Skip to Content


Class: Dihydropyridines
- Calcium-Channel Blocking Agents, Dihydropyridine
- Calcium Antagonists
VA Class: CV200
Chemical Name: 1,4-Dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-4-(3-nitrophenyl)-3,5-pyridinedicarboxylic acid 2-methoxyethyl 1-methylethyl ester
Molecular Formula: C21H26N2O7
CAS Number: 66085-59-4
Brands: Nimotop

Medically reviewed by Last updated on Jan 22, 2020.


  • Do not administer contents of nimodipine oral capsules by IV or other parenteral routes.1 245 246 248 249 250

  • Death and serious, life-threatening adverse effects reported following parenteral injection of the contents of nimodipine capsules.1 245 246 248 249 250 (See Parenteral Administration under Cautions and see Hypotension and Other Cardiovascular Effects under Cautions and see Oral Administration under Dosage and Administration.)


A dihydropyridine-derivative calcium-channel blocking agent that affects the CNS preferentially.1 4 5 13 22 96 d

Uses for Nimodipine

Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

Used to improve neurologic outcome by reducing the incidence and severity of ischemic deficits in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage resulting from ruptured intracranial berry aneurysms regardless of the patient’s postictal neurologic condition (e.g., Hunt and Hess grades I–V).1 2 4 5 8 20 21 22 23 69 95 109 230 231

Decreases severity and incidence of delayed ischemic neurologic deficits associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage.1 2 5 20 21 22 23 40 82 95 231

Efficacy in reducing mortality from subarachnoid hemorrhage after oral administration not fully established.1 20 69 95

Acute Ischemic Stroke

Limited evidence suggests that nimodipine may improve neurologic recovery and reduce mortality compared with plasma volume expansion therapy or placebo in some patients with acute ischemic stroke.4 10 76 77 220 240 241 247


Has been used with equivocal results for reduction of frequency and possibly severity and duration of vascular headaches (e.g., migraine attacks) in patients with classic or common migraine.4 8 11 12 78 79 80 90 101 114 206 233 244

Also has been used in a few patients with cluster headache.90 100 114

Additional studies are needed to determine the role of nimodipine relative to that of other therapies used in the management of migraine headaches78 79 80 206 230 231 and to determine whether tolerance to the prophylactic effects of the drug develops during chronic therapy.206

Nimodipine Dosage and Administration


Oral Administration

Nimodipine capsules are for oral administration only.1 245 246 248 249 250 (See Boxed Warning.)

Administer orally every 4 hours, preferably at least 1 hour before or 2 hours after meals.1

Nasogastric Tube

If the oral capsule cannot be swallowed (e.g., when administered at the time of surgery or to an unconscious patient), puncture the capsule at both ends with an 18-gauge needle and empty the contents into a syringe,1 249 250 preferably using a syringe designed for nasogastric or percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy administration (e.g., Toomey syringe).246 250 To help minimize administration errors, label the syringe for oral use only; not for IV use.1 245 248 249 250 The contents of the capsule should then be emptied into the patient’s nasogastric tube.1 249 250 Following administration, flush with 30 mL of 0.9% sodium chloride solution.1 245 246 249

Reinforce awareness among health-care professionals of potential medical errors that may result in inadvertent injection of syringe contents into an IV line or via other parenteral routes.246 248 249 250 (See Parenteral Administration under Cautions, see Hypotension and Other Cardiovascular Effects under Cautions, and see Boxed Warning.)

If inadvertent IV administration of contents of nimodipine capsules occurs, administer vasopressor agents for cardiovascular support if required for clinically important hypotension and promptly administer specific treatment for overdosage associated with calcium-channel blocking agents.1 246

The contents of the capsule should not be admixed with any solution prior to oral administration because of the possibility of drug decomposition.230

IV Administration

The contents of nimodipine capsules must not be administered by IV injection or any other parenteral route; serious adverse effects such as hypotension, cardiovascular collapse, and cardiac arrest have occurred with such administration.1 248 249 250 Report adverse events or medication errors involving nimodipine capsules to the FDA MedWatch program.248 250

Has been administered by IV infusion (IV dosage form currently is not commercially available in the US)d in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage, often in conjunction with intracisternal application during surgery67 117 119 120 214 and usually followed by oral therapy.5 67 93 116 117 118 119 120 214



Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

60 mg every 4 hours for 21 consecutive days.1 5 Initiate therapy as soon as possible after the occurrence of subarachnoid hemorrhage, preferably within 96 hours.1 4 5 20 230 231

It has been suggested that the drug may be discontinued after 14 consecutive days (but not earlier) in some uncomplicated cases in which early aneurysm surgery is performed.231

In patients in whom surgical repair of the aneurysm is performed relatively late (e.g., day 20), some clinicians suggest continuation of therapy for ≥5 days after surgery to minimize the possibility of postoperative vasospasm.4 231

It has been suggested that patients with unstable BP receive a lower dosage (e.g., 30 mg every 4 hours);4 231 however, the manufacturer states that the usual adult dosage should be used in such patients.230 (See Hypotension and Other Cardiovascular Effects under Cautions.)

