying renal function." Infection 7 (1979): s382-7
  25. Bergan T, Brodwall EK "Human pharmacokinetics of a sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim combination." Acta Med Scand 192 (1972): 483-92
  26. "Product Information. Sultrin (triple sulfa topical)" Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Titusville, NJ.
  27. Adam WR, Henning M, Dawborn JK "Excretion of trimethoprim and sulphamethoxazole in patients with renal failure." Aust N Z J Med 3 (1973): 383-7
  28. Molina J, Belenfant X, Doco-Lecompte T, et al "Sulfadiazine-induced crystalluria in AIDS patients with toxoplasma encephalitis." AIDS 5 (1991): 587-9
  29. Rudra T, Webb D, Evans A "Acute tubular necrosis following co-trimoxazole therapy." Nephron 53 (1989): 85-6
  30. Sasson JP, Dratch PL, Shortsleeve MJ "Renal US findings in sulfadiazine-induced crystalluria." Radiology 185 (1992): 739-40
  31. Cryst C, Hammar S "Acute granulomatous interstitial nephritis due to co-trimoxazole." Am J Nephrol 8 (1988): 483-8
  32. Andreasen F, Elsborg L, Husted S, Thomsen O "Pharmacokinetics of sulfadiazine and trimethoprim in man." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 14 (1978): 57-67
  33. "Product Information. Sulfacet-R (sulfacetamide sodium topical)" Dermik Laboratories, Collegeville, PA.
  34. Becker K, Jablonowski H, Haussinger D "Sulfadiazine-associated nephrotoxicity in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome." Medicine 75 (1996): 185-94
  35. "Product Information. Trusopt (dorzolamide ophthalmic)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  36. Adam W, Dawborn J "Urinary excretion and plasma levels of sulphonamides in patients with renal impairment." Australas Ann Med 19 (1970): 250-4
  37. Robson M, Levi J, Dolberg L, Rosenfeld J "Acute tubulo-interstitial nephritis following sulfadiazine therapy." Isr J Med Sci 6 (1970): 561-6
  38. Ortengren B, Magni L, Bergan T "Development of sulphonamide-trimethoprim combinations for urinary tract infections. part 3: pharmacokinetic characterization of sulphadiazine and sulphamethoxazole." Infection 7 (1979): s371-81
  39. Erturk E, Casemento JB, Guertin KR, Kende AS "Bilateral acetylsulfapyridine nephrolithiasis associated with chronic sulfasalazine therapy." J Urol 151 (1994): 1605-6
  40. Stachowska B, Senczuk W "Studies on kinetics of sulfadiazine and trimethoprim excretion in man." Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol 25 (1987): 81-5
  41. Vergin H, Ferber H, Zimmermann I, Neurath GB "Single and multiple dose kinetics of co-tetroxazine and co-trimoxazole in patients." Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol 19 (1981): 350-7
  42. Farinas MC, Echevarria S, Sampedro I, Gonzalez A, Perez del Molino A, Gonzalez-Macias J "Renal failure due to sulphadiazine in AIDS patients with cerebral toxoplasmosis." J Intern Med 233 (1993): 365-7
  43. Dwarakanath AD, Michael J, Allan RN "Sulphasalazine-induced renal failure." Gut 33 (1992): 1006-7
  44. Smith E, Light J, Filo R, Yum M "Interstitial nephritis caused by trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in renal transplant recipients." JAMA 244 (1980): 360-1
View all 44 references
Moderate

Topical sulfonamides (applies to brimonidine/dorzolamide/latanoprost/timolol ophthalmic) urinary obstruction

Moderate Potential Hazard, Low plausibility. Applicable conditions: Urinary Retention

Sulfonamides may be systemically absorbed when applied to the skin, eye, or mucosal membranes. Once absorbed, sulfonamides are excreted and concentrated in the urine. Therapy with topical sulfonamides should be administered cautiously in patients with urinary obstruction or retention, since excessive drug accumulation may occur. These patients may also be at increased risk for sulfonamide crystalluria, which may be associated with renal toxicity such as uro- and nephrolithiasis, nephritis, toxic nephrosis, hematuria, proteinuria, and elevated BUN and creatinine. A urinary output of at least 1.5 L/day should be maintained during sulfonamide administration. Renal function tests and urinalysis should be performed regularly during prolonged therapy (> 2 weeks).

References

  1. "Product Information. Sulamyd Ophthalmic Solution (sodium sulfacetamide ophthalmic)." Schering Corporation, Kenilworth, NJ.
  2. Erturk E, Casemento JB, Guertin KR, Kende AS "Bilateral acetylsulfapyridine nephrolithiasis associated with chronic sulfasalazine therapy." J Urol 151 (1994): 1605-6
  3. "Product Information. Gantrisin (sulfisoxazole ophthalmic)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
  4. Molina J, Belenfant X, Doco-Lecompte T, et al "Sulfadiazine-induced crystalluria in AIDS patients with toxoplasma encephalitis." AIDS 5 (1991): 587-9
  5. Sasson JP, Dratch PL, Shortsleeve MJ "Renal US findings in sulfadiazine-induced crystalluria." Radiology 185 (1992): 739-40
  6. "Product Information. Sultrin (triple sulfa topical)" Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Titusville, NJ.
  7. Hein R, Brunkhorst R, Thon WF, Schedel I, Schmidt RE "Symptomatic sulfadiazine crystalluria in AIDS patients: a report of two cases." Clin Nephrol 39 (1993): 254-6
  8. Simon D, Brosius F, Rothstein D "Sulfadiazine crystalluria revisited." Arch Intern Med 150 (1990): 2379-84
  9. "Product Information. Azopt (brinzolamide ophthalmic)." Alcon Laboratories Inc, Fort Worth, TX.
  10. "Product Information. AVC Cream (sulfanilamide topical)" Aventis Pharmaceuticals, Swiftwater, PA.
  11. Sahai J, Heimberger R, Collins K, Kaplowitz L, Polk R "Sulfadiazine-induced crystalluria in a patient with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a reminder." Am J Med 84 (1988): 791-2
  12. Carbone L, Bendixen B, Appel G "Sulfadiazine-associated obstructive nephropathy occurring in a patient with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome." Am J Kidney Dis 12 (1988): 72-5
  13. "Product Information. Trusopt (dorzolamide ophthalmic)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  14. Marques L, Silva M, Madeira E, Santos O "Obstructive renal failure due to therapy with sulfadiazine in an AIDS patient." Nephron 62 (1992): 361
  15. "Product Information. Klaron (sulfacetamide sodium topical)." Dermik Laboratories, Collegeville, PA.
  16. Marques LP, Silva MT, Madeira EP, Santos OR "Obstructive renal failure due to therapy with sulfadiazine in an AIDS patient." Nephron 62 (1992): 361
  17. "Product Information. Sulfacet-R (sulfacetamide sodium topical)" Dermik Laboratories, Collegeville, PA.
View all 17 references

Brimonidine / dorzolamide / latanoprost / timolol ophthalmic drug interactions

There are 537 drug interactions with brimonidine / dorzolamide / latanoprost / timolol ophthalmic

Brimonidine / dorzolamide / latanoprost / timolol ophthalmic alcohol/food interactions

There is 1 alcohol/food interaction with brimonidine / dorzolamide / latanoprost / timolol ophthalmic

Drug Interaction Classification

These classifications are only a guideline. The relevance of a particular drug interaction to a specific individual is difficult to determine. Always consult your healthcare provider before starting or stopping any medication.
Major Highly clinically significant. Avoid combinations; the risk of the interaction outweighs the benefit.
Moderate Moderately clinically significant. Usually avoid combinations; use it only under special circumstances.
Minor Minimally clinically significant. Minimize risk; assess risk and consider an alternative drug, take steps to circumvent the interaction risk and/or institute a monitoring plan.
Unknown No interaction information available.

Further information

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.