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Zerit Side Effects

Generic Name: stavudine

Note: This document contains side effect information about stavudine. Some of the dosage forms listed on this page may not apply to the brand name Zerit.

For the Consumer

Applies to stavudine: oral capsule, oral powder for solution, oral powder for suspension

Along with its needed effects, stavudine (the active ingredient contained in Zerit) may cause some unwanted effects. Although not all of these side effects may occur, if they do occur they may need medical attention.

Check with your doctor immediately if any of the following side effects occur while taking stavudine:

More common
  • Burning, numbness, tingling, or painful sensations
  • chills with fever
  • tingling, burning, numbness, or pain in the hands or feet
  • unsteadiness or awkwardness
  • weakness in the arms, hands, legs, or feet
Less common
  • Cough
  • difficulty with swallowing
  • dizziness
  • fast heartbeat
  • hives
  • itching
  • joint pain
  • muscle pain
  • puffiness or swelling of the eyelids or around the eyes, face, lips, or tongue
  • shortness of breath
  • skin rash
  • tightness in the chest
  • unusual tiredness or weakness
  • wheezing
Rare
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • stomach pain (severe)
Incidence not known
  • Abdominal or stomach discomfort or pain
  • black, tarry stools
  • bleeding gums
  • bloating
  • blood in the urine or stools
  • blurred vision
  • chest pain
  • constipation
  • darkened urine
  • decreased appetite
  • diarrhea
  • difficulty with moving
  • dry mouth
  • fast, shallow breathing
  • fever
  • flushed, dry skin
  • fruit-like breath odor
  • general feeling of discomfort
  • general tiredness and weakness
  • increased hunger
  • increased thirst
  • increased urination
  • indigestion
  • light-colored stools
  • loss of appetite
  • loss of consciousness
  • muscle cramping, pains, or stiffness
  • painful or difficult urination
  • pains in the stomach, side, or abdomen, possibly radiating to the back
  • pale skin
  • pinpoint red spots on the skin
  • shakiness and unsteady walk, unsteadiness, trembling, or other problems with muscle control or coordination
  • sleepiness
  • sore throat
  • sores, ulcers, or white spots on the lips or in the mouth
  • sweating
  • swollen glands
  • swollen joints
  • troubled breathing
  • unexplained weight loss
  • unusual bleeding or bruising
  • yellow eyes or skin

Some side effects of stavudine may occur that usually do not need medical attention. These side effects may go away during treatment as your body adjusts to the medicine. Also, your health care professional may be able to tell you about ways to prevent or reduce some of these side effects. Check with your health care professional if any of the following side effects continue or are bothersome or if you have any questions about them:

More common
  • Headache
  • loss of appetite
  • weight loss
Less common
  • Difficulty with sleeping
  • lack of strength or energy
  • stomach pain (mild)
Incidence not known
  • Gaining weight around your neck, upper back, breast, face, or waist
  • sleeplessness
  • unable to sleep

For Healthcare Professionals

Applies to stavudine: oral capsule, oral capsule extended release, oral powder for reconstitution

General

This drug was associated with many side effects (e.g., polyneuropathy, lactic acidosis, lipoatrophy) for which mitochondrial toxicity was a potential underlying mechanism.[Ref]

Hepatic

Very common (10% or more): Elevated bilirubin (up to 68%), elevated ALT (up to 65%), elevated AST (up to 63%), elevated GGT (up to 28%), elevated hepatic transaminases (up to 13%)
Uncommon (0.1% to 1%): Hepatitis/jaundice
Frequency not reported: Severe hepatomegaly with steatosis, fatal hepatic events, hepatosplenomegaly
Postmarketing reports: Hepatic steatosis, hepatitis, liver failure, hepatotoxicity resulting in death[Ref]

In a monotherapy trial, elevated ALT (greater than 5 times the upper limit of normal [5 x ULN]), AST (greater than 5 x ULN), and bilirubin (greater than 2.5 x ULN) were reported in 13%, 11%, and 2% of patients, respectively. Elevated ALT (up to 5 x ULN) and AST (up to 5 x ULN) were reported in 65% and 63% of patients, respectively.