Acute Ischemic Stroke

120 mg daily given in divided doses for 21 or 28 days has been used.76 77 242 247

Prophylaxis of Classic or Common Migraine

120 mg daily given in divided doses has been used.4 8 11 12 78 79 80 101 114 206

Special Populations

Hepatic Impairment

Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

Initially, 30 mg every 4 hours.1 5 89

Monitor BP and heart rate closely.1 5 89 May use pharmacologic support of BP (e.g., vasopressors such as norepinephrine or dopamine), if necessary.230 231

Renal Impairment

No specific dosage recommendations.1

Geriatric Patients

Select dosage with caution because of age-related decreases in hepatic, renal, and/or cardiac function and concomitant disease and drug therapy.1

Cautions for Nimodipine


  • No known contraindications in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage.1



Parenteral Administration

Do not administer contents of nimodipine oral capsules by IV or other parenteral routes.1 245 246 248 249 250 Death and serious life-threatening adverse effects (e.g., cardiac arrest, cardiovascular collapse, hypotension, bradycardia) reported following parenteral injection of nimodipine capsule contents.1 245 246 248 249 250 (See Hypotension and Other Cardiovascular Effects under Cautions and see Boxed Warning.)

IV use of nimodipine, with serious and sometimes fatal outcomes, continues to be reported despite revisions to the drug’s labeling (including addition of a boxed warning) that warn against such use.248 249 250

Factors identified by FDA as contributing to this error include use of IV syringes to administer the drug by NG tube (IV syringes sometimes are used to remove the liquid contents from the capsules) and the fact that most patients receiving the drug are in critical care settings and are receiving other IV therapy.249 250

Report adverse events or medication errors involving nimodipine capsules to the FDA MedWatch program.248 250

General Precautions

Hypotension and Other Cardiovascular Effects

IV administration of the contents of nimodipine capsules has resulted in serious cardiovascular effects.1 248 249 250 (See Parenteral Administration under Cautions and see Boxed Warning.)

Possible decreased systemic BP;1 decreases generally are not marked with usual oral dosages.1 2 6 7 20 21 22 23 54 69 132

Monitor BP closely during therapy.1 In patients with unstable BP, frequently monitor BP and heart rate; a lower dosage has been suggested.231 (See Subarachnoid Hemorrhage under Dosage and Administration.)

Shares the toxic potentials of other calcium-channel blocking agents; consider possible occurrence of other adverse effects associated with these drugs (e.g., AV-conduction disturbances).1 7 128 230 231

GI Effects

Intestinal pseudo-obstruction and ileus responsive to conservative management has been reported rarely.1 127

Specific Populations


Category C.1


Distributed into milk in rats;1 91 not known whether distributed into human milk.1 Discontinue nursing because of potential risk to nursing infants.1

Pediatric Use

Safety and efficacy not established in children <18 years of age.1 230

Geriatric Use

Insufficient experience in patients ≥65 years of age to determine whether geriatric patients respond differently than younger adults; select dosage with caution.1

Hepatic Impairment

Possible decreased metabolism, substantially reduced clearance, and increased peak plasma concentrations.1 89 (See Absorption: Special Populations and see also Elimination: Special Populations, under Pharmacokinetics.)

Possible hypotension.1 4 90 230 231 Use with caution; monitor BP and pulse rate closely; dosage adjustment recommended.1 (See Hepatic Impairment under Dosage and Administration.)

Renal Impairment

Clearance may be decreased.88 (See Elimination: Special Populations, under Pharmacokinetics.)

Common Adverse Effects

Decreased BP, headache.1 4 5 23 112 122 154 230 231

Interactions for Nimodipine

Specific Drugs




Anesthetic agents

Does not appear to potentiate hemodynamic effects of anesthetic agents during surgery54 230 231

Antineoplastic agents

Risk of enhanced cytotoxic effects of certain antineoplastic agents140 141 190 191 192 193 195 215 216 217 218 219

Clinical importance not known230 231

Antihypertensive agents

Possible additive antihypertensive effects1 93

Monitor BP carefully if used concomitantly; when possible use short-acting antihypertensive agents231

Reduced dosage or cautious discontinuance of the antihypertensive agent and/or initiation of pharