High Cholesterol? Learn about treatments

Generic Name: Doxazosin Mesylate
Class: alpha-Adrenergic Blocking Agents
VA Class: CV150
Chemical Name: 1-(4-Amino-6,7-dimethoxy-2-quinazolinyl)-4-[(2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-2-yl)carbonyl]piperazine monomethanesulfonate
Molecular Formula: C23H25N5O5•CH4O3S
CAS Number: 77883-43-3


Postsynaptic α1-adrenergic blocking agent; quinazoline derivative.1 2 3 4 5 6

Uses for Cardura


Management of hypertension (alone or in combination with other classes of antihypertensive agents).1 2 3 4 6 500

Not considered a preferred agent for initial management of hypertension, but may be useful in the management of resistant hypertension as a component of combination therapy.501 502 503 504

Most effective when used in combination with a diuretic; beneficial effects of α1-blockers on blood glucose and lipid concentrations also may mitigate some adverse metabolic effects of diuretics.504

Slideshow: Grapefruit and Medicines - A Possible Deadly Mix?

Grapefruit and grapefruit juice can react adversely with over 85 prescription medications.

Some experts state that an α1-blocker may be a useful component of antihypertensive treatment regimens in older men with coexisting benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH);504 however, the American Urology Association (AUA) states that monotherapy with these drugs is not optimal in hypertensive patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) or BPH and that such conditions should be managed separately.230

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

Reduction of urinary obstruction and relief of associated manifestations in hypertensive or normotensive patients with symptomatic BPH.1 21 33 35 37 40 41 42 43 44 46

Although drug therapy usually is not as effective as surgical therapy, it may provide adequate symptomatic relief with fewer and less serious adverse effects compared with surgery.66

May consider combined therapy with an α1-adrenergic blocker and 5α-reductase inhibitor for men with bothersome moderate to severe BPH and demonstrable prostatic enlargement.66 84 85 Has been more effective than therapy with either drug alone in preventing long-term BPH symptom progression.66 Men at risk for BPH progression are most likely to benefit from combination therapy.66 84

Cardura Dosage and Administration



  • Carefully monitor BP during initial titration or subsequent upward dosage adjustment.500 501

  • Goal is to achieve and maintain optimal control of BP; individualize specific target BP based on consideration of multiple factors, including patient age and comorbidities, and currently available evidence from clinical studies.500 501


Oral Administration

Administer orally once daily in the morning or evening.1 Effect of food on maximum plasma concentration and AUC is not clinically important.1


Available as doxazosin mesylate; dosage expressed in terms of doxazosin.1

Individualize dosage according to patient response and tolerance.1 Initiate at low dosage to minimize frequency of postural hypotension and syncope.1

Postural effects are most likely to occur 2–6 hours after a dose; monitor BP during this period after first dose and with any dosage increases.1

If therapy is interrupted for several days, restart using initial dosage regimen.1

Pediatric Patients


Initially, 1 mg once daily.106 Increase dosage as necessary up to a maximum of 4 mg once daily.106



Initially, 1 mg once daily.1 Do not initiate with higher dosages.1

Depending on patient response (standing BP 2–6 and 24 hours after initial dose), may increase dosage to 2 mg once daily; make subsequent dosage adjustments by doubling dose at intervals of 2 weeks–1 month until desired BP control is achieved, drug is not tolerated, or maximum daily dosage of 16 mg is reached.1 500

Increased likelihood of excessive postural effects (e.g., syncope, postural dizziness/vertigo, postural hypotension) with dosages >4 mg daily; substantial risk of postural effects with dosages >16 mg daily.1


Initially, 1 mg once daily in the morning or evening;1 41 44 some clinicians recommend administration at bedtime to minimize postural effects.35 36 Do not initiate with higher dosages.1

To achieve desired improvement in symptoms and urodynamics, may increase dosage in a stepwise manner to 2, 4, and 8 mg daily as necessary, at intervals ≥1–2 weeks.1 41 42 43 44 Do not exceed 8 mg daily.

