Medically reviewed by Drugs.com. Last updated on Jul 29, 2019.
(FER ik kar box ee MAWL tose)
- Iron Carboxymaltose
- Iron Dextri-Maltose
- VIT 45
Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for generics); consult specific product labeling.
Injectafer: 750 mg/15 mL (15 mL)
Brand Names: U.S.
- Iron Preparations
Ferric carboxymaltose is a colloidal iron (III) hydroxide in complex with carboxymaltose, a carbohydrate polymer that releases iron necessary to the function of hemoglobin, myoglobin, and specific enzyme systems; allows transport of oxygen via hemoglobin. Ferric carboxymaltose is a non-dextran formulation that allows for iron uptake (into reticuloendothelial system) without the release of free iron (Szczech 2010).
Vd: ~3 L
Time to Peak
0.25 to 1.2 hours following administration
7 to 12 hours
Use: Labeled Indications
Iron deficiency anemia: Treatment of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in adults with intolerance to oral iron or unsatisfactory response to oral iron; treatment of IDA in adults with nondialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (ND-CKD)
Off Label Uses
Abdominal surgery, major (perioperative anemia management)
Data from a randomized, controlled trial comparing ferric carboxymaltose therapy to usual perioperative care (eg, no treatment, continued observation, oral iron recommendations, and allogeneic blood transfusion) in patients with iron deficiency anemia scheduled for abdominal surgery supports the use of ferric carboxymaltose in perioperative patients. Results showed a reduced need for blood transfusion in the perioperative period, a shorter hospital stay, enhanced restoration of iron stores, and higher mean hemoglobin concentration 4 weeks after surgery in those receiving intravenous iron [Froessler 2016].
Data from a prospective observational study in adult patients with active malignancy and absolute or functional iron deficiency suggests ferric carboxymaltose (with or without concomitant erythropoiesis-stimulating agents [ESAs]) may be utilized to correct anemia [Steinmetz 2013].
Iron deficiency anemia in inflammatory bowel disease
Data from a multicenter, randomized, controlled, open-label trial supports the use of ferric carboxymaltose in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and iron deficiency anemia (Evstatiev 2011). Clinical experience also supports the use of ferric carboxymaltose in this patient population. Intravenous iron therapy is indicated when IBD is active, anemia is moderate to severe, the patient is intolerant to oral iron, erythropoietin agents are being used, or a rapid response (ie, planned surgery) is needed [Aksan 2017], [Gomollón 2013].
Iron deficiency in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction
Data from two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials (Fair-HF and CONFIRM-HF) in patients with New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class II or III heart failure with reduced ejection fraction and iron deficiency (with or without anemia) support the use of ferric carboxymaltose for improvement in symptoms, functional capacity, and quality of life [Anker 2009], [Ponikowski 2015].
The European Society for Cardiology guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure and the ACC/AHA/HFSA guidelines for the management of heart failure suggest that ferric carboxymaltose may be considered in symptomatic patients with heart failure associated with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and iron deficiency to improve symptoms as well as exercise capacity and quality of life [ACC/AHA/HFSA [Yancy 2017]], [ESC [Ponikowski 2016]].
Restless legs syndrome
The American Academy of Neurology guidelines for the treatment of restless legs syndrome (RLS) recommend the use of ferric carboxymaltose, regardless of ferritin level, for the improvement of RLS symptoms in patients with moderate to severe RLS.
Hypersensitivity to ferric carboxymaltose or any component of the formulation
Note: Dose expressed as elemental iron.
Abdominal surgery, major (perioperative anemia management) (off-label use): IV: 15 mg/kg prior to surgery; maximum dose: 1,000 mg. Postoperatively (within 2 days of surgery), patients received 0.5 mg ferric carboxymaltose per 1 mL of blood loss (if blood loss was at least 100 mL) (Froessler 2016).
Chemotherapy-associated anemia (off-label use): IV: Median total ferric carboxymaltose dose: 1,000 mg (range: 600 to 1,500 mg) (Steinmetz 2013); consider dividing larger doses to a maximum single dose of 750 mg and separate by 7 days.
