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Elvitegravir, Cobicistat, Emtricitabine, and Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate

Medically reviewed by Drugs.com. Last updated on Aug 10, 2020.

Pronunciation

(el vi TEG ra vir, koe BIK i stat, em trye SYE ta been, & ten OF oh vir dye soe PROX il FUE ma rate)

Index Terms

  • Cobicistat, Emtricitabine, Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate, and Elvitegravir
  • Emtricitabine, Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate, Elvitegravir, and Cobicistat
  • EVG/COBI/FTC/TDF
  • Quad Pill
  • Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate, Elvitegravir, Cobicistat, and Emtricitabine

Dosage Forms

Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for generics); consult specific product labeling.

Tablet, Oral:

Stribild: Elvitegravir 150 mg, cobicistat 150 mg, emtricitabine 200 mg, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate 300 mg [contains fd&c blue #2 aluminum lake]

Brand Names: U.S.

  • Stribild

Pharmacologic Category

  • Antiretroviral, Integrase Inhibitor (Anti-HIV)
  • Antiretroviral, Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor, Nucleoside (Anti-HIV)
  • Antiretroviral, Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor, Nucleotide (Anti-HIV)
  • Cytochrome P-450 Inhibitor

Pharmacology

Integrase strand transfer inhibitor, CYP3A enzyme inhibitor plus nucleoside and nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor combination; the viral cDNA strand produced by reverse transcriptase is processed and inserted into the human genome by the enzyme HIV-1 integrase. Elvitegravir inhibits the catalytic activity of integrase, thus preventing integration of the proviral gene into human DNA. Cobicistat inhibits enzymes of the CYP3A subfamily and enhances systemic exposure to elvitegravir. Emtricitabine is a cytosine analogue and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is an analog of adenosine 5'-monophosphate. Emtricitabine and tenofovir interfere with HIV viral RNA dependent DNA polymerase activities resulting in inhibition of viral replication.

Absorption

AUC of elvitegravir and tenofovir increases with food; emtricitabine and cobicistat not significantly affected

Metabolism

Elvitegravir: CYP3A (major); hepatic glucuronidation mediated by UGT1A1/3 (minor)

Cobicistat: CYP3A (major); CYP2D6 (minor)

Emtricitabine and tenofovir: Not significantly metabolized

Excretion

Elvitegravir: Feces (94.8%), urine (6.7%); Cobicistat: Feces (86.2%), urine (8.2%); Emtricitabine: Feces (13.7%), urine (70%); Tenofovir: Urine (70% to 80%)

Time to Peak

Plasma: Elvitegravir: 4 hours; Cobicistat: 3 hours; Emtricitabine: 3 hours; Tenofovir: 2 hours

Half-Life Elimination

Elvitegravir: 12.9 hours; Cobicistat: 3.5 hours; Emtricitabine: 10 hours; Tenofovir: 12 to 18 hours

Protein Binding

Elvitegravir: ~99%; Cobicistat: ~98%; Emtricitabine: <4%; Tenofovir: <0.7%

Use: Labeled Indications

HIV-1 infection, treatment: Treatment of HIV-1 infection in adults and pediatric patients ≥12 years weighing ≥35 kg who are antiretroviral treatment-naïve; as a replacement for the current antiretroviral regimen in patients who are virologically-suppressed (HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/mL) on a stable antiretroviral regimen for ≥6 months with no history of treatment failure and no known substitutions associated with resistance to elvitegravir, cobicistat, emtricitabine, or tenofovir disoproxil fumarate.

Contraindications

Coadministration with alfuzosin, carbamazepine, cisapride, ergot derivatives (eg, dihydroergotamine, ergotamine, methylergonovine), lomitapide, lovastatin, lurasidone, midazolam (oral), phenobarbital, phenytoin, pimozide, rifampin, sildenafil (for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension), simvastatin, St John's wort, or triazolam

Canadian labeling: Additional contraindications (not in US labeling): Hypersensitivity to elvitegravir, cobicistat, emtricitabine, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, or any component of the formulation; coadministration with apixaban, astemizole (not available in Canada), ergonovine, rivaroxaban, salmeterol, or terfenadine (not available in Canada)

Dosing: Adult

Note: Prior to initiation, patients should be tested for hepatitis B infection, and baseline serum creatinine, estimated creatinine clearance, urine glucose, and urine protein should be assessed in all patients; serum phosphorus should be assessed in patients with chronic kidney disease.

HIV-1 infection, treatment: Oral: One tablet (elvitegravir 150 mg/cobicistat 150 mg/emtricitabine 200 mg/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate 300 mg) once daily.

Dosage adjustment for concomitant therapy: Significant drug interactions exist, requiring dose/frequency adjustment or avoidance. Consult drug interactions database for more information.

Dosing: Geriatric

Refer to adult dosing.

Dosing: Pediatric

Note: Gene mutation and antiretroviral resistance patterns should be evaluated (refer to https://www.iasusa.org/ for more information) when necessary.

HIV-1 infection, treatment: Children ≥12 years and Adolescents weighing ≥35 kg: Oral: Tablet (elvitegravir 150 mg, cobicistat 150 mg, emtricitabine 200 mg, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate 300 mg/tablet): One tablet once daily.

Dosage adjustment for concomitant therapy: Significant drug interactions exist, requiring dose/frequency adjustment or avoidance. Consult drug interactions database for more information.

Administration

Oral: Administer with food. Manufacturer's labeling does not provide recommendations on tablet crushing or administration via enteral feeding tubes. A single-dose pharmacokinetic study demonstrated that a crushed and suspended tablet combined with enteral nutrition or with food had similar pharmacokinetic parameters compared to a whole tablet administered with food (Jongbloed-de Hoon 2017). In addition, a case report demonstrated sustained virologic response in a patient who was crushing the tablet prior to oral administration (Fulco 2014).

Dietary Considerations

Consider calcium and vitamin D supplementation.

Storage

Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15°C to 30°C (59°F to 86°F). Dispense in original container.

Drug Interactions

Abemaciclib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Abemaciclib. Management: In patients taking abemaciclib at a dose of 200 mg or 150 mg twice daily, reduce the dose to 100 mg twice daily when combined with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. In patients taking abemaciclib 100 mg twice daily, decrease the dose to 50 mg twice daily. Consider therapy modification

Acalabrutinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Acalabrutinib. Avoid combination

Acyclovir-Valacyclovir: May increase the serum concentration of Tenofovir Products. Tenofovir Products may increase the serum concentration of Acyclovir-Valacyclovir. Monitor therapy

Adefovir: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Tenofovir Products. Adefovir may increase the serum concentration of Tenofovir Products. Tenofovir Products may increase the serum concentration of Adefovir. Avoid combination

Ado-Trastuzumab Emtansine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Ado-Trastuzumab Emtansine. Specifically, strong CYP3A4 inhibitors may increase concentrations of the cytotoxic DM1 component. Management: Avoid concomitant use of ado-trastuzumab emtansine and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors when possible. Consider alternatives that do not inhibit CYP3A4 or consider administering after CYP3A4 inhibitor discontinuation. Monitor for toxicities if combined. Consider therapy modification

Alfentanil: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Alfentanil. Management: If use of alfentanil and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors is necessary, consider dosage reduction of alfentanil until stable drug effects are achieved. Frequently monitor patients for respiratory depression and sedation when these agents are combined. Consider therapy modification

Alfuzosin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Alfuzosin. Avoid combination

Alitretinoin (Systemic): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Alitretinoin (Systemic). Management: Consider reducing the alitretinoin dose to 10 mg when used together with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Monitor for increased alitretinoin effects/toxicities if combined with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Consider therapy modification

Almotriptan: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Almotriptan. Management: Limit initial almotriptan dose to 6.25 mg and maximum dose to 12.5 mg in any 24-period when used with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Avoid concurrent use in patients with impaired hepatic or renal function. Consider therapy modification

Alosetron: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Alosetron. Monitor therapy

Alpelisib: BCRP/ABCG2 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Alpelisib. Management: Avoid coadministration of BCRP/ABCG2 inhibitors and alpelisib due to the potential for increased alpelisib concentrations and toxicities. If coadministration cannot be avoided, closely monitor for increased alpelisib adverse reactions. Consider therapy modification

ALPRAZolam: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of ALPRAZolam. Management: Consider using an alternative agent that is less likely to interact. If combined, monitor for increased therapeutic/toxic effects of alprazolam if combined with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Consider therapy modification

Aminoglycosides: May increase the serum concentration of Tenofovir Products. Tenofovir Products may increase the serum concentration of Aminoglycosides. Monitor therapy

Amiodarone: Cobicistat may increase the serum concentration of Amiodarone. Monitor therapy

AmLODIPine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of AmLODIPine. Monitor therapy