Evaluate BP routinely, particularly with initiation of therapy and subsequent dosage adjustment.1

Prescribing Limits

Pediatric Patients


Maximum 4 mg daily.76



Maximum 16 mg daily.1


Maximum 8 mg daily.1

Special Populations

Geriatric Patients


Select dosage carefully, usually initiating therapy at the low end of the dosage range, because of possible age-related decreases in hepatic, renal, and/or cardiac function and concomitant disease and drug therapy;1 generally, increase dosage more slowly in geriatric patients than in younger adults.7

Cautions for Cardura


  • Known hypersensitivity to doxazosin, quinazolines (e.g., prazosin, terazosin), or any ingredient in the formulation.1



Postural Hypotension

Marked hypotension, especially in the upright position, can occur; may be accompanied by syncope and other postural effects (e.g., dizziness, lightheadedness, vertigo).1

Postural effects are most common after initial dose but may also occur when dosage is increased or when therapy is resumed after an interruption exceeding a few days.1

To decrease risk of excessive hypotension and syncope, initiate therapy at a low dosage (i.e., 1 mg daily) and titrate slowly; initiate concomitant antihypertensive agents with caution.1

If syncope or hypotension occurs, place patient in a recumbent position and institute supportive therapy as necessary; a transient hypotensive response is not a contraindication to further doses.1

Use with particular caution in patients in occupations in which orthostatic hypotension could be dangerous.1


Priapism reported rarely; may lead to permanent impotence if not treated promptly.1

General Precautions

Prostate Cancer

Exclude possibility of prostate cancer before initiation of therapy for BPH.1

Hematologic Effects

Possible decreases in leukocyte and neutrophil counts in patients receiving α1-adrenergic blocking agents, including doxazosin.1

Specific Populations


Category C.1


Distributed into milk in rats; not known whether distributed into human milk.1 Caution if used in nursing women.1

Pediatric Use

Safety and efficacy not established in children <18 years of age.1

Geriatric Use

Geriatric patients may be particularly susceptible to postural effects.7

BPH: Safety and efficacy were similar in those ≥65 years of age compared with younger patients.1

Hypertension: Clinical studies did not include sufficient numbers of patients ≥65 years of age to determine whether geriatric patients respond differently than younger adults; other clinical experience has not revealed age-related differences in response.1 Select dosage with caution.1 (See Geriatric Patients under Dosage and Administration.)

Hepatic Impairment

Use with caution in patients with hepatic impairment and those who are receiving other agents known to influence hepatic metabolism.1 (See Interactions.)

Common Adverse Effects

Dizziness, headache, drowsiness, fatigue, edema, nausea, dyspnea, somnolence, abdominal pain, diarrhea.1 2 3 4 6

Interactions for Cardura

No formal drug interaction studies to date, but no interactions observed in patients receiving various agents concomitantly during clinical trials.1 (See Specific Drugs and Laboratory Tests.)

Antihypertensive Agents

Potential pharmacodynamic interaction (additive hypotensive effects; initiate additional antihypertensive agents with caution).1

Drugs Affecting Hepatic Metabolism

Potential pharmacokinetic interaction; use concomitantly with caution.1

Protein-bound Drugs

Potential pharmacokinetic interaction (displacement of doxazosin or other protein-bound drug); no information available to date on effect of other highly protein-bound drugs on doxazosin binding.1 Doxazosin has no effect on protein binding of certain drugs in vitro.1 (See Specific Drugs and Laboratory Tests.)

Specific Drugs and Laboratory Tests

Drug or Test




No interaction observed in clinical trials1


No interaction observed in clinical trials1


No interaction observed in clinical trials1

β-Adrenergic blocking agents (e.g., atenolol, propranolol)

No interaction observed in clinical trials1


No interaction observed in clinical trials1


Increased AUC (10%) of doxazosin1

Clinical importance unknown1


No interaction observed in clinical trials1


No interaction observed in clinical trials1


No interaction observed in clinical trials1


No interaction observed in clinical trials1


No effect on digoxin protein binding in vitro1

Diuretics, thiazide (e.g., hydrochlorothiazide)

No interaction observed in clinical trials1


No interaction observed in clinical trials1


Adverse effects with concomitant use generally reflect combined toxicity profile of each drug alone66 84

Hypoglycemic agents

No interaction observed in clinical trials1

NSAIAs (e.g., aspirin, ibuprofen, indomethacin)

No interaction observed in clinical trials; no effect on indomethacin protein binding in vitro1


No effect on phenytoin protein binding in vitro1

Test for prostate specific antigen (PSA)