In combination therapy trials, elevated AST (grades 3 to 4: up to 7%; all grades: up to 53%), ALT (grades 3 to 4: up to 8%; all grades: up to 50%), bilirubin (grades 3 to 4: up to 16%; all grades: up to 68%), and GGT (grades 3 to 4: up to 5%; all grades: up to 28%) were reported; grades 3 to 4 AST, ALT, and GGT elevations were greater than 5 x ULN and grades 3 to 4 bilirubin elevations were greater than 2.6 x ULN.

In clinical trials, modest elevations of hepatic transaminases not requiring dose adjustment were reported in up to 13% of patients.

Hepatosplenomegaly (up to 72%) was reported in children; this side effect was not listed for adults.

Lactic acidosis and severe hepatomegaly with steatosis (including fatal cases) have been reported with the use of nucleoside analogs alone or in combination, including this drug and other antiretroviral agents.

Fatal hepatic events were reported most often in patients treated with this drug in combination with hydroxyurea and didanosine.[Ref]

Nervous system

Very common (10% or more): Headache (up to 54%), peripheral neurologic symptoms/neuropathy (up to 52%), peripheral neuropathy (up to 24%), dizziness (up to 11%)
Common (1% to 10%): Paresthesia, peripheral neuritis, somnolence
Frequency not reported: Peripheral sensory neuropathy, ototoxicity, syncope, encephalopathy, abnormal gait, tremor, hyperkinesia, speech disorder, ear disorder, ear pain, otitis media
Postmarketing reports: Motor weakness (including severe cases)[Ref]

In clinical trials, peripheral neuropathy requiring or leading to dose adjustment (regardless of severity) was reported in up to 24% of patients. Other peripheral neurological symptoms not requiring dose changes were reported in up to 39% of patients. Neuropathy requiring dose adjustment was reported in up to 14% of patients.

Peripheral sensory neuropathy (generally characterized by numbness, tingling, or pain in the feet or hands) has been reported. Peripheral neuropathy (some cases severe) was dose-related and occurred more often in patients with advanced HIV disease, with history of peripheral neuropathy, or using other drugs associated with neuropathy. Symptoms generally resolved after dose reduction or interruption of this drug.

Syncope (up to 15%), encephalopathy (up to 17%), abnormal gait (up to 11%), tremor (up to 11%), hyperkinesia (up to 10%), ear disorder (up to 39%), ear pain (up to 45%), otitis media (up to 15%), and speech disorder (up to 10%) were reported in children; these side effects were not listed for adults.

Most cases of motor weakness occurred in the setting of symptomatic hyperlactatemia or lactic acidosis syndrome. Symptoms have continued or worsened after therapy was stopped.[Ref]

Gastrointestinal

In a monotherapy trial, elevated amylase (at least 1.4 x ULN) was reported in 14% of patients.

In combination therapy trials, elevated amylase (grades 3 to 4: up to 8%; all grades: up to 31%) and lipase (grades 3 to 4: up to 6%; all grades: up to 26%) were reported; grades 3 to 4 amylase and lipase elevations were greater than 2 x ULN.

Ulcerative stomatitis (up to 45%), melena (up to 11%), tooth caries (up to 11%), dysphagia (up to 15%), aphthous stomatitis (up to 10%), cheilitis (up to 10%), gastrointestinal disorder (up to 15%), and glossitis (up to 10%) were reported in children; these side effects were not listed for adults.

Abdominal pain, elevated lipase, and pancreatitis (including fatal cases) have also been reported during postmarketing experience.[Ref]

Very common (10% or more): Nausea (up to 53%), diarrhea (up to 50%), nausea/vomiting (up to 39%), abdominal pain (up to 34%), vomiting (up to 30%), elevated amylase (up to 31%), elevated lipase (up to 26%), dyspepsia (up to 12%)
Common (1% to 10%): Pancreatitis (including fatal cases), constipation
Frequency not reported: Ulcerative stomatitis, melena, tooth caries, dysphagia, aphthous stomatitis, cheilitis, gastrointestinal disorder, glossitis[Ref]

Other

Infection (up to 95%), accidental injury (up to 80%), AIDS (up to 22%), death (up to 17%), face edema (up to 25%), mucous membrane disorder (up to 11%), peripheral edema (up to 10%), and enlarged abdomen (up to 10%) were reported in children; these side effects were not listed for adults.