Antacids: May decrease the serum concentration of Elvitegravir. Management: Separate administration of aluminum and magnesium containing antacids and elvitegravir-containing products by at least 2 hours in order to minimize the risk for an interaction. Exceptions: Potassium Bicarbonate; Sodium Bicarbonate. Consider therapy modification

Apixaban: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Apixaban. Monitor therapy

Aprepitant: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Aprepitant. Avoid combination

ARIPiprazole: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of ARIPiprazole. Management: Aripiprazole dose reductions are required for indications other than major depressive disorder. Dose reductions vary based on formulation, CYP2D6 genotype, and use of CYP2D6 inhibitors. See full interaction monograph for details. Consider therapy modification

ARIPiprazole Lauroxil: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of ARIPiprazole Lauroxil. Management: Decrease aripiprazole lauroxil dose to next lower strength if used with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors for over 14 days. No dose adjustment needed if using the lowest dose (441 mg). Max dose is 441 mg in CYP2D6 PMs or if also taking strong CYP2D6 inhibitors. Consider therapy modification

Astemizole: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Astemizole. Management: Drugs listed as exceptions to this monograph are discussed in further detail in separate drug interaction monographs. Avoid combination

Asunaprevir: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Asunaprevir. Avoid combination

Asunaprevir: OATP1B1/1B3 (SLCO1B1/1B3) Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Asunaprevir. Avoid combination

Atazanavir: Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate may decrease the serum concentration of Atazanavir. Atazanavir may increase the serum concentration of Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate. Management: Use boosted atazanavir in adults; give combo (atazanavir/ritonavir or atazanavir/cobicistat with tenofovir) as a single daily dose with food. Pediatric patients, pregnant patients, and use of H2-blockers require dose changes. See Lexi Interact monograph. Consider therapy modification

Atazanavir: May increase the serum concentration of Elvitegravir. Specifically, atazanavir/ritonavir may increase the concentration of elvitegravir. Management: When elvitegravir is combined with atazanavir/ritonavir, the dose of elvitegravir should be reduced to 85 mg once daily and the dose of atazanavir/ritonavir should be 300 mg/100 mg once daily. Avoid the use of atazanavir/cobicistat and elvitegravir. Consider therapy modification

AtorvaSTATin: Cobicistat may increase the serum concentration of AtorvaSTATin. Management: Avoid the combined use of atorvastatin with atazanavir/cobicistat. Atorvastatin dose should not exceed 20 mg daily when combined with other cobicistat-containing regimens. Consider therapy modification

Avanafil: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Avanafil. Avoid combination

Avapritinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Avapritinib. Avoid combination

Axitinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Axitinib. Management: Avoid concurrent use of axitinib with any strong CYP3A inhibitor whenever possible. If a strong CYP3A inhibitor must be used with axitinib, a 50% axitinib dose reduction is recommended. Consider therapy modification

Barnidipine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Barnidipine. Avoid combination

Bedaquiline: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Bedaquiline. Management: Limit duration of concurrent use of bedaquiline with CYP3A4 inhibitors to no more than 14 days, unless the benefit of continued use outweighs the possible risks. Monitor for toxic effects of bedaquiline. Exceptions discussed in separate monographs. Consider therapy modification

Benperidol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Benperidol. Monitor therapy

Benzhydrocodone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Benzhydrocodone. Specifically, the concentration of hydrocodone may be increased. Monitor therapy

Betamethasone (Ophthalmic): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Betamethasone (Ophthalmic). Monitor therapy

Betamethasone (Systemic): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Betamethasone (Systemic). Monitor therapy

Betrixaban: Cobicistat may increase the serum concentration of Betrixaban. Monitor therapy

Bictegravir: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Bictegravir. Monitor therapy

Blonanserin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Blonanserin. Avoid combination

Bortezomib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Bortezomib. Monitor therapy

Bosentan: Cobicistat may increase the serum concentration of Bosentan. Management: Dose adjustment of bosentan and increased monitoring for bosentan toxicities is necessary when these agents are combined. See full drug interaction monograph for details. Consider therapy modification

Bosutinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Bosutinib. Avoid combination

Brentuximab Vedotin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Brentuximab Vedotin. Specifically, concentrations of the active monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE) component may be increased. Monitor therapy

Brexpiprazole: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Brexpiprazole. Management: Reduce brexpiprazole dose 50% with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors; reduce to 25% of usual if used with both a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor and a CYP2D6 inhibitor in patients not being treated for MDD, or strong CYP3A4 inhibitor used in a CYP2D6 poor metabolizer. Consider therapy modification

Brigatinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Brigatinib. Management: Avoid concurrent use of brigatinib with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors when possible. If combination cannot be avoided, reduce the brigatinib dose by approximately 50%, rounding to the nearest tablet strength (ie, from 180 mg to 90 mg, or from 90 mg to 60 mg). Consider therapy modification

Bromocriptine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Bromocriptine. Management: Consider alternatives to the use of bromocriptine with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. If combined, monitor closely for increased bromocriptine toxicities and consider bromocriptine dose reductions. Consider therapy modification

Bromperidol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Bromperidol. Monitor therapy

Budesonide (Nasal): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Budesonide (Nasal). Monitor therapy

Budesonide (Oral Inhalation): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Budesonide (Oral Inhalation). Monitor therapy

Budesonide (Systemic): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Budesonide (Systemic). Management: Avoid the concomitant use of CYP3A4 inhibitors and oral budesonide. If patients receive both budesonide and a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, they should be closely monitored for signs and symptoms of corticosteroid excess. Consider therapy modification

Budesonide (Topical): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Budesonide (Topical). Avoid combination

Buprenorphine: Cobicistat may increase the serum concentration of Buprenorphine. Monitor therapy

BusPIRone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of BusPIRone. Management: Limit the buspirone dose to 2.5 mg daily and monitor patients for increased buspirone effects/toxicities if combined with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Consider therapy modification

Cabazitaxel: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Cabazitaxel. Management: Concurrent use of cabazitaxel with strong inhibitors of CYP3A4 should be avoided when possible. If such a combination must be used, consider a 25% reduction in the cabazitaxel dose. Consider therapy modification

Cabozantinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Cabozantinib. Management: Avoid use of a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor with cabozantinib if possible. If combined, decrease cabozantinib capsules (Cometriq) by 40 mg from previous dose or decrease cabozantinib tablets (Cabometyx) by 20 mg from previous dose. Consider therapy modification

Calcifediol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Calcifediol. Monitor therapy

Cannabidiol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Cannabidiol. Monitor therapy

Cannabis: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Cannabis. More specifically, tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol serum concentrations may be increased. Monitor therapy

Capmatinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Capmatinib. Monitor therapy

CarBAMazepine: May decrease the serum concentration of Cobicistat. Avoid combination

CarBAMazepine: May decrease the serum concentration of Elvitegravir. Avoid combination

Cariprazine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Cariprazine. Management: Decrease cariprazine dose 50% (4.5 mg to 1.5 mg or 3 mg; 1.5 mg to 1.5 mg every other day) if starting a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. If on a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, start cariprazine at 1.5 mg day 1, 0 mg day 2, then 1.5 mg daily. May increase to 3 mg daily Consider therapy modification

Ceritinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ceritinib. Management: If such combinations cannot be avoided, the ceritinib dose should be reduced by approximately one-third (to the nearest 150 mg). Resume the prior ceritinib dose after cessation of the strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Exceptions discussed in separate monographs. Consider therapy modification

Ciclesonide (Oral Inhalation): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Ciclesonide (Oral Inhalation). Monitor therapy

Cidofovir: May increase the serum concentration of Tenofovir Products. Tenofovir Products may increase the serum concentration of Cidofovir. Monitor therapy

Cilostazol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Cilostazol. Management: Consider reducing the cilostazol dose to 50 mg twice daily in adult patients who are also receiving strong inhibitors of CYP3A4. Consider therapy modification

Cinacalcet: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Cinacalcet. Monitor therapy

Cisapride: Cobicistat may increase the serum concentration of Cisapride. Avoid combination

Cladribine: Agents that Undergo Intracellular Phosphorylation may diminish the therapeutic effect of Cladribine. Avoid combination

Clarithromycin: May increase the serum concentration of Cobicistat. Cobicistat may increase the serum concentration of Clarithromycin. Management: Consider alternative antibiotics. Reduce clarithromycin dose by 50% in patients receiving elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir with estimated creatinine clearance 50 to 60 mL/min. Closely monitor for clarithromycin toxicity. Consider therapy modification

ClonazePAM: Cobicistat may increase the serum concentration of ClonazePAM. Monitor therapy

Clopidogrel: Cobicistat may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Clopidogrel. Monitor therapy

CloZAPine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of CloZAPine. Management: Drugs listed as exceptions to this monograph are discussed in further detail in separate drug interaction monographs. Monitor therapy