No effect on plasma PSA concentrations in patients receiving doxazosin for up to 3 years1


No effect on warfarin protein binding in vitro1

Cardura Pharmacokinetics



Peak plasma concentrations attained within about 2–3 hours.1

Bioavailability is approximately 65%.1


In patients with hypertension, maximum reduction in BP usually occurs 2–6 hours after administration.1

In patients with BPH, decreased severity of symptoms and improved urinary flow rate observed within 1–2 weeks.1


Food decreases mean maximum plasma concentrations and AUC by 18 and 12%, respectively; not statistically or clinically significant.1



Crosses the placenta and is distributed into milk in animals; not known whether distributed into human milk.1

Plasma Protein Binding

Approximately 98%.1



Extensively metabolized, principally in the liver by O-demethylation of quinazoline nucleus or hydroxylation of benzodioxan moiety, to several active metabolites; pharmacokinetics of metabolites not characterized.1

Elimination Route

Excreted in feces (63%) and urine (9%) mainly as metabolites; only 4.8% and trace amounts excreted unchanged in feces and urine, respectively.1


Biphasic; terminal half-life is approximately 22 hours.1

Special Populations

In patient with cirrhosis (Child-Pugh class A), systemic exposure was increased by 40% after a single 2-mg dose.1 Effect of hepatic impairment on disposition not established in controlled clinical studies.1

In geriatric patients and patients with renal impairment, clinically important alterations in pharmacokinetics not observed to date.1







  • Reduces peripheral vascular resistance and BP as a result of vasodilating effects; produces both arterial and venous dilation.1 2 3 4 6

  • Binds to α-adrenergic receptors on the prostate capsule, prostate adenoma, and the bladder trigone, resulting in decreased urinary outflow resistance in men.1 5

  • May improve to limited extent the serum lipid profile (e.g., small increases in HDL and HDL/total cholesterol ratio; small decreases in LDL, total cholesterol, and triglyceride concentrations).1 2 3 Can decrease blood glucose and serum insulin concentrations.2

Advice to Patients

  • Possible syncopal and orthostatic symptoms, especially at initiation of therapy; importance of avoiding driving or other hazardous tasks where injury could occur for 24 hours after first dose, a dosage increase, or when resumed after therapy interruption.1

  • Importance of sitting or lying down when symptoms of lowered BP occur, and of rising carefully from a sitting or lying position.1

  • Importance of informing clinician if bothersome dizziness, lightheadedness, or palpitations occur.1

  • Possible drowsiness or somnolence; use caution when operating machinery or driving a motor vehicle until effects on individual are known.1

  • Importance of men seeking immediate medical attention if painful or sustained (for hours) erection occurs.1

  • Importance of women informing clinicians if they are or plan to become pregnant or plan to breast-feed.1

  • Importance of informing clinicians of existing or contemplated concomitant therapy, including prescription and OTC drugs, as well as concomitant illnesses.1

  • Importance of informing patients of other important precautionary information.1 (See Cautions.)


Excipients in commercially available drug preparations may have clinically important effects in some individuals; consult specific product labeling for details.

* available from one or more manufacturer, distributor, and/or repackager by generic (nonproprietary) name

Doxazosin Mesylate


Dosage Forms


Brand Names




1 mg (of doxazosin)*

Cardura (scored)


Doxazosin Mesylate Tablets

2 mg (of doxazosin)*

Cardura (scored)


Doxazosin Mesylate Tablets

4 mg (of doxazosin)*

Cardura (scored)


Doxazosin Mesylate Tablets

8 mg (of doxazosin)*

Cardura (scored)


Doxazosin Mesylate Tablets

Comparative Pricing

This pricing information is subject to change at the sole discretion of DS Pharmacy. This pricing information was updated 02/2015. Actual costs to patients will vary depending on the use of specific retail or mail-order locations and health insurance copays.