Edema has been reported with use of this drug although no causal relationship has been established.

Chills/fever have also been reported during postmarketing experience.[Ref]

Very common (10% or more): Chills/fever (up to 50%), asthenia (up to 35%), pain (up to 21%), malaise (up to 20%)
Common (1% to 10%): Fatigue
Frequency not reported: Edema, infection, accidental injury, AIDS, death, face edema, mucous membrane disorder, enlarged abdomen, peripheral edema

Antiretroviral therapy:
-Frequency not reported: Increased weight, increased blood lipid levels[Ref]

Dermatologic

Very common (10% or more): Rash (up to 40%), sweating (up to 18%), pruritus (up to 15%)
Common (1% to 10%): Maculopapular rash, lipoatrophy
Uncommon (0.1% to 1%): Urticaria
Frequency not reported: Subcutaneous fat loss, progressive subcutaneous fat wasting, ecchymosis, lesions, vesiculobullous rash, dry skin, skin discoloration, seborrhea, skin disorder, fungal dermatitis, nail disorder, petechial rash, skin ulcer, herpes zoster
Postmarketing reports: Lipodystrophy[Ref]

Subcutaneous fat loss was most apparent in the face, limbs, and buttocks. The incidence and severity of lipoatrophy have been linked to cumulative exposure. Often, lipoatrophy was not reversible when this drug was discontinued.

Ecchymosis (up to 30%), lesions (up to 55%), vesiculobullous rash (up to 25%), dry skin (up to 35%), skin discoloration (up to 20%), seborrhea (up to 11%), skin disorder (up to 15%), fungal dermatitis (up to 15%), nail disorder (up to 15%), petechial rash (up to 15%), skin ulcer (up to 10%), and herpes zoster (up to 15%) were reported in children; these side effects were not listed for adults.

Lipoatrophy has also been reported during postmarketing experience.[Ref]

Musculoskeletal

Very common (10% or more): Myalgia (up to 32%), arthralgia (up to 23%), back pain (up to 19%)
Frequency not reported: Osteonecrosis, muscle weakness, decreased bone mineral density, arthrosis[Ref]

Arthrosis (up to 11%) was reported in children; this side effect was not listed for adults.

Myalgia has also been reported during postmarketing experience.[Ref]

Psychiatric

Very common (10% or more): Insomnia (up to 29%), depression (up to 24%), anxiety (up to 22%), nervousness (up to 12%)
Common (1% to 10%): Abnormal dreams, abnormal thinking
Uncommon (0.1% to 1%): Emotional lability
Frequency not reported: Personality disorder[Ref]

Personality disorder (up to 11%) was reported in children; this side effect was not listed for adults.

Insomnia has also been reported during postmarketing experience.[Ref]

Hematologic

In a monotherapy trial, decreased neutrophils (less than 750/mm3) and platelets (less than 50,000/mm3) were reported in 5% and 3% of patients, respectively.

Low hemoglobin (less than 8 g/dL) was reported in less than 1% of patients[Ref]

Very common (10% or more): Lymphadenopathy (up to 20%)
Common (1% to 10%): Decreased neutrophils, decreased platelets, low hemoglobin
Postmarketing reports: Anemia, leukopenia, neutropenia, macrocytosis, thrombocytopenia[Ref]

Metabolic

Very common (10% or more): Anorexia (up to 19%)
Common (1% to 10%): Asymptomatic hyperlactatemia
Uncommon (0.1% to 1%): Lactic acidosis (some cases involved motor weakness)
Frequency not reported: Hyperlipidemia, cachexia, dehydration
Postmarketing reports: Symptomatic hyperlactatemia, diabetes mellitus, hyperglycemia, redistribution/accumulation of body fat (including central obesity, dorsocervical fat enlargement, peripheral wasting, facial wasting, breast enlargement, "cushingoid appearance")

Antiretroviral therapy:
-Frequency not reported: Increased glucose levels[Ref]

Cachexia (up to 15%) and dehydration (up to 10%) were reported in children; these side effects were not listed for adults.