Cobicistat: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Tenofovir Products. More specifically, cobicistat may impair proper tenofovir monitoring and dosing. Monitor therapy

Cobimetinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Cobimetinib. Avoid combination

Codeine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Codeine. Monitor therapy

Colchicine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Colchicine. Management: Colchicine is contraindicated in patients with impaired renal or hepatic function who are also receiving a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. In those with normal renal and hepatic function, reduce colchicine dose as directed. See interaction monograph for details. Consider therapy modification

Conivaptan: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Conivaptan. Avoid combination

Copanlisib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Copanlisib. Management: If concomitant use of copanlisib and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors cannot be avoided, reduce the copanlisib dose to 45 mg. Monitor patients for increased copanlisib effects/toxicities. Consider therapy modification

Corticosteroids (Systemic): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Corticosteroids (Systemic). Exceptions: MethylPREDNISolone; PrednisoLONE (Systemic); PredniSONE. Monitor therapy

Crizotinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Crizotinib. Management: Avoid concomitant use of crizotinib and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors whenever possible. If combined use cannot be avoided, decrease the crizotinib dose to 250 mg daily. Exceptions are discussed in separate monographs. Consider therapy modification

CycloSPORINE (Systemic): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of CycloSPORINE (Systemic). Management: Monitor cyclosporine serum concentrations and clinical cyclosporine closely with concurrent use of any strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Cyclosporine dose reductions and/or prolongation of the dosing interval will likely be required. Consider therapy modification

CYP2D6 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors): Cobicistat may increase the serum concentration of CYP2D6 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Monitor therapy

CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate): May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Monitor therapy

CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong): May increase the metabolism of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Management: Consider an alternative for one of the interacting drugs. Some combinations may be specifically contraindicated. Consult appropriate manufacturer labeling. Consider therapy modification

CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may decrease the metabolism of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Management: Consider avoiding this combination. Some combinations are specifically contraindicated by manufacturers; others may have recommended dose adjustments. If combined, monitor for increased substrate effects. Exceptions: Alitretinoin (Systemic); AmLODIPine; Benzhydrocodone; Bromperidol; Buprenorphine; Gefitinib; HYDROcodone; Mirtazapine; Oliceridine; Praziquantel; Ripretinib; Telithromycin; VinBLAStine; Vinorelbine. Consider therapy modification

Dabigatran Etexilate: Cobicistat may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Dabigatran Etexilate. Monitor therapy

Dabrafenib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Dabrafenib. Avoid combination

Daclatasvir: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Daclatasvir. Management: Decrease the daclatasvir dose to 30 mg once daily if combined with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. No dose adjustment is needed when daclatasvir is used with darunavir/cobicistat. Consider therapy modification

Dapoxetine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Dapoxetine. Avoid combination

Darifenacin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Darifenacin. Management: Limit the darifenacin dose to no more than 7.5 mg daily if combined with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Monitor patients for increased darifenacin toxicities (eg, dry mouth, constipation, headache, CNS effects) when these agents are combined. Consider therapy modification

Darunavir: May increase the serum concentration of Elvitegravir. Management: When elvitegravir is combined with darunavir/ritonavir, the dose of elvitegravir should remain 150 mg once daily and the dose of darunavir/ritonavir should be 600 mg/100 mg twice daily. Avoid the combination of darunavir/cobicistat and elvitegravir. Consider therapy modification

Dasatinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Dasatinib. Management: This combination should be avoided if possible. If combined, decrease dasatinib dose from 140 mg to 40 mg, 100 mg to 20 mg, or 70 mg to 20 mg. For patients taking 60 mg or 40 mg daily, stop dasatinib until the CYP3A4 inhibitor is discontinued. Consider therapy modification

Deferasirox: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Monitor therapy

Deflazacort: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Deflazacort. Management: Administer one third of the recommended deflazacort dose when used together with a strong or moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor. Consider therapy modification

Delamanid: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Delamanid. Management: Increase ECG monitoring frequency if delamanid is combined with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors due to the risk for QTc interval prolongation. Continue frequent ECG assessments throughout full delamanid treatment period. Exceptions discussed separately. Consider therapy modification

DexAMETHasone (Ophthalmic): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of DexAMETHasone (Ophthalmic). Monitor therapy

DexAMETHasone (Systemic): May decrease the serum concentration of Elvitegravir. Management: Consider using an alternative corticosteroid. Monitor patients receiving these agents in combination for diminished antiviral response. Consider therapy modification

DexAMETHasone (Systemic): May decrease the serum concentration of Cobicistat. Dexamethasone (Systemic) may also counteract the boosting effects of Cobicistat on some agents. Management: Consider an alternative corticosteroid. Monitor patients receiving this combination closely for evidence of diminished response to the antiviral regimen. Consider therapy modification

Diclofenac (Systemic): May enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Tenofovir Products. Management: Seek alternatives to this combination whenever possible. Avoid use of tenofovir with multiple NSAIDs or any NSAID given at a high dose. Consider therapy modification

Didanosine: Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate may diminish the therapeutic effect of Didanosine. Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate may increase the serum concentration of Didanosine. Management: Avoid use of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and didanosine when possible. If combined in adults with CrCL greater than 60 mL/min, decrease didanosine to 250 mg daily if 60 kg or more or to 200 mg if less than 60 kg. Avoid if CrCL is less than 60 mL/min. Consider therapy modification

Digoxin: Cobicistat may increase the serum concentration of Digoxin. Monitor therapy

Dihydroergotamine: Cobicistat may increase the serum concentration of Dihydroergotamine. Avoid combination

DOCEtaxel: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of DOCEtaxel. Management: Avoid the concomitant use of docetaxel and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors when possible. If combined use is unavoidable, consider a 50% docetaxel dose reduction and monitor for increased docetaxel toxicities. Consider therapy modification

Dofetilide: Cobicistat may increase the serum concentration of Dofetilide. Monitor therapy

Domperidone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Domperidone. Management: Drugs listed as exceptions to this monograph are discussed in further detail in separate drug interaction monographs. Avoid combination

Doxercalciferol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Doxercalciferol. Monitor therapy

DOXOrubicin (Conventional): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of DOXOrubicin (Conventional). Management: Seek alternatives to strong CYP3A4 inhibitors in patients treated with doxorubicin whenever possible. One U.S. manufacturer (Pfizer Inc.) recommends that these combinations be avoided. Consider therapy modification

Dronabinol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Dronabinol. Monitor therapy

Dronedarone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Dronedarone. Management: Drugs listed as exceptions to this monograph are discussed in further detail in separate drug interaction monographs. Avoid combination

Drospirenone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Drospirenone. Management: Drospirenone use is contraindicated specifically when the strong CYP3A4 inhibitors atazanavir and cobicistat are administered concurrently. Caution should be used when drospirenone is coadministered with other strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Consider therapy modification

Dutasteride: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Dutasteride. Monitor therapy

Duvelisib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Duvelisib. Management: Reduce the dose of duvelisib to 15 mg twice a day when used together with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Consider therapy modification

Edoxaban: Cobicistat may increase the serum concentration of Edoxaban. Monitor therapy

Efavirenz: May decrease the serum concentration of Elvitegravir. Avoid combination

Elagolix: OATP1B1/1B3 (SLCO1B1/1B3) Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Elagolix. Avoid combination

Elagolix, Estradiol, and Norethindrone: OATP1B1/1B3 (SLCO1B1/1B3) Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Elagolix, Estradiol, and Norethindrone. Specifically, concentrations of elagolix may be increased. Avoid combination

Elagolix, Estradiol, and Norethindrone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Elagolix, Estradiol, and Norethindrone. Avoid combination

Elbasvir: Cobicistat may increase the serum concentration of Elbasvir. Avoid combination

Eletriptan: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Eletriptan. Avoid combination

Elexacaftor, Tezacaftor, and Ivacaftor: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Elexacaftor, Tezacaftor, and Ivacaftor. Management: When combined with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors, administer two elexacaftor/tezacaftor/ivacaftor tablets (100 mg/50 mg/75 mg) in the morning, twice a week, approximately 3 to 4 days apart. No evening doses of ivacaftor (150 mg) alone should be administered. Consider therapy modification

Eliglustat: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Eliglustat. Management: Reduce eliglustat dose to 84 mg daily in CYP2D6 EMs when used with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Use of strong CYP3A4 inhibitors is contraindicated in CYP2D6 IMs, PMs, or in CYP2D6 EMs who are also taking strong or moderate CYP2D6 inhibitors. Consider therapy modification

Eluxadoline: OATP1B1/1B3 (SLCO1B1/1B3) Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Eluxadoline. Management: Decrease the eluxadoline dose to 75 mg twice daily if combined with OATP1B1/1B3 inhibitors and monitor patients for increased eluxadoline effects/toxicities. Consider therapy modification