Cardura 1MG Tablets (PFIZER U.S.): 30/$55.63 or 90/$166.90

Cardura 2MG Tablets (PFIZER U.S.): 30/$55.99 or 90/$159.96

Cardura 4MG Tablets (PFIZER U.S.): 30/$66.49 or 90/$167.36

Cardura 8MG Tablets (PFIZER U.S.): 30/$66.49 or 90/$181.12

Cardura XL 4MG 24-hr Tablets (PFIZER U.S.): 30/$69.99 or 90/$189.97

Cardura XL 8MG 24-hr Tablets (PFIZER U.S.): 30/$67.20 or 90/$184.79

Doxazosin Mesylate 1MG Tablets (MYLAN): 30/$17.99 or 90/$47.97

Doxazosin Mesylate 2MG Tablets (MYLAN): 30/$20.99 or 90/$44.97

Doxazosin Mesylate 4MG Tablets (MYLAN): 30/$21.99 or 90/$59.97

Doxazosin Mesylate 8MG Tablets (MYLAN): 30/$23.99 or 90/$71.97

AHFS DI Essentials. © Copyright, 2004-2015, Selected Revisions February 13, 2015. American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc., 7272 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, Maryland 20814.

† Use is not currently included in the labeling approved by the US Food and Drug Administration.


1. Pfizer. Cardura (doxazosin mesylate) tablets prescribing information. New York, NY; 2002 Apr.

2. Babamoto KS, Hirokawa WT. Doxazosin: a new α1-adrenergic antagonist. Clin Pharm. 1992; 11:415-27. [IDIS 294778] [PubMed 1349855]

3. Young RA, Brogden RN. Doxazosin: a review of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and therapeutic efficacy in mild or moderate hypertension. Drugs. 1988; 35:525-41. [IDIS 243128] [PubMed 2899495]

4. Khoury AF, Kaplan NM. α-Blocker therapy of hypertension. JAMA. 1991; 266:394-8. [IDIS 283041] [PubMed 1676077]

5. Monda JM, Oesterling JE. Medical treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia: 5α-reductase inhibitors and α-adrenergic antagonists. Mayo Clin Proc. 1993; 68:670-9. [IDIS 316185] [PubMed 7688840]

6. Itskovitz HD. Alpha1 blockers: safe, effective treatment for hypertension. Postgrad Med. 1991; 89:89-112. [IDIS 283690] [PubMed 1674822]

7. Joint National Committee on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. The fifth report of the Joint National Committee on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC V). Arch Intern Med. 1993; 153:154-83. [IDIS 309043] [PubMed 8422206]

8. Oliver RM, Upward JW, Dewhurst AG et al. The pharmacokinetics of doxazosin in patients with hypertension and renal impairment. Br J Clin Pharm. 1990; 29:417-22.

9. de Planque BA. A double-blind comparative study of doxazosin and prazosin when administered with β-blockers or diuretics. Am Heart J. 1991; 121:304-11. [IDIS 276237] [PubMed 1670744]

10. Englert RG, Barlage U. The addition of doxazosin to the treatment regimen of patients with hypertension not adequately controlled by β-blockers. Am Heart J. 1991; 121:311-6. [IDIS 276238] [PubMed 1670745]

11. DiBianco R, Parker JO, Chakko S et al. Doxazosin for the treatment of chronic congestive heart failure: results of a randomized double-blind and placebo-controlled study. Am Heart J. 1991; 121:372-80. [IDIS 276249] [PubMed 1670746]

12. Miura Y, Yoshinaga K. Doxazosin: a newly developed, selective α1-inhibitor in the management of patients with pheochromocytoma. Am Heart J. 1988; 116:1785. [IDIS 313494] [PubMed 2904751]

13. Holme JB, Husted SE, Jacobsen F et al. Doxazosin: A new, efficient and safe drug in the treatment of benign prostatic obstruction. J Urol. 1990; 143:267A.

14. Chapple R, Carter P, Christmas TJ et al. A three month double-blind placebo controlled study of doxazosin as treatment for benign prostatic bladder outlet obstruction. J Urol. 1992; 147:366A.