Lactic acidosis and severe hepatomegaly with steatosis (including fatal cases) have been reported with the use of nucleoside analogs alone or in combination with other antiretrovirals. Fatal lactic acidosis has been reported in pregnant women who received this drug plus didanosine with other antiretroviral agents.

Anorexia and lactic acidosis have also been reported during postmarketing experience.[Ref]

Respiratory

Cough (up to 95%), rhinitis (up to 100%), pharyngitis (up to 56%), respiratory disorder (up to 60%), lung disorder (up to 44%), asthma (up to 45%), epistaxis (up to 28%), hypoventilation (up to 22%), pneumonia (up to 22%), hyperventilation (up to 15%), voice alteration (up to 25%), sinusitis (up to 10%), and stridor (up to 20%) were reported in children; these side effects were not listed for adults.[Ref]

Very common (10% or more): Influenza syndrome (up to 15%), dyspnea (up to 15%)
Frequency not reported: Cough, rhinitis, pharyngitis, respiratory disorder, lung disorder, asthma, epistaxis, hypoventilation, pneumonia, hyperventilation, voice alteration, sinusitis, stridor[Ref]

Cardiovascular

Tachycardia (up to 10%) and vasodilation (up to 15%) were reported in children; these side effects were not listed for adults.[Ref]

Very common (10% or more): Chest pain (up to 11%)
Frequency not reported: Tachycardia, vasodilation[Ref]

Hypersensitivity

Common (1% to 10%): Allergic reactions[Ref]

Allergic reaction has also been reported during postmarketing experience.[Ref]

Oncologic

Common (1% to 10%): Neoplasms, benign skin neoplasm[Ref]

Endocrine

Uncommon (0.1% to 1%): Gynecomastia[Ref]

Ocular

Conjunctivitis (up to 44%), eye disorder (up to 17%), abnormal vision (up to 11%), and conjunctival edema (up to 20%) were reported in children; these side effects were not listed for adults.[Ref]

Frequency not reported: Conjunctivitis, eye disorder, abnormal vision, conjunctival edema[Ref]

Genitourinary

Frequency not reported: Genital pain, urinary incontinence[Ref]

Genital pain (up to 17%) and urinary incontinence (up to 11%) were reported in children; these side effects were not listed for adults.[Ref]

Immunologic

Frequency not reported: Immune reconstitution/reactivation syndrome, autoimmune disorders in the setting of immune reconstitution (e.g., Graves' disease, polymyositis, Guillain-Barre syndrome)[Ref]

Renal

Frequency not reported: Fanconi syndrome[Ref]

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Some side effects of Zerit may not be reported. Always consult your doctor or healthcare specialist for medical advice. You may also report side effects to the FDA.

Disclaimer: Every effort has been made to ensure that the information provided is accurate, up-to-date and complete, but no guarantee is made to that effect. In addition, the drug information contained herein may be time sensitive and should not be utilized as a reference resource beyond the date hereof. This material does not endorse drugs, diagnose patients, or recommend therapy. This information is a reference resource designed as supplement to, and not a substitute for, the expertise, skill , knowledge, and judgement of healthcare practitioners in patient care. The absence of a warning for a given drug or combination thereof in no way should be construed to indicate safety, effectiveness, or appropriateness for any given patient. Drugs.com does not assume any responsibility for any aspect of healthcare administered with the aid of materials provided. The information contained herein is not intended to cover all possible uses, directions, precautions, warnings, drug interactions, allergic reactions, or adverse effects. If you have questions about the substances you are taking, check with your doctor, nurse, or pharmacist.

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