Generic Name: nitrofurantoin (NYE troe fue RAN toin)
Brand names: Furadantin, Macrobid, Macrodantin, Nitro Macro
What is Macrobid?
Macrobid (nitrofurantoin) is an antibiotic that fights bacteria in the body.
Macrobid is used to treat urinary tract infections. It works by interfering with various chemical processes in the bacteria, which results in the death of the bacteria.
Macrobid may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.
Important information about Macrobid
You should not take Macrobid if you are allergic to nitrofurantoin, or if you have severe kidney disease, urination problems, or a history of jaundice or liver problems caused by Macrobid. Do not take Macrobid if you are in the last 2 to 4 weeks of pregnancy.
Before you take Macrobid, tell your doctor if you have kidney disease, anemia, diabetes, an electrolyte imbalance or vitamin B deficiency, a genetic enzyme deficiency, or any type of debilitating disease.
Take Macrobid with food. Avoid using antacids without your doctor's advice. Use only the type of antacid your doctor recommends. Some antacids can make it harder for your body to absorb Macrobid. Take this medication for the full prescribed length of time. Your symptoms may improve before the infection is completely cleared. Macrobid will not treat a viral infection such as the common cold or flu. Stop taking this medication and call your doctor at once if you have sudden chest pain, dry cough, or breathing problems.
Before taking Macrobid
You should not take Macrobid if you are allergic to nitrofurantoin, or if you have:
- severe kidney disease;
a history of jaundice or liver problems caused by taking Macrobid;
if you are urinating less than usual or not at all; or
if you are in the last 2 to 4 weeks of pregnancy.
To make sure you can safely take Macrobid, tell your doctor if you have any of these other conditions:
an electrolyte imbalance or vitamin B deficiency;
glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency; or
any type of debilitating disease.
FDA pregnancy category B. Macrobid is not expected to be harmful to an unborn baby, unless it is used during the last 2 to 4 weeks of pregnancy. Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant during treatment.
See also: Macrobid pregnancy and breastfeeding warnings (in more detail)
Nitrofurantoin can pass into breast milk and may harm a nursing baby. You should not breast-feed while you are taking Macrobid.
How should I take Macrobid?
Take Macrobid exactly as prescribed by your doctor. Do not take in larger or smaller amounts or for longer than recommended. Follow the directions on your prescription label. The normal dosage for adults and children over 12 years old is one 100 mg capsule taken every 12 hours for seven days.
Take each dose with a full glass of water. Take Macrobid with food.
Take this medication for the full prescribed length of time. Your symptoms may improve before the infection is completely cleared. Macrobid will not treat a viral infection such as the common cold or flu.
If you use this medication long-term, your kidney, liver, and lung function will need to be tested often. Visit your doctor regularly.
Macrobid can cause you to have unusual results with certain urine glucose (sugar) tests. Tell any doctor who treats you that you are using Macrobid.
Store Macrobid at room temperature away from moisture, heat, and light. Do not freeze.
See also: Macrobid dosage (in more detail)
What happens if I miss a dose?
Take the missed dose as soon as you remember. Skip the missed dose if it is almost time for your next scheduled dose. Do not take extra medicine to make up the missed dose.
What happens if I overdose?
Seek emergency medical attention or call the Poison Help line at 1-800-222-1222.
What should I avoid while taking Macrobid?
Antibiotic medicines can cause diarrhea, which may be a sign of a new infection. If you have diarrhea that is watery or has blood in it, call your doctor. Do not use any medicine to stop the diarrhea unless your doctor has told you to.
Avoid using antacids without your doctor's advice. Use only the type of antacid your doctor recommends. Some antacids can make it harder for your body to absorb Macrobid.
Macrobid side effects
Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction to Macrobid: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat. Stop using Macrobid and call your doctor at once if you have a serious side effect such as:
diarrhea that is watery or bloody;
shortness of breath, running out of breath easily;
sudden chest pain or discomfort, wheezing, dry cough or hack;
fever, chills, body aches, unexplained weight loss;
peripheral neuropathy - numbness, tingling, or pain in your hands or feet;
nausea, upper stomach pain, itching, loss of appetite, dark urine, clay-colored stools, jaundice (yellowing of the skin or eyes);
pale skin, easy bruising, confusion or weakness;
patchy skin color, red spots, or a severe blistering, peeling, and red skin rash; or
severe headache, ringing in your ears, dizziness, vision problems, pain behind your eyes.
Less serious Macrobid side effects may include:
upset stomach, vomiting;
rust-colored or brownish urine; or
vaginal itching or discharge.
This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.
See also: Macrobid side effects (in more detail)
What other drugs will affect Macrobid?
Tell your doctor about all other medicines you use, especially:
magnesium salicylate (Nuprin Backache, Doan's Pills);
choline magnesium salicylate (Tricosal, Trilisate); or
probenecid (Benemid) or other gout medications.
This list is not complete and other drugs may interact with Macrobid. Tell your doctor about all medications you use. This includes prescription, over-the-counter, vitamin, and herbal products. Do not start a new medication without telling your doctor.
More Macrobid resources
- Macrobid Prescribing Information (FDA)
- Macrobid MedFacts Consumer Leaflet (Wolters Kluwer)
- Nitrofurantoin Professional Patient Advice (Wolters Kluwer)
- Nitrofurantoin Monograph (AHFS DI)
- Furadantin suspension MedFacts Consumer Leaflet (Wolters Kluwer)
- Furadantin Prescribing Information (FDA)
- Furadantin Advanced Consumer (Micromedex) - Includes Dosage Information
- Macrodantin Prescribing Information (FDA)
- Macrodantin MedFacts Consumer Leaflet (Wolters Kluwer)
Compare Macrobid with other medications
Where can I get more information?
- Your pharmacist can provide more information about Macrobid.
- Remember, keep this and all other medicines out of the reach of children, never share your medicines with others, and use this medication only for the indication prescribed.
- Disclaimer: Every effort has been made to ensure that the information provided by Cerner Multum, Inc. ('Multum') is accurate, up-to-date, and complete, but no guarantee is made to that effect. Drug information contained herein may be time sensitive. Multum information has been compiled for use by healthcare practitioners and consumers in the United States and therefore Multum does not warrant that uses outside of the United States are appropriate, unless specifically indicated otherwise. Multum's drug information does not endorse drugs, diagnose patients or recommend therapy. Multum's drug information is an informational resource designed to assist licensed healthcare practitioners in caring for their patients and/or to serve consumers viewing this service as a supplement to, and not a substitute for, the expertise, skill, knowledge and judgment of healthcare practitioners. The absence of a warning for a given drug or drug combination in no way should be construed to indicate that the drug or drug combination is safe, effective or appropriate for any given patient. Multum does not assume any responsibility for any aspect of healthcare administered with the aid of information Multum provides. The information contained herein is not intended to cover all possible uses, directions, precautions, warnings, drug interactions, allergic reactions, or adverse effects. If you have questions about the drugs you are taking, check with your doctor, nurse or pharmacist.
Copyright 1996-2010 Cerner Multum, Inc. Version: 7.01. Revision Date: 10/04/2010 1:16:47 PM.