16. Weber MA, Laragh JH. Hypertension: steps forward and steps backward. The Joint National Committee fifth report. Arch Intern Med. 1993; 153:149-52. [PubMed 8422205]

17. Pfizer Roerig, New York, NY: Personal communication.

18. Wilde MI, Fitton A, Sorkin EM. Terazosin: a review of its pharmacodynamic properties, and therapeutic potential in benign prostatic hyperplasia. Drugs and Aging. 1993; 3:258-77. [PubMed 7686794]

19. Lindner UK, von Manteuffel GE, Stafunsky M. The addition of doxazosin to the treatment regimen of hypertensive patients not responsive to nifedipine. Am Heart J. 1988; 116:1814-20. [IDIS 313499] [PubMed 2904756]

20. Englert RG, Mauersberger H. A single-blind study of doxazosin in the treatment of essential hypertension when added to nonresponders to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor therapy. Am Heart J. 1988; 116:1826-32. [IDIS 313501] [PubMed 2904758]

21. Chapple C. Medical treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia. BMJ. 1992; 304:1198-9. [IDIS 296671] [PubMed 1381250]

22. Kirby RS. Alpha-adrenoceptor inhibitors in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Am J Med. 1989; 87(Suppl 2A):26-30S.

23. Lepor H. The emerging role of alpha antagonists in the therapy of benign prostatic hyperplasia. J Androl. 1991; 12:389-94. [PubMed 1722795]

24. Wilde MI, Fitton A, Sorkin EM. Terazosin: a review of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and therapeutic potential in benign prostatic hyperplasia. Drugs Aging. 1993; 3:258-77. [PubMed 7686794]

25. Lepor H, Meretyk S, Knapp-Maloney G. The safety, efficacy and compliance of terazosin therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia. J Urol. 1992; 147:1554-7. [IDIS 297430] [PubMed 1375659]

26. Chapple CR, Christmas TJ, Milroy EJG. A twelve-week placebo-controlled study of prazosin in the treatment of prostatic obstruction. Urol Int. 1990; 45(Suppl 1):47-55. [PubMed 1690482]

27. Andersson KE. Current concepts in the treatment of disorders of micturition. Drugs. 1988; 35:477-94. [IDIS 240964] [PubMed 3292211]

28. Lepor H. Role of long-acting selective alpha-1 blockers in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Urol Clin North Am. 1990; 17:651-9. [PubMed 1695785]

29. Chisholm GD. Benign prostatic hyperplasia: the best treatment. BMJ. 1989; 299:215-6. [IDIS 257552] [PubMed 2475197]

30. Geller J. Nonsurgical treatment of prostatic hyperplasia. Cancer. 1992; 70(Suppl 1):339-45. [IDIS 298353] [PubMed 1376202]

31. Bostwick DG, Cooner WH, Denis L et al. The association of benign prostatic hyperplasia and cancer of the prostate. Cancer. 1992; 70(Suppl 1):291-301. [PubMed 1376199]

32. Merck & Co., Inc. Proscar (finasteride) tablets prescribing information. Whitehouse Station, NJ; 2006 Jan.

33. Garraway WM, Collins GN, Lee RJ. High prevalence of benign prostatic hypertrophy in the community. Lancet. 1991; 338:469-71. [PubMed 1714529]

34. Oesterling JE. Benign prostatic hyperplasia: medical and minimally invasive treatment options. N Engl J Med. 1995; 332:99-109. [IDIS 340651] [PubMed 7527494]

35. Hill SJ, Lawrence SL, Lepor H. New use for alpha blockers: benign prostatic hyperplasia. Am Fam Physician. 1994; 49:1885-8. [IDIS 330970] [PubMed 7515555]

36. Moul JW. Benign prostatic hyperplasia: new concepts in the 1990s. Postgrad Med. 1993; 94:141-52. [IDIS 322455] [PubMed 7694269]

37. Monda JM, Oesterling JE. Subspecialty clinics: urology: medical treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia: 5α-reductase inhibitors and α-adrenergic antagonists. Mayo Clin Proc. 1993; 68:670-9. [IDIS 316185] [PubMed 7688840]

38. Brendler CB. Diseases of the prostate. In: Wyngaarden JB, Smith LH Jr, Bennett JC, eds. Cecil textbook of medicine. 19th ed. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company; 1992:1351-5.