Iron deficiency anemia: IV:
<50 kg: 15 mg/kg on day 1; repeat dose after at least 7 days (maximum: 750 mg/single dose; 1,500 mg per course). May repeat course of therapy if anemia reoccurs.
≥50 kg: 750 mg on day 1; repeat dose after at least 7 days (maximum: 750 mg/single dose; 1,500 mg per course). May repeat course of therapy if anemia reoccurs.
Iron deficiency anemia in inflammatory bowel disease (off-label use): IV: 500 or 1,000 mg/dose on day 1 (and if needed based on hemoglobin values, days 8 and 15); patients <67 kg received a maximum of 500 mg per infusion (Evstatiev 2011)
Iron deficiency in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (off-label use): Note: Patients may or may not be anemic. Iron deficiency in clinical trials was defined as a serum ferritin level <100 mcg/L or a serum ferritin level of 100 to 300 mcg/L if transferrin saturation is <20% (Anker 2009; Ponikowski 2015).
IV: 200 mg once weekly (until iron repletion is achieved), and then 200 mg once every 4 weeks during maintenance (starting at week 8 or 12, depending on the required iron-repletion dose) (Anker 2009) or 500 or 1,000 mg/dose at baseline and week 6, followed by 500 mg/dose at weeks 12, 24, and 36 if iron deficiency is still present (dose based on screening weight and hemoglobin values; refer to protocol for specific details; Ponikowski 2015).
Restless legs syndrome (off-label use): IV: 500 mg on day 1; repeat after 5 days (AAN [Winkelman 2016])
Refer to adult dosing.
May administer undiluted (for IV push) or diluted (for infusion). When administering as an IV infusion, dilute up to 750 mg in a maximum of 250 mL of 0.9% sodium chloride to a concentration of 2 to 4 mg/mL; concentration should be ≥2 mg/mL. Discard unused portion of vial (single-use).
IV: Administer as slow IV push (undiluted) at a rate of ~100 mg/minute or as an IV infusion (diluted) over at least 15 minutes.
Avoid extravasation (may cause persistent discoloration at the extravasation site). Monitor; if extravasation occurs, discontinue administration at that site.
Store intact vials at 20°C to 25°C (68°F to 77°F); excursions permitted between 15°C to 30°C (59°F to 86°F); do not freeze. Solutions diluted in 0.9% sodium chloride at concentrations of 2-4 mg/mL are stable for 72 hours at room temperature.
Dimercaprol: May enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Iron Preparations. Avoid combination
Serum or transferrin bound iron levels may be falsely elevated if assessed within 24 hours of ferric carboxymaltose administration.
>10%: Endocrine & metabolic: Decreased serum phosphate (27%; <2 mg/dL [0.65 mmol/L]; transient)
1% to 10%:
Cardiovascular: Increased blood pressure (6%; transient, systolic), flushing (4%), hypertension (4%), hypotension
Central nervous system: Dizziness (2%), headache (1%)
Dermatologic: Skin discoloration at injection site (1%)
Endocrine & metabolic: Hypophosphatemia (2%)
Gastrointestinal: Nausea (7%), vomiting (2%), constipation (1%), dysgeusia (1%)
Hepatic: Increased serum ALT (1%)
<1%, postmarketing, and/or case reports: Abdominal pain, anaphylaxis, angioedema, arthralgia, back pain, chest discomfort, chills, diarrhea, dyspnea, erythema, fever, hypersensitivity, increased gamma-glutamyl transferase, irritation at injection site, pain at injection site, paresthesia, pruritus, skin rash, sneezing, syncope, tachycardia, urticaria
Concerns related to adverse effects:
• Hypersensitivity: Serious hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylactic-type reactions (some life-threatening and fatal) have been reported. Monitor during and for at least 30 minutes after administration and until clinically stable. Signs/symptoms of serious hypersensitivity reaction include shock, hypotension, loss of consciousness, and/or collapse. Equipment for resuscitation, medication, and trained personnel experienced in handling emergencies should be immediately available during infusion.