Encorafenib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Encorafenib. Management: Avoid use of encorafenib and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors when possible. If combined, decrease encorafenib from 450 mg to 150 mg; or from 300 mg, 225 mg, or 150 mg to 75 mg. Once the CYP3A4 inhibitor is discontinued for 3 to 5 half-lives, resume prior dose. Consider therapy modification

Enfortumab Vedotin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Enfortumab Vedotin. Specifically, concentrations of the active monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE) component may be increased. Monitor therapy

Entrectinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Entrectinib. Management: Avoid strong CYP3A4 inhibitors during treatment with entrectinib when possible. If combined in adults and those 12 yrs of age or older with a BSA of at least 1.5 square meters, reduce dose to 100 mg/day. Avoid if BSA is less than 1.5 square meters. Consider therapy modification

Enzalutamide: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Management: Concurrent use of enzalutamide with CYP3A4 substrates that have a narrow therapeutic index should be avoided. Use of enzalutamide and any other CYP3A4 substrate should be performed with caution and close monitoring. Consider therapy modification

Eplerenone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Eplerenone. Avoid combination

Erdafitinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Erdafitinib. Management: Avoid concomitant use of erdafitinib and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors when possible. If combined, monitor closely for erdafitinib adverse reactions and consider dose modifications accordingly. Consider therapy modification

Ergotamine: Cobicistat may increase the serum concentration of Ergotamine. Avoid combination

Erlotinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Erlotinib. Management: Avoid use of this combination when possible. When the combination must be used, monitor the patient closely for the development of severe adverse reactions, and if such severe reactions occur, reduce the erlotinib dose (in 50 mg decrements). Consider therapy modification

Erythromycin (Systemic): Cobicistat may increase the serum concentration of Erythromycin (Systemic). Management: Consider alternatives to this combination when cobicistat is combined with atazanavir or darunavir. If combined, monitor for increased erythromycin and cobicistat effects/toxicities. Consider therapy modification

Estrogen Derivatives: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Estrogen Derivatives. Monitor therapy

Estrogen Derivatives (Contraceptive): Cobicistat may decrease the serum concentration of Estrogen Derivatives (Contraceptive). Management: Consider an alternative, nonhormone-based contraceptive in patients receiving cobicistat-containing products. Consider therapy modification

Estrogen Derivatives (Contraceptive): Elvitegravir may decrease the serum concentration of Estrogen Derivatives (Contraceptive). Management: Consider the use of an alternative, non-hormone-based contraceptive, in patients who are being treated with elvitegravir-containing products. Consider therapy modification

Eszopiclone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Eszopiclone. Management: Limit the eszopiclone dose to 2 mg daily when combined with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors and monitor for increased eszopiclone effects and toxicities (eg, somnolence, drowsiness, CNS depression). Consider therapy modification

Ethosuximide: Cobicistat may increase the serum concentration of Ethosuximide. Monitor therapy

Etizolam: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Etizolam. Management: Consider use of lower etizolam doses when using this combination; specific recommendations concerning dose adjustment are not available. Monitor clinical response to the combination closely. Consider therapy modification

Everolimus: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Everolimus. Management: Consider avoiding use of strong CYP3A4 inhibitors with everolimus. If combined, closely monitor for increased everolimus serum concentrations and toxicities. Everolimus dose reductions will likely be required. Consider therapy modification

Evogliptin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Evogliptin. Monitor therapy

Fedratinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Fedratinib. Management: Consider alternatives when possible. If used together, decrease fedratinib dose to 200 mg/day. After the inhibitor is stopped, increase fedratinib to 300 mg/day for the first 2 weeks and then to 400 mg/day as tolerated. Consider therapy modification

FentaNYL: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of FentaNYL. Management: Consider fentanyl dose reductions when combined with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Monitor for respiratory depression and sedation. Upon discontinuation of a CYP3A4 inhibitor, consider a fentanyl dose increase; monitor for signs and symptoms of withdrawal. Consider therapy modification

Fesoterodine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Fesoterodine. Management: Limit fesoterodine doses to 4 mg daily in patients who are also receiving strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Consider therapy modification

Flibanserin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Flibanserin. Management: Use of flibanserin with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors is contraindicated. If starting flibanserin, start 2 weeks after the last dose of the CYP3A4 inhibitor. If starting a CYP3A4 inhibitor, start 2 days after the last dose of flibanserin. Avoid combination

Fluticasone (Nasal): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Fluticasone (Nasal). Avoid combination

Fluticasone (Oral Inhalation): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Fluticasone (Oral Inhalation). Consider therapy modification

Fluvastatin: Cobicistat may increase the serum concentration of Fluvastatin. Monitor therapy

Fosamprenavir: Cobicistat may increase the serum concentration of Fosamprenavir. However, the magnitude of this change is unclear, and dosing recommendations for this combination are not available. Avoid combination

Fosaprepitant: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Fosaprepitant. Avoid combination

Fosphenytoin-Phenytoin: May decrease the serum concentration of Cobicistat. Avoid combination

Fosphenytoin-Phenytoin: May decrease the serum concentration of Elvitegravir. Avoid combination

Fostamatinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Fostamatinib. Monitor therapy

Galantamine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Galantamine. Monitor therapy

Ganciclovir-Valganciclovir: Tenofovir Products may increase the serum concentration of Ganciclovir-Valganciclovir. Ganciclovir-Valganciclovir may increase the serum concentration of Tenofovir Products. Monitor therapy

Gefitinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Gefitinib. Monitor therapy

Gilteritinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Gilteritinib. Management: Consider alternatives to the use of a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor with gilteritinib. If the combination cannot be avoided, monitor more closely for evidence of gilteritinib toxicities. Consider therapy modification

Glasdegib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Glasdegib. Management: Consider alternatives to this combination when possible. If the combination must be used, monitor closely for evidence of QT interval prolongation and other adverse reactions to glasdegib. Consider therapy modification

Glecaprevir and Pibrentasvir: Cobicistat may increase the serum concentration of Glecaprevir and Pibrentasvir. Monitor therapy

Grazoprevir: Cobicistat may increase the serum concentration of Grazoprevir. Avoid combination

GuanFACINE: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of GuanFACINE. Management: Reduce the extended-release guanfacine dose 50% when combined with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Monitor for increased guanfacine toxicities when these agents are combined. Consider therapy modification

Halofantrine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Halofantrine. Management: Drugs listed as exceptions to this monograph are discussed in further detail in separate drug interaction monographs. Avoid combination

HYDROcodone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of HYDROcodone. Monitor therapy

Ibrutinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ibrutinib. Management: Avoid concomitant use of ibrutinib and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. If a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor must be used short-term (eg, anti-infectives for 7 days or less), interrupt ibrutinib therapy until the strong CYP3A4 inhibitor is discontinued. Avoid combination

Idelalisib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Idelalisib. Monitor therapy

Ifosfamide: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Ifosfamide. Monitor therapy

Iloperidone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Iloperidone. Specifically, concentrations of the metabolites P88 and P95 may be increased. CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Iloperidone. Management: Reduce iloperidone dose by half when administered with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Consider therapy modification

Imatinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Imatinib. Monitor therapy

Imidafenacin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Imidafenacin. Monitor therapy

Irinotecan Products: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Irinotecan Products. Specifically, serum concentrations of SN-38 may be increased. CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Irinotecan Products. Avoid combination

Isavuconazonium Sulfate: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Isavuconazonium Sulfate. Specifically, CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase isavuconazole serum concentrations. Management: Combined use is considered contraindicated per US labeling. Lopinavir/ritonavir (and possibly other uses of ritonavir doses less than 400 mg every 12 hours) is treated as a possible exception to this contraindication despite strongly inhibiting CYP3A4. Avoid combination

Istradefylline: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Istradefylline. Management: Limit the maximum istradefylline dose to 20 mg daily when combined with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors and monitor for increased istradefylline effects/toxicities. Consider therapy modification

Itraconazole: May increase the serum concentration of Elvitegravir. Management: Limit itraconazole to a maximum dose of 200 mg/day in patients who are being treated with the elvitegravir-containing products. Monitor for evidence of itraconazole or elvitegravir toxicity in patients receiving this combination. Consider therapy modification

Itraconazole: May increase the serum concentration of Cobicistat. Cobicistat may increase the serum concentration of Itraconazole. Management: Limit itraconazole to a maximum adult dose of 200 mg/day in patients treated with the elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir combination product. Dosing recommendations for other cobicistat-containing products are not available. Consider therapy modification

Ivabradine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ivabradine. Avoid combination

Ivacaftor: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ivacaftor. Management: Ivacaftor dose reductions are required; consult full drug interaction monograph content for age- and weight-specific recommendations. Consider therapy modification

Ivosidenib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ivosidenib. Management: Avoid use of a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor with ivosidenib whenever possible. When combined use is required, reduce the ivosidenib dose to 250 mg once daily. Drugs listed as exceptions are discussed in further detail in separate drug interaction monographs. Consider therapy modification