39. Bruskewitz RC. Benign prostatic hyperplasia: drug and nondrug therapies. Geriatrics. 1992; 47:39-45. [IDIS 306255] [PubMed 1280242]

40. Kaplan SA, Soldo KA, Olsson CA. Effect of dosing regimen on efficacy and safety of doxazosin in normotensive men with symptomatic prostatism: a pilot study. Urology. 1994; 44:348-52. [PubMed 7521090]

41. Chapple CR, Carter P, Christmas TJ et al. A three month double-blind study of doxazosin as treatment for benign prostatic bladder outlet obstruction. Br J Urol. 1994; 74:50-6. [PubMed 7519112]

42. Holme JB, Christensen MM, Rasmussen PC et al. 29-week doxazosin treatment in patients with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia: a double-blind placebo-controlled study. Scand J Urol Nephrol. 1994; 28:77-82. [PubMed 7516576]

43. Christensen MM, Holme JB, Rasmussen PC et al. Doxazosin treatment in patients with prostatic obstruction: a double-blind placebo-controlled study. Scand J Urol Nephrol. 1993; 27:39-44. [PubMed 7684157]

44. Janknegt RA, Chapple CR for the Doxazosin Study Groups. Efficacy and safety of the alpha-1 blocker doxazosin in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia: analysis of 5 studies. Eur Urol. 1993; 24:319-26. [PubMed 7505224]

45. Roberts RG. Novel idea in BPH guideline: the patient as decision maker. Am Fam Physician. 1994; 49:1044-51. [PubMed 7512307]

46. Chapple CR, Carter P, Christmas TJ et al. A three month double-blind placebo controlled study of doxazosin as treatment for benign prostatic bladder outlet obstruction. J Urol. 1992; 147:366A.

47. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. NHLBI panel reviews safety of calcium channel blockers. Rockville, MD; 1995 Aug 31. Press release.

48. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. New analysis regarding the safety of calcium-channel blockers: a statement for health professionals from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Rockville, MD; 1995 Sep 1.

49. Psaty BM, Heckbert SR, Koepsell TD et al. The risk of myocardial infarction associated with antihypertensive drug therapies. JAMA. 1995; 274:620-5. [IDIS 352203] [PubMed 7637142]

50. Yusuf S. Calcium antagonists in coronary artery disease and hypertension: time for reevaluation? Circulation. 1995; 92:1079-82. Editorial.

52. Anon. Drugs for hypertension. Med Lett Drugs Ther. 1993; 35:55-60. [PubMed 8099706]

53. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute National High Blood Pressure Education Program. The sixth report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC VI). Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health; 1997 Nov. (NIH publication No. 98-4080.)

54. Whelton PK, Appel LJ, Espeland MA et al. for the TONE Collaborative Research Group. Sodium reduction and weight loss in the treatment of hypertension in older persons: a randomized controlled trial of nonpharmacologic interventions in the elderly (TONE). JAMA. 1998; 279:839-46. [PubMed 9515998]

55. Upjohn Company. Caverject (alprostadil) injection for intracavernosal use prescribing information. Kalamazoo, MI; 1995 Jul.

56. Krane RJ, Goldstein I, Saenz de Tejada I. Impotence. N Engl J Med. 1989; 321:1648-59. [PubMed 2685600]

57. The ALLHAT collaborative research group. Major cardiovascular events in hypertensive patients randomized to doxazosin vs chlorthalidone: the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering treatment to prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT). JAMA. 2000; 283:1967-75. [IDIS 444771] [PubMed 10789664]

58. Lasagna L. Diuretics vs α-blockers for treatment of hypertension: lessons from ALLHAT. JAMA. 2000; 283:2013-4. [IDIS 444774] [PubMed 10789671]

59. Izzo JL, Levy D, Black HR. Importance of systolic blood pressure in older Americans. Hypertension. 2000; 35:1021-4. [PubMed 10818056]

60. Frohlich ED. Recognition of systolic hypertension for hypertension. Hypertension. 2000; 35:1019-20. [PubMed 10818055]

61. Bakris GL, Williams M, Dworkin L et al. Preserving renal function in adults with hypertension and diabetes: a consensus approach. Am J Kidney Dis. 2000; 36:646-61. [IDIS 452007] [PubMed 10977801]

62. Associated Press (American Diabetes Association). Diabetics urged: drop blood pressure. Chicago, IL; 2000 Aug 29. Press Release from web site.

