Scientific Name(s): 2-diethylaminoethyl 4-aminobenzoate hydrochloride, Procaine hydrochloride
Common Name(s): GeroVita, Gerovital H3, GH-3, KH-3
Medically reviewed by Drugs.com. Last updated on Dec 24, 2018.
No credible clinical trial data exist to support the use of KH-3 or other procaine preparations in inhibiting diseases of aging or antidepressant activity. Adverse effects may limit therapeutic applications. Gerovital (KH-3) and similar products require an approved Abbreviated New Drug Application (ANDA) for legal marketing.
There is no clinical evidence to support specific dosage recommendations for KH-3 or other procaine preparations..
KH-3 is contraindicated in patients with myasthenia gravis (ie, progressive muscular weakness) and systemic lupus erythematosus (theoretical risk of this condition being induced by procainamide). KH-3 may antagonize the antibacterial effect of sulfonamides through para-aminobenzoic acid competition. Prolonged neuromuscular blockade may occur with concurrent use of KH-3 with succinylcholine. KH-3 is potentially contraindicated in patients taking anticholinesterase and anticholinergic agents. KH-3 is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to the drug. Furthermore, because of the lack of clinical trial data, KH-3 should not be used during pregnancy.
Information regarding safety and efficacy in pregnancy and lactation is lacking. Avoid use.
None well documented.
Reports have described heartburn, restlessness, dizziness, migraine, and systemic lupus erythematosus following treatment with KH-3. KH-3 is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to the drug.
Although procaine HCl is a pure synthetic drug, its use as one of the active ingredients in KH-3 is marketed by many commercial Web sites as a "natural" approach to reversing or delaying the aging process. KH-3 was developed in Germany in the 1960s and was popularized by Romanian and other Eastern European researchers.Kent 1976 Gerovital (KH-3) and similar products require an approved Abbreviated New Drug Application (ANDA) for legal marketing.FDA 2009
These products have been administered parenterally and orally for their effect on the overall aging process and for the treatment of cerebral atherosclerosis, progressive dementia, arthritis, hair loss, hypertension, and sexual dysfunction.
Preparations are based primarily on the pharmacologic effects of procaine HCl and are often marketed as mixtures of procaine, buffers (eg, benzoic acid, potassium metabisulfate), analgesics, and nutritional supplements.Brodaty 1990 One preparation from Germany contains procaine, hematoporphyrin to aid absorption of procaine, magnesium carbonate, sodium hydrogen phosphate, potassium HCl, and other compounds. Most products contain approximately 2% procaine HCl. Studies have shown that the biotrophic treatment with Gerovital H3 has a strong influence on glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase with a tendency to diminish the thermolabile fractions.MacFarlane 1975
A "G.H.3." product was used in a clinical study; however, it did not contain any protamine, and instead contained a number of vitamins and minerals in combination with St. John’s wort, Ginkgo biloba, glutathione, and dimethylaminoethanol.Xu 2016
Uses and Pharmacology
Procaine has been used for decades as a local anesthetic and antiarrhythmic. The compound has a number of pharmacologic characteristics, including an ability to decrease membrane excitability and alter membrane ionic transmission. Procaine is hydrolyzed rapidly to inactive compounds by plasma enzymes.Brodaty 1990 Procaine is poorly absorbed and quickly metabolized following oral administration; therefore, it is primarily used by injection. Hematoporphyrin is added to some oral preparations and is said to inhibit intestinal hydrolysis of procaine. There is no evidence that pharmacologic levels of procaine are attained in the brain or other target organs following oral administration of KH-3 or other products.
Reports of the effect of procaine on blood cholesterol levels are inconsistent, with some studies showing a reduction in cholesterol and others showing little beneficial effect.Jarvik 1975
Although controversial, some authors suggest that procaine may act as an inhibitor of monoamine oxidase, thereby relieving depression.Orgogozo1987
Research reveals no animal data regarding the use of KH-3 for antidepressant effects.
A Cochrane review of the efficacy of procaine in cognitive decline and dementia found 3 clinical trials meeting inclusion criteria. Pooled data from 2 studies (N=415) showed procaine had a detrimental effect in terms of side effects (20/208 active versus 3/207 placebo; OR 7.30; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.13 to 25; P = 0.002). A positive effect on cognition was suggested in 2 older studies; however, a meta-analysis could not be performed due to the use of different preparations.Szatmári 2008
Diseases of aging
Numerous studies also have been conducted to evaluate the efficacy of procaine HCl or commercially available mixtures of this compound for the treatment of elderly patients with a variety or organic diseases.Orgogozo 1987
Research reveals no animal data regarding the use of KH-3 for diseases of aging.
The effect of Gerovital H3 on psychologic and physiologic functions was assessed on geriatric patients (mean age, 73) in a placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Patients received either a 5 mL injection or placebo IM 3 times/week for the first 6 weeks. The dose was doubled to 10 mL per injection during the second 6 weeks. Objective rating scales included interpersonal functioning, cognitive ability, psychiatric symptoms, and urine and blood chemical findings. The study results indicated that Gerovital H3 had no ameliorative effect on either psychologic or physiologic functioning.Zwerling 1975
The results have been conflicting but generally indicate these compounds are ineffective in the treatment of any disease. As early as 1977, a comprehensive review of the use of procaine in over 100,000 patients found no evidence for its efficacy.Ostfeld 1977 Further reviews continue to find no scientific evidence to suggest an effect of procaine on aging.Brodaty 1990, Perls 2013
Procaine HCl is generally contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to the drug or related compounds.
Pregnancy / Lactation
Because of the lack of clinical trial data, procaine HCl should not be used during pregnancy.
The drug should not be administered to patients taking concurrent anticholinesterase medications (eg, neostigmine). Procaine may inhibit the bacteriostatic action of sulfonamides.Brodaty 1990, McEvoy 2003
KH-3 is contraindicated in patients with myasthenia gravis (ie, progressive muscular weakness) and systemic lupus erythematosus (theoretical risk of this condition being induced by procainamide).Brodaty 1990, McEvoy 2003 KH-3 may antagonize the antibacterial effect of sulfonamides through para-aminobenzoic acid competition. Prolonged neuromuscular blockade may occur with concurrent use of KH-3 with succinylcholine. KH-3 is potentially contraindicated in patients taking anticholinesterase and anticholinergic agents.McEvoy 2003 KH-3 is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to the drug. Furthermore, because of the lack of clinical trial data, KH-3 should not be used during pregnancy.
KH-3 is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to the drug. Reports have described heartburn, restlessness, dizziness, migraine, and systemic lupus erythematosus following treatment with KH-3.Brodaty 1990, Szatmári 2008
Research reveals little or no information regarding toxicology with the use of this product.
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