Ixabepilone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ixabepilone. Management: Avoid use of ixabepilone and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors when possible. If combined, reduce the ixabepilone dose to 20 mg/m2. The previous ixabepilone dose can be resumed 1 week after discontinuation of the strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Consider therapy modification

Ketoconazole (Systemic): May increase the serum concentration of Elvitegravir. Management: Limit ketoconazole to a maximum dose of 200 mg/day in patients who are being treated with an elvitegravir-containing product. Monitor for ketoconazole or elvitegravir toxicity in patients receiving this combination. Consider therapy modification

Ketoconazole (Systemic): May increase the serum concentration of Cobicistat. Cobicistat may increase the serum concentration of Ketoconazole (Systemic). Management: Limit ketoconazole to a maximum adult dose of 200 mg/day in patients being treated with the elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir combination product. Dosing recommendations for other cobicistat-containing products are not available. Consider therapy modification

LamiVUDine: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Emtricitabine. Avoid combination

Lapatinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Lapatinib. Management: Avoid use of lapatinib and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors when possible. If combined, reduce lapatinib dose to 500 mg daily. The previous lapatinib dose can be resumed 1 week after discontinuation of the strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Consider therapy modification

Larotrectinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Larotrectinib. Management: Avoid use of strong CYP3A4 inhibitors with larotrectinib. If this combination cannot be avoided, reduce the larotrectinib dose by 50%. Increase to previous dose after stopping the inhibitor after a period of 3 to 5 times the inhibitor's half-life. Consider therapy modification

Ledipasvir: May increase the serum concentration of Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate. Management: Avoid this combination if TDF is used as part of the elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/TDF product. Consider alternatives when TDF is used with a ritonavir or cobicistat boosted protease inhibitor. Monitor for increased TDF toxicities if combined. Consider therapy modification

Lefamulin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Lefamulin. Management: Avoid concomitant use of lefamulin tablets and strong inhibitors of CYP3A4. Avoid combination

Lemborexant: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Lemborexant. Avoid combination

Lercanidipine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Lercanidipine. Avoid combination

Levamlodipine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Levamlodipine. Monitor therapy

Levobupivacaine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Levobupivacaine. Monitor therapy

Levomethadone: Cobicistat may increase the serum concentration of Levomethadone. Monitor therapy

Levomilnacipran: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Levomilnacipran. Management: Do not exceed a maximum adult levomilnacipran dose of 80 mg/day in patients also receiving strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Consider therapy modification

Lomitapide: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Lomitapide. Avoid combination

Lopinavir: May increase the serum concentration of Elvitegravir. Specifically, lopinavir/ritonavir may increase the concentration of elvitegravir. Management: When elvitegravir is combined with lopinavir/ritonavir, the dose of elvitegravir should be reduced to 85 mg once daily and the dose of lopinavir/ritonavir should be 400 mg/100 mg twice daily. Consider therapy modification

Lorlatinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Lorlatinib. Management: Avoid use of lorlatinib with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. If the combination cannot be avoided, reduce the lorlatinib dose from 100 mg once daily to 75 mg once daily, or from 75 mg once daily to 50 mg once daily. Consider therapy modification

Lovastatin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Lovastatin. Avoid combination

Lumacaftor and Ivacaftor: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Lumacaftor and Ivacaftor. Management: When initiating or resuming lumacaftor/ivacaftor after a therapy interruption of 7 days or more, reduce the lumacaftor/ivacaftor dose to 1 tablet daily or 1 packet of oral granules every other day for the first week, and then resume the standard dose. Consider therapy modification

Lumateperone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Lumateperone. Avoid combination

Lumefantrine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Lumefantrine. Monitor therapy

Lurasidone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Lurasidone. Avoid combination

Lurbinectedin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Lurbinectedin. Avoid combination

Macitentan: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Macitentan. Avoid combination

Manidipine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Manidipine. Management: Consider avoiding concomitant use of manidipine and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. If combined, monitor closely for increased manidipine effects and toxicities. Manidipine dose reductions may be required. Consider therapy modification

Maraviroc: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Maraviroc. Management: Reduce maraviroc to 150mg twice/day in adult and pediatric patients weighing 40kg or more. See full interaction monograph or maraviroc labeling for dose adjustments in pediatric patients less than 40kg. Do not use in patients with CrCl less than 30mL/min. Consider therapy modification

Meperidine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Meperidine. Monitor therapy

Methadone: Cobicistat may increase the serum concentration of Methadone. Management: No increased monitoring appears necessary if the cobicistat regimen also contains elvitegravir. Monitor therapy

Methylergonovine: Cobicistat may increase the serum concentration of Methylergonovine. Avoid combination

MethylPREDNISolone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of MethylPREDNISolone. Management: Consider methylprednisolone dose reduction in patients receiving strong CYP3A4 inhibitors and monitor for increased steroid related adverse effects. Consider therapy modification

Midazolam: Cobicistat may increase the serum concentration of Midazolam. Management: Oral midazolam use is contraindicated with cobicistat-containing products. IV midazolam should be used with caution, close monitoring, and consideration of lower IV midazolam doses. Avoid combination

Midostaurin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Midostaurin. Management: Seek alternatives to the concomitant use of midostaurin and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors if possible. If concomitant use cannot be avoided, monitor patients for increased risk of adverse reactions. Exceptions are discussed in separate monographs. Consider therapy modification

MiFEPRIStone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of MiFEPRIStone. Management: For treatment of hyperglycemia in Cushing's syndrome, start mifepristone at 300 mg/day, may titrate to a maximum of 900 mg/day. If starting a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor and taking >300 mg/day mifepristone, decrease the mifepristone dose by 300 mg/day. Consider therapy modification

Mirodenafil: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Mirodenafil. Management: Consider using a lower dose of mirodenafil when used with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Monitor for increased mirodenafil effects/toxicities with the use of this combination. Consider therapy modification

Mirtazapine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Mirtazapine. Monitor therapy

Mitotane: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Management: Doses of CYP3A4 substrates may need to be adjusted substantially when used in patients being treated with mitotane. Consider therapy modification

Mometasone (Oral Inhalation): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Mometasone (Oral Inhalation). Monitor therapy

Naldemedine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Naldemedine. Monitor therapy

Nalfurafine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Nalfurafine. Monitor therapy

Naloxegol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Naloxegol. Avoid combination

Neratinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Neratinib. Avoid combination

Nevirapine: May decrease the serum concentration of Elvitegravir. Avoid combination

Nilotinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Nilotinib. Management: Avoid if possible. If combination needed, decrease nilotinib to 300 mg once/day for patients with resistant or intolerant Ph+ CML or to 200 mg once/day for patients with newly diagnosed Ph+ CML in chronic phase. Exceptions discussed in separate monograph. Consider therapy modification

NiMODipine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of NiMODipine. Avoid combination

Nisoldipine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Nisoldipine. Avoid combination

Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents: May enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Tenofovir Products. Management: Seek alternatives to these combinations whenever possible. Avoid use of tenofovir with multiple NSAIDs or any NSAID given at a high dose. Consider therapy modification

Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents (Topical): May enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Tenofovir Products. Monitor therapy

Olaparib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Olaparib. Management: Avoid use of strong CYP3A4 inhibitors with olaparib, if possible. If such concurrent use cannot be avoided, the dose of olaparib tablets should be reduced to 100 mg twice daily and the dose of olaparib capsules should be reduced to 150 mg twice daily. Consider therapy modification

Oliceridine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Oliceridine. Monitor therapy

Orlistat: May decrease the serum concentration of Antiretroviral Agents. Monitor therapy

Osilodrostat: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Osilodrostat. Management: Reduce osilodrostat dose by 50% during coadministration with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Consider therapy modification

Ospemifene: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ospemifene. Monitor therapy

OXcarbazepine: May decrease the serum concentration of Elvitegravir. Management: For elvitegravir plus a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor, use of oxcarbazepine is not recommended; for elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir combination products, consider using an alternative antiepileptic when possible. Avoid combination

Oxybutynin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Oxybutynin. Monitor therapy

Ozanimod: BCRP/ABCG2 Inhibitors may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Ozanimod. Avoid combination

Palbociclib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Palbociclib. Management: Avoid concurrent use of strong CYP3A4 inhibitors with palbociclib when possible. If the use of a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor cannot be avoided, decrease the palbociclib dose to 75 mg/day. Consider therapy modification

Panobinostat: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Panobinostat. Management: Reduce the panobinostat dose to 10 mg when it must be used with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Consider therapy modification

Paricalcitol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Paricalcitol. Monitor therapy

PAZOPanib: BCRP/ABCG2 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of PAZOPanib. Avoid combination

Pemigatinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Pemigatinib. Management: If combined use cannot be avoided, reduce the pemigatinib dose from 13.5 mg daily to 9 mg daily, or from 9 mg daily to 4.5 mg daily. Resume prior pemigatinib dose after stopping the strong inhibitor once 3 half-lives of the inhibitor has passed. Consider therapy modification

Pexidartinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Pexidartinib. Management: Avoid use of pexidartinib with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors if possible. If combined use cannot be avoided, pexidartinib dose should be reduced. Decrease 800 mg or 600 mg daily doses to 200 mg twice daily. Decrease doses of 400 mg per day to 200 mg once daily Consider therapy modification

PHENobarbital: May decrease the serum concentration of Cobicistat. Avoid combination

PHENobarbital: May decrease the serum concentration of Elvitegravir. Avoid combination

Pimavanserin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Pimavanserin. Management: Decrease the pimavanserin dose to 10 mg daily when combined with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Consider therapy modification

Pimecrolimus: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may decrease the metabolism of Pimecrolimus. Monitor therapy

Pimozide: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Pimozide. Avoid combination

Piperaquine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Piperaquine. CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Piperaquine. Management: Avoid concomitant use of piperaquine and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors when possible. If the combination cannot be avoided, frequent ECG monitoring is recommended due to the risk for QTc prolongation. Exceptions are discussed separately. Consider therapy modification

Pitavastatin: Cobicistat may increase the serum concentration of Pitavastatin. Monitor therapy

Polatuzumab Vedotin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Polatuzumab Vedotin. Exposure to unconjugated MMAE, the cytotoxic small molecule component of polatuzumab vedotin, may be increased. Monitor therapy

Polyvalent Cation Containing Products: May decrease the serum concentration of Elvitegravir. Management: Administer elvitegravir 2 hours before or 6 hours after the administration of polyvalent cation containing products. Exceptions: Almagate; Aluminum Hydroxide; Calcium Carbonate; Diomagnite; Magaldrate; Magnesium Carbonate; Magnesium Hydroxide; Magnesium Trisilicate. Consider therapy modification

PONATinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of PONATinib. Management: Per ponatinib U.S. prescribing information, the adult starting dose of ponatinib should be reduced to 30 mg daily during treatment with any strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Consider therapy modification

Pralsetinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Pralsetinib. Avoid combination

Pranlukast: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Pranlukast. Monitor therapy

Praziquantel: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Praziquantel. Monitor therapy

PrednisoLONE (Systemic): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of PrednisoLONE (Systemic). Monitor therapy

PredniSONE: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of PredniSONE. Monitor therapy

Primidone: May decrease the serum concentration of Cobicistat. Avoid combination

Progestins (Contraceptive): Cobicistat may increase the serum concentration of Progestins (Contraceptive). Management: Consider an alternative, nonhormone-based contraceptive in patients receiving cobicistat-containing products. Drospirenone is specifically contraindicated with atazanavir and cobicistat. Exceptions: Levonorgestrel (IUD). Consider therapy modification

Propafenone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Propafenone. Management: Drugs listed as exceptions to this monograph are discussed in further detail in separate drug interaction monographs. Monitor therapy

QUEtiapine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of QUEtiapine. Management: In quetiapine treated patients, reduce quetiapine to one-sixth of regular dose after starting strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. In those on strong CYP3A4 inhibitors, start quetiapine at lowest dose and up-titrate as needed. Exceptions discussed separately. Consider therapy modification

QuiNIDine: Cobicistat may increase the serum concentration of QuiNIDine. Monitor therapy

Radotinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Radotinib. Avoid combination

Ramelteon: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ramelteon. Monitor therapy

Ranolazine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ranolazine. Avoid combination

Red Yeast Rice: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Red Yeast Rice. Specifically, concentrations of lovastatin and related compounds found in Red Yeast Rice may be increased. Avoid combination

Regorafenib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Regorafenib. Avoid combination

Repaglinide: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Repaglinide. Management: The addition of a CYP2C8 inhibitor to this drug combination may substantially increase the magnitude of increase in repaglinide exposure. Monitor therapy

Retapamulin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Retapamulin. Management: Avoid this combination in patients less than 2 years old. No action is required in other populations. Monitor therapy

Revefenacin: OATP1B1/1B3 (SLCO1B1/1B3) Inhibitors may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Revefenacin. Avoid combination

Ribociclib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ribociclib. Management: Avoid use of ribociclib with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors when possible; if combined use cannot be avoided, reduce ribociclib dose to 400 mg once daily. Exceptions are discussed in separate monographs. Consider therapy modification

Rifabutin: Elvitegravir may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Rifabutin. Rifabutin may decrease the serum concentration of Elvitegravir. Management: For single-agent elvitegravir, a rifabutin dose reduction of at least 75% is required (ie, reduction to adult dose of 150 mg every other day or three times/week). Use of elvitegravir combination products with rifabutin is not recommended. Avoid combination

RifAMPin: May decrease the serum concentration of Elvitegravir. Avoid combination

RifAMPin: May decrease the serum concentration of Cobicistat. Avoid combination

Rifapentine: May decrease the serum concentration of Cobicistat. Avoid combination

Rifapentine: May decrease the serum concentration of Elvitegravir. Avoid combination

Rilpivirine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Rilpivirine. Monitor therapy

Rimegepant: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Rimegepant. Avoid combination

Rimegepant: BCRP/ABCG2 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Rimegepant. Avoid combination

Riociguat: Inhibitors of CYP3A4 (Strong) and BCRP may increase the serum concentration of Riociguat. Management: Consider a riociguat starting dose of 0.5 mg 3 times a day when initiating riociguat in patients receiving strong CYP3A4 and BCRP inhibitors. Monitor for hypotension when these agents are combined and reduce the riociguat dose as needed. Consider therapy modification

Ripretinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ripretinib. Monitor therapy

Ritonavir: Cobicistat may enhance the therapeutic effect of Ritonavir. Specifically, cobicistat and ritonavir have overlapping effects on the CYP3A4-mediated metabolism of other drugs. Avoid combination

Rivaroxaban: Cobicistat may increase the serum concentration of Rivaroxaban. Avoid combination

RomiDEPsin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of RomiDEPsin. Monitor therapy

Rosuvastatin: Cobicistat may increase the serum concentration of Rosuvastatin. Management: Rosuvastatin dose should not exceed 10 mg/day with concurrent use of atazanavir and cobicistat or 20 mg/day with concurrent use of darunavir and cobicistat. Consider therapy modification

Rupatadine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Rupatadine. Avoid combination

Ruxolitinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ruxolitinib. Management: This combination should be avoided under some circumstances. See monograph for details. Consider therapy modification

Salmeterol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Salmeterol. Avoid combination

Saquinavir: Cobicistat may increase the serum concentration of Saquinavir. However, the magnitude of this change is unclear, and dosing recommendations for this combination are not available. Avoid combination

Sarilumab: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Monitor therapy

SAXagliptin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of SAXagliptin. Management: Limit the saxagliptin dose to 2.5 mg daily when combined with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. When using the saxagliptin combination products saxagliptin/dapagliflozin or saxagliptin/dapagliflozin/metformin, avoid use with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Consider therapy modification

Selpercatinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Selpercatinib. Management: Avoid combination if possible. If use is necessary, reduce selpercatinib dose as follows: from 120 mg twice/day to 40 mg twice/day, or from 160 mg twice/day to 80 mg twice/day. Consider therapy modification

Selumetinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Selumetinib. Management: Avoid concomitant use when possible. If combined, selumetinib dose reductions are recommended and vary based on body surface area and selumetinib dose. For details, see the full drug interaction monograph or selumetinib prescribing information. Consider therapy modification

Sibutramine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Sibutramine. CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Sibutramine. Monitor therapy

Sildenafil: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Sildenafil. Management: Use of sildenafil for pulmonary hypertension should be avoided with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. When used for erectile dysfunction, starting adult dose should be reduced to 25 mg. Maximum adult dose with ritonavir or cobicistat is 25 mg per 48 hours. Consider therapy modification

Silodosin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Silodosin. Avoid combination

Siltuximab: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Monitor therapy

Simeprevir: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Simeprevir. Avoid combination

Simvastatin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Simvastatin. Avoid combination

Sirolimus: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Sirolimus. Management: Avoid concurrent use of sirolimus with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors when possible and alternative agents with lesser interaction potential with sirolimus should be considered. Concomitant use of sirolimus and voriconazole or posaconazole is contraindicated. Consider therapy modification

Solifenacin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Solifenacin. Management: Limit adult solifenacin doses to 5 mg daily and limit doses in pediatric patients to the recommended weight-based starting dose (and do not increase the dose) when combined with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Consider therapy modification

Sonidegib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Sonidegib. Avoid combination

SORAfenib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of SORAfenib. Monitor therapy