63. Appel LJ. The verdict from ALLHAT—thiazide diuretics are the preferred initial therapy for hypertension. JAMA. 2002; 288:3039-60. [IDIS 490723] [PubMed 12479770]

64. The ALLHAT Officers and Coordinators for the ALLHAT Collaborative Research Group. Major outcomes in high-risk hypertensive patients randomized to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or calcium channel blocker vs diuretic: the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT). JAMA. 2002; 288:2981-97. [IDIS 490721] [PubMed 12479763]

65. The ALLHAT Officers and Coordinators for the ALLHAT Collaborative Research Group. Major outcomes in moderately hypercholesterolemic, hypertensive patients randomized to pravastatin vs usual care: the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack (ALLHAT). JAMA. 2002; 288:2998-3007. [IDIS 490722] [PubMed 12479764]

66. American Urological Association Practice Guideline Committee. AUA guidelines on management of benign prostatic hyperplasia (2003). Chapter 1: Diagnosis and treatment recommendations. J Urol. 2003; 170:530-47. [PubMed 12853821]

67. Kaplan NM. Initial treatment of adult patients with essential hypertension. Part 2: alternating monotherapy is the preferred treatment. Pharmacotherapy. 1985; 5:195-200. [IDIS 394161] [PubMed 4034407]

68. Bauer JH. Stepped-care approach to the treatment of hypertension: is it obsolete? (unpublished observations)

71. Neal B, MacMahon S, Chapman N. Effects of ACE inhibitors, calcium antagonists, and other blood-pressure-lowering drugs. Lancet. 2000;356:1955-64.

72. Cushman WC, Ford CE, Cutler JA, et al. Success and predictors of blood pressure control in diverse North American settings: The Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT). J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2002;4:393-404.

73. Black HR, Elliott WJ, Neaton JD et al. Baseline characteristics and elderly blood pressure control in the CONVINCE trial. Hypertension. 2001; 37:12-18. [PubMed 11208750]

74. Black HR, Elliott WJ, Grandits G, et al. Principal results of the Controlled Onset Verapamil Investigation of Cardiovascular End Points (CONVINCE) trial. JAMA. 2003;289:2073-2082.

75. Dahlof B, Devereux RB, Kjeldsen SE, et al. Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint Reduction in Hypertension Study (LIFE). Lancet. 2002;359:995-1003.

76. The Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation Study Investigators. Effects of an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor, ramipril, on cardiovascular events in high-risk patients. N Engl J Med. 2000;342:145-153.

77. PROGRESS Collaborative Group. Randomised trial of a perindopril-based blood-pressure-lowering regimen among 6105 individuals with previous stroke or transient ischaemic attack. Lancet. 2001;358:1033-41.

78. Wing LMH, Reid CM, Ryan P, et al, for Second Australian National Blood Pressure Study Group. A comparison of outcomes with angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors and diuretics for hypertension in the elderly. N Engl J Med. 2003;348:583-92.

79. Psaty BM, Smith NL, Siscovich DS et al. Health outcomes associated with antihypertensive therapies used as first-line agents: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA. 1997; 277:739-45. [IDIS 380501] [PubMed 9042847]

81. Hunt SA, Baker DW, Chin MH, et al. ACC/AHA guidelines for the evaluation and management of chronic heart failure in the adult. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2001;38:2101-2113.

83. The Guidelines Subcommittee of the WHO/ISH Mild Hypertension Liaison Committee. 1999 guidelines for the management of hypertension. J Hypertension. 1999; 17:392-403.

84. McConnell JD, Roehrborn CG, Bautista OM et al for the Medical Therapy of Prostatic Symptoms (MTOPS) Research Group. The long-term effect of doxazosin, finasteride, and combination theprapy on the clinical progression of benign prostatic hyperplasia. N Engl J Med. 2003; 349:2387-98. [IDIS 508413] [PubMed 14681504]

85. Vaughan ED. Medical management of benign prostatic hyperplasia—are two drugs better than one? N Engl J Med. 2003; 349:2440-51. Editorial.

87. Milroy E. Clinical overview of prazosin in the treatment of prostatic obstruction. Urol Int. 1990; 45(Suppl 1):1-3. [PubMed 1690474]

88. Kondo A, Gotoh M, Saito M et al. The efficacy of prazosin HCl in the treatment of urinary flow obstruction due to prostatic hypertrophy. Urol Int. 1990; 45(Suppl 1):4-17. [PubMed 1690480]

89. Aoki H, Ohninata M, Tsuzuki T et al. Clinical studies on the effectiveness of prazosin HCl (Minipress tablets) in the treatment of dysuria accompanying benign prostatic hyperplasia. Urol Int. 1990; 45(Suppl 1):18-25. [PubMed 1690476]