• Hypertension: Transient elevations in systolic blood pressure (sometimes with facial flushing, dizziness, or nausea) were observed in studies; usually occurred immediately after dosing and resolved within 30 minutes. Monitor blood pressure following infusion.
Concurrent drug therapy issues:
• Drug-drug interactions: Potentially significant interactions may exist, requiring dose or frequency adjustment, additional monitoring, and/or selection of alternative therapy. Consult drug interactions database for more detailed information.
• Laboratory alterations: Lab assays may overestimate serum iron and transferrin bound irons for ~24 hours after infusion.
Hemoglobin and hematocrit, serum ferritin, iron saturation; vital signs (including blood pressure); monitor for signs/symptoms of hypersensitivity (monitor for ≥30 minutes following the end of administration and until clinically stable); monitor infusion site for extravasation.
Chronic kidney disease: Monitor transferrin saturation and ferritin more frequently following a course of IV iron (KDIGO 2013).
Chemotherapy-associated anemia (off-label use): Iron, total iron-binding capacity, transferrin saturation, or ferritin levels at baseline and periodically (Rizzo 2010).
Iron deficient patients should have serum ferritin assessed 2 to 4 weeks after infusion course is completed; if serum ferritin >50 to 100 ng/mL is not achieved, then another iron dose should be administered (DeLoughery 2017).
Ferric carboxymaltose was not found to cross the placenta in an in vitro placental perfusion study (Malek 2010).
Maternal iron requirements increase during pregnancy. Adequate iron concentrations to the fetus can be maintained regardless of maternal iron status, except in severe cases of anemia (IOM 2001). Untreated iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in a pregnant female may be associated with adverse events, including low birth weight, preterm birth, or increased perinatal mortality (ACOG 95 2008; IOM 2001; Pavord 2012).
In general, treatment of iron deficiency or IDA in pregnancy is the same as in non-pregnant females. The majority of studies note iron therapy improves maternal hematologic parameters, however, information related to clinical outcomes in the mother and neonate is limited (Qassim 2018; Siu 2015). Oral preparations are generally sufficient, however parenteral iron therapy may be used in females who cannot tolerate or will not take oral iron, in cases of severe iron deficiency, or when malabsorption is present (ACOG 95 2008; Pavord 2012).
Ferric carboxymaltose has been evaluated for the treatment of IDA during pregnancy (Aporta Rodriguez 2016; Breymann 2017b; Froessler 2018; Qassim 2018; Shim 2018). Based on available data, adverse developmental outcomes have not been reported following maternal use of ferric carboxymaltose in pregnancy. However, due to limited safety data in early pregnancy, use of intravenous iron is generally not started until the second or third trimester (Breymann 2017a; Pavord 2012).
• Discuss specific use of drug and side effects with patient as it relates to treatment. (HCAHPS: During this hospital stay, were you given any medicine that you had not taken before? Before giving you any new medicine, how often did hospital staff tell you what the medicine was for? How often did hospital staff describe possible side effects in a way you could understand?)
• Patient may experience nausea or flushing. Have patient report immediately to prescriber signs of low phosphate (vision changes, confusion, mood changes, muscle pain, muscle weakness, shortness of breath, difficulty breathing, or difficulty swallowing), dizziness, passing out, vision changes, injection site skin discoloration, or severe headache (HCAHPS).
• Educate patient about signs of a significant reaction (eg, wheezing; chest tightness; fever; itching; bad cough; blue skin color; seizures; or swelling of face, lips, tongue, or throat). Note: This is not a comprehensive list of all side effects. Patient should consult prescriber for additional questions.
Intended Use and Disclaimer: Should not be printed and given to patients. This information is intended to serve as a concise initial reference for health care professionals to use when discussing medications with a patient. You must ultimately rely on your own discretion, experience, and judgment in diagnosing, treating, and advising patients.
More about ferric carboxymaltose
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- Drug class: iron products
Other brands: Injectafer