St John's Wort: May decrease the serum concentration of Cobicistat. Avoid combination

St John's Wort: May decrease the serum concentration of Elvitegravir. Avoid combination

SUFentanil: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of SUFentanil. Management: If a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor is initiated in a patient on sufentanil, consider a sufentanil dose reduction and monitor for increased sufentanil effects and toxicities (eg, respiratory depression). Consider therapy modification

SUNItinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of SUNItinib. Management: Avoid when possible. If combined, decrease sunitinib dose to a minimum of 37.5 mg daily when treating GIST or RCC. Decrease sunitinib dose to a minimum of 25 mg daily when treating PNET. Monitor patients for both reduced efficacy and increased toxicities. Consider therapy modification

Suvorexant: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Suvorexant. Avoid combination

Tacrolimus (Systemic): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Tacrolimus (Systemic). Management: Reduce tacrolimus dose to one-third of the original dose if starting posaconazole or voriconazole. Coadministration with nelfinavir is not generally recommended. Tacrolimus dose reductions or prolongation of dosing interval will likely be required. Consider therapy modification

Tadalafil: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Tadalafil. Management: Avoid this combination in patients taking tadalafil for pulmonary arterial hypertension. In patients taking tadalafil for ED or BPH, max tadalafil dose is 2.5 mg if taking daily or 10 mg no more frequently than every 72 hours if used as needed. Consider therapy modification

Talazoparib: BCRP/ABCG2 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Talazoparib. Monitor therapy

Tamsulosin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Tamsulosin. Avoid combination

Tasimelteon: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Tasimelteon. Monitor therapy

Tazemetostat: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Tazemetostat. Avoid combination

Telithromycin: May increase the serum concentration of Cobicistat. Cobicistat may increase the serum concentration of Telithromycin. Management: Seek alternatives to telithromycin. US prescribing information for the combination product containing elvitegravir, cobicistat, emtricitabine, and tenofovir does not address this potential interaction. Consider therapy modification

Temsirolimus: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Temsirolimus. Management: Avoid concomitant use of temsirolimus and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. If coadministration is unavoidable, decrease temsirolimus dose to 12.5 mg per week. Resume previous temsirolimus dose 1 week after discontinuation of the strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Consider therapy modification

Tenofovir Products: Cobicistat may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Tenofovir Products. More specifically, cobicistat may impair proper tenofovir monitoring and dosing. Monitor therapy

Terfenadine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Terfenadine. Management: Drugs listed as exceptions to this monograph are discussed in further detail in separate drug interaction monographs. Avoid combination

Tetrahydrocannabinol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Tetrahydrocannabinol. Monitor therapy

Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol. Monitor therapy

Tezacaftor and Ivacaftor: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Tezacaftor and Ivacaftor. Management: If combined with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors, tezacaftor/ivacaftor should be administered in the morning, twice a week, approximately 3 to 4 days apart. Tezacaftor/ivacaftor dose depends on age and weight; see full Lexi-Interact monograph for details. Consider therapy modification

Thioridazine: CYP2D6 Inhibitors (Weak) may increase the serum concentration of Thioridazine. Management: Consider avoiding concomitant use of thioridazine and weak CYP2D6 inhibitors. If combined, monitor closely for QTc interval prolongation and arrhythmias. Some weak CYP2D6 inhibitors list use with thioridazine as a contraindication. Consider therapy modification

Thiotepa: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Thiotepa. CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Thiotepa. Management: Thiotepa prescribing information recommends avoiding concomitant use of thiotepa and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. If concomitant use is unavoidable, monitor for adverse effects and decreased efficacy. Consider therapy modification

Ticagrelor: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Ticagrelor. CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ticagrelor. Avoid combination

Tipranavir: Cobicistat may increase the serum concentration of Tipranavir. However, the magnitude of this change is unclear, and dosing recommendations for this combination are not available. Avoid combination

Tocilizumab: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Monitor therapy

Tofacitinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Tofacitinib. Management: Tofacitinib dose reductions are recommended when combined with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Recommended dose adjustments vary by tofacitinib formulation and therapeutic indication. See full Lexi Interact monograph for details. Consider therapy modification

Tolterodine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Tolterodine. Management: The maximum recommended adult dose of tolterodine is 2 mg/day when used together with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Consider therapy modification

Tolvaptan: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Tolvaptan. Avoid combination

Topotecan: BCRP/ABCG2 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Topotecan. Avoid combination

Toremifene: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Toremifene. Management: Use of toremifene with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors should be avoided if possible. If coadministration is necessary, monitor for increased toremifene toxicities, including QTc interval prolongation. Exceptions are discussed in separate monograph. Consider therapy modification

Trabectedin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Trabectedin. Avoid combination

TraMADol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of TraMADol. Monitor therapy

TraZODone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of TraZODone. Management: Consider the use of a lower trazodone dose and monitor for increased trazodone effects (eg, sedation, QTc prolongation) if combined with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Consider therapy modification

Triazolam: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Triazolam. Avoid combination

Ubrogepant: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ubrogepant. Avoid combination

Udenafil: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Udenafil. Avoid combination

Ulipristal: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ulipristal. Management: This is specific for when ulipristal is being used for signs/symptoms of uterine fibroids (Canadian indication). When ulipristal is used as an emergency contraceptive, patients receiving this combo should be monitored for ulipristal toxicity. Avoid combination

Upadacitinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Upadacitinib. Monitor therapy

Valbenazine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Valbenazine. Management: Reduce the valbenazine dose to 40 mg daily when combined with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Consider therapy modification

Vardenafil: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Vardenafil. Management: Limit Levitra (vardenafil) dose to a single 2.5 mg dose within a 24-hour period if combined with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Avoid concomitant use of Staxyn (vardenafil) and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Combined use is contraindicated outside of the US. Consider therapy modification

Velpatasvir: May increase the serum concentration of Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate. Monitor therapy

Vemurafenib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Vemurafenib. Management: Avoid concurrent use of vemurafenib with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors when possible. If concomitant use is unavoidable, consider a vemurafenib dose reduction if clinically indicated. Consider therapy modification

Venetoclax: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Venetoclax. Management: Coadministration is contraindicated during venetoclax initiation and ramp-up in CLL/SLL patients. Reduced venetoclax doses are required during ramp-up for patients with AML, and all maintenance therapy. See full Lexi Interact monograph for details. Consider therapy modification

Vilanterol: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong). Monitor therapy

Vilazodone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Vilazodone. Management: Limit the maximum vilazodone dose to 20 mg daily in patients receiving strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. The original vilazodone dose can be resumed following discontinuation of the strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Consider therapy modification

VinBLAStine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of VinBLAStine. Monitor therapy

VinCRIStine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of VinCRIStine. Management: Seek alternatives to this combination when possible. If combined, monitor closely for vincristine toxicities (eg, neurotoxicity, gastrointestinal toxicity, myelosuppression). Consider therapy modification

VinCRIStine (Liposomal): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of VinCRIStine (Liposomal). Avoid combination

Vindesine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Vindesine. Monitor therapy

Vinflunine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Vinflunine. Avoid combination

Vinorelbine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Vinorelbine. Monitor therapy

Vorapaxar: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Vorapaxar. Avoid combination

Voriconazole: May increase the serum concentration of Elvitegravir. Management: Careful consideration of the risk/benefit ratio for voriconazole use is recommended prior to its use in patients treated with elvitegravir-containing products. Consider therapy modification

Voriconazole: May increase the serum concentration of Cobicistat. Cobicistat may increase the serum concentration of Voriconazole. Management: Careful consideration of the risk/benefit ratio for voriconazole use is recommended prior to its use in patients who are being treated with cobicistat-containing products. Consider therapy modification

Voxelotor: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Voxelotor. Management: Avoid concomitant use of voxelotor and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. If concomitant use is unavoidable, reduce the voxelotor dose to 1,000 mg once daily. Consider therapy modification

Voxilaprevir: OATP1B1/1B3 (SLCO1B1/1B3) Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Voxilaprevir. Avoid combination

Warfarin: Cobicistat may increase the serum concentration of Warfarin. Monitor therapy

Zanubrutinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Zanubrutinib. Management: Decrease the zanubrutinib dose to 80 mg once daily during coadministration with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Further dose adjustments may be required for zanubrutinib toxicities, refer to prescribing information for details. Consider therapy modification

Zolpidem: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Zolpidem. Monitor therapy

Zopiclone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Zopiclone. Management: If coadministered with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors, initiate zopiclone at 3.75 mg in adults, with a maximum dose of 5 mg. Monitor for zopiclone toxicity (eg, drowsiness, confusion, lethargy, ataxia, respiratory depression). Consider therapy modification

Adverse Reactions

>10%:

Gastrointestinal: Nausea (4% to 16%), diarrhea (12%)

Genitourinary: Proteinuria (52%)