90. Shapiro E. Embryologic development of the prostate. Insights into the etiology and treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Urol Clin North Am. 1990; 17:487-93. [PubMed 1695777]

91. Rowden AM, Mowers RM. Prazosin in benign prostatic hypertrophy. DICP Ann Pharmacother. 1989; 23:474-5.

92. Lepor H. Alpha adrenergic antagonists for the treatment of symptomatic BPH. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol. 1989; 27:151-5. [PubMed 2469658]

93. Lepor H. Role of alpha-adrenergic blockers in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Prostate Suppl. 1990; 3:75-84. [PubMed 1689172]

94. Chapple CR, Aubry ML, James S et al. Characterisation of human prostatic adrenoceptors using pharmacology receptor binding and localisation. Br J Urol. 1989; 63:487-96. [PubMed 2471572]

95. Staub WR, Staub JS. Phenoxybenzamine in benign prostatic obstruction. JAMA. 1988; 260:2220. [IDIS 246399] [PubMed 2459421]

96. Hieble JP, Caine M, Zalaznik E. In vitro characterization of the alpha-adrenoceptors in human prostate. Eur J Pharmacol. 1985; 107:111-7. [PubMed 2579826]

97. Caine M. Alpha-adrenergic mechanisms in dynamics of benign prostatic hypertrophy. Urology. 1988; 32(Suppl 6):16-20. [PubMed 2462300]

98. Abrams PH, Shah PJ, Stone R et al. Bladder outflow obstruction treated with phenoxybenzamine. Prog Clin Biol Res. 1981; 78:269-75. [PubMed 6174998]

99. Barry MJ. Phenoxybenzamine in benign prostatic obstruction. JAMA. 1988; 260:2220.

100. Gerstenberg T, Blaabjerg J, Nielsen ML et al. Phenoxybenzamine reduces bladder outlet obstruction in benign prostatic hyperplasia: a urodynamic investigation. Invest Urol. 1980; 18:29-31. [IDIS 118319] [PubMed 6157651]

101. Caine M, Perlberg S, Meretyk S. A placebo-controlled double-blind study of the effect of phenoxybenzamine in benign prostatic obstruction. Br J Urol. 1978; 50:551-4. [PubMed 88984]

102. Caine M. Clinical experience with alpha-adrenoceptor antagonists in benign prostatic hypertrophy. Fed Proc. 1986; 45:2604-8. [PubMed 2428670]

103. Griffiths DJ, Schröder FH. Phenoxybenzamine in prostatic obstruction. Urol Int. 1984; 39:241-2. [PubMed 6207651]

104. Caine M, Perlberg S, Shapiro A. Phenoxybenzamine for benign prostatic obstruction: review of 200 cases. Urology. 1981; 17:542-6. [PubMed 6166111]

105. Reviewers’ comments (personal observations) on prazosin.

106. National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group on Hypertension Control in Children and Adolescents. The fourth report on the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure in children and adolescents. Pediatrics. 2004; 114(Suppl 2):555-76. [PubMed 15286277]

230. American Urological Association Panel Members. American Urological Association guideline: Management of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Linthicum, MD. 2010. From AUA website.

500. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute National High Blood Pressure Education Program. The seventh report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC 7). Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health; 2004 Aug. (NIH publication No. 04-5230.)

501. James PA, Oparil S, Carter BL et al. 2014 evidence-based guideline for the management of high blood pressure in adults: report from the panel members appointed to the Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8). JAMA. 2014; 311:507-20. [PubMed 24352797]

502. Mancia G, Fagard R, Narkiewicz K et al. 2013 ESH/ESC Guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension: the Task Force for the management of arterial hypertension of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH) and of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). J Hypertens. 2013; 31:1281-357. [PubMed 23817082]

503. Go AS, Bauman MA, Coleman King SM et al. An effective approach to high blood pressure control: a science advisory from the American Heart Association, the American College of Cardiology, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Hypertension. 2014; 63:878-85. [PubMed 24243703]

504. Weber MA, Schiffrin EL, White WB et al. Clinical practice guidelines for the management of hypertension in the community: a statement by the American Society of Hypertension and the International Society of Hypertension. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2014; 16:14-26. [PubMed 24341872]