Renal: Increased serum creatinine (12%)

1% to 10%:

Central nervous system: Abnormal dreams (9%), headache (2% to 7%), fatigue (4%), dizziness (3%), insomnia (3%), drowsiness (1%)

Dermatologic: Skin rash (4%)

Endocrine & metabolic: Increased amylase (3%)

Gastrointestinal: Flatulence (2%)

Genitourinary: Hematuria (4%)

Hepatic: Increased serum AST (3%), increased serum ALT (2%)

Neuromuscular & skeletal: Increased creatine phosphokinase (8%), bone fracture (4%)

Frequency not defined:

Endocrine & metabolic: Increased serum cholesterol, increased serum triglycerides

Gastrointestinal: Increased serum lipase

<1%, postmarketing, and/or case reports: Acute renal failure, Fanconi syndrome, immune reconstitution syndrome, renal failure, renal tubular disease (proximal), scleral icterus, suicidal ideation

ALERT: U.S. Boxed Warning

Post-treatment acute exacerbation of hepatitis B:

Severe, acute exacerbations of hepatitis B have been reported in patients who are coinfected with HBV and HIV-1 and have discontinued emtricitabine or tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. Hepatic function should be monitored closely, with both clinical and laboratory follow-up for at least several months in patients who are coinfected with HIV-1 and HBV and discontinue this fixed-dose combination. If appropriate, initiation of anti-hepatitis B therapy may be warranted.

Warnings/Precautions

Concerns related to adverse effects:

• Decreased bone mineral density: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate has been associated with decreases in bone mineral density and increases in bone metabolism markers in HIV-1 infected adults. Serum parathyroid hormone and 1,25 vitamin D levels were also higher. Decreases in bone mineral density have also been observed in HIV-1 infected pediatric patients. In all pediatric clinical trials, skeletal growth (height) appears unaffected. Consider monitoring of bone density in all patients with a history of pathologic fractures or with other risk factors for bone loss or osteoporosis. Consider calcium and vitamin D supplementation for all patients; effect of supplementation has not been studied but may be beneficial. Long-term bone health and future fracture risk unknown. If abnormalities are suspected, expert assessment is recommended.

• Immune reconstitution syndrome: Patients may develop immune reconstitution syndrome resulting in the occurrence of an inflammatory response to an indolent or residual opportunistic infection during initial HIV treatment or activation of autoimmune disorders (eg, Graves disease, polymyositis, Guillain-Barré syndrome) later in therapy; further evaluation and treatment may be required.

• Lactic acidosis/hepatomegaly: Lactic acidosis and severe hepatomegaly with steatosis, sometimes fatal, have been reported with use of nucleoside analogs, alone or in combination with other antiretrovirals. Suspend treatment in any patient who develops clinical or laboratory findings suggestive of lactic acidosis or pronounced hepatotoxicity (marked transaminase elevation may/may not accompany hepatomegaly and steatosis).

• Osteomalacia and renal dysfunction: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate may cause osteomalacia associated with proximal renal tubulopathy. Bone pain, extremity pain, fractures, arthralgias, weakness, and muscle pain have been reported. In patients at risk for renal impairment, persistent or worsening bone or muscle symptoms should be evaluated for hypophosphatemia and osteomalacia secondary to proximal renal tubulopathy.

• Renal toxicity: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate may cause renal toxicity, including acute renal failure and Fanconi syndrome; avoid use with concurrent or recent nephrotoxic therapy (including high dose or multiple NSAID use). Acute renal failure (with hospitalization and renal replacement therapy) has occurred in HIV-infected patients with risk factors for renal impairment who were on a stable tenofovir disoproxil fumarate regimen to which a high dose or multiple NSAID therapy was added. Consider alternatives to NSAIDs in patients at risk for renal impairment. Persistent or worsening bone or extremity pain, fractures and/or muscular pain or weakness may be signs of proximal renal tubulopathy; promptly evaluate patients at risk for renal impairment. Calculate estimated CrCl and assess serum creatinine, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to treatment initiation and during therapy in all patients. Assess serum phosphorus in patients with chronic kidney disease. Discontinue if significant decrease in renal function or signs of Fanconi syndrome. Cobicistat inhibits tubular creatinine secretion without affecting glomerular filtration; may cause modest declines in estimated renal function early in therapy which then stabilize; closely monitor patients with >0.4 mg/dL increase of serum creatinine from baseline.

Disease-related concerns:

• Chronic hepatitis B: [US Boxed Warning]: Acute, severe exacerbations of hepatitis B have been reported in these patients following discontinuation of emtricitabine or tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. Not indicated for treatment of chronic HBV infection. Closely monitor hepatic function with clinical and laboratory follow-up for at least several months in patients who are coinfected with HIV-1 and HBV and discontinue this fixed-dose combination. If appropriate, initiation of anti-hepatitis B therapy may be warranted, especially in patients with advanced hepatic disease or cirrhosis. All patients with HIV should be tested for HBV prior to initiation of treatment.

• Hepatic impairment: Use is not recommended in severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class C); has not been studied.

• Renal impairment: Initiation of therapy in adults with CrCl <70 mL/minute is not recommended. Continued use is not recommended in adults with CrCl <50 mL/minute.

Monitoring Parameters

CD4 count, HIV RNA plasma levels; serum creatinine, serum phosphorous (in patients with chronic kidney disease), estimated CrCl, urine glucose and urine protein prior to initiation and as clinically indicated during therapy; hepatic function tests; bone density (patients with a history of bone fracture or have risk factors for bone loss); musculoskeletal complaints; patients should be tested for HBV prior to the initiation of antiretroviral therapy; weight. Reevaluation of serum creatinine, BUN, and serum phosphorus in patients with bone pain, extremity pain, fractures, arthralgias, weakness, or muscle pain

Patients with HIV and HBV coinfection should be monitored for several months following discontinuation of therapy.

Reproductive Considerations

The Health and Human Services perinatal HIV guidelines do not recommend this fixed-dose combination for females living with HIV who are not yet pregnant but are trying to conceive (HHS [perinatal] 2019).

Refer to individual monographs for additional information.

Pregnancy Considerations

The Health and Human Services perinatal HIV guidelines do not recommend this fixed-dose combination for pregnant females living with HIV who are antiretroviral-naive, who have had antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the past but are restarting, or who require a new ART regimen (due to poor tolerance or poor virologic response of current regimen) due to inadequate serum concentrations of elvitegravir and cobicistat observed during pregnancy. For females who become pregnant while taking this combination, consider altering the regimen, or continue with more frequent monitoring if viral suppression is effective and the regimen is well tolerated. Do not administer within 2 hours of iron or calcium containing preparations, including prenatal vitamins (HHS [perinatal] 2019).

Refer to individual monographs for additional information.

Patient Education

What is this drug used for?

• It is used to treat HIV infection.

All drugs may cause side effects. However, many people have no side effects or only have minor side effects. Call your doctor or get medical help if any of these side effects or any other side effects bother you or do not go away:

• Nightmares

• Headache

• Nausea

• Diarrhea

WARNING/CAUTION: Even though it may be rare, some people may have very bad and sometimes deadly side effects when taking a drug. Tell your doctor or get medical help right away if you have any of the following signs or symptoms that may be related to a very bad side effect:

• Lactic acidosis like fast breathing, fast heartbeat, abnormal heartbeat, vomiting, fatigue, shortness of breath, severe loss of strength and energy, severe dizziness, feeling cold, or muscle pain or cramps

• Kidney problems like unable to pass urine, blood in the urine, change in amount of urine passed, or weight gain

• Liver problems like dark urine, fatigue, lack of appetite, nausea, abdominal pain, light-colored stools, vomiting, or yellow skin

• Bone pain

• Muscle pain

• Muscle weakness

• Painful extremities

• Infection

• Signs of an allergic reaction, like rash; hives; itching; red, swollen, blistered, or peeling skin with or without fever; wheezing; tightness in the chest or throat; trouble breathing, swallowing, or talking; unusual hoarseness; or swelling of the mouth, face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Note: This is not a comprehensive list of all side effects. Talk to your doctor if you have questions.

Consumer Information Use and Disclaimer: This information should not be used to decide whether or not to take this medicine or any other medicine. Only the healthcare provider has the knowledge and training to decide which medicines are right for a specific patient. This information does not endorse any medicine as safe, effective, or approved for treating any patient or health condition. This is only a limited summary of general information about the medicine's uses from the patient education leaflet and is not intended to be comprehensive. This limited summary does NOT include all information available about the possible uses, directions, warnings, precautions, interactions, adverse effects, or risks that may apply to this medicine. This information is not intended to provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment and does not replace information you receive from the healthcare provider. For a more detailed summary of information about the risks and benefits of using this medicine, please speak with your healthcare provider and review the entire patient education leaflet.

Further information

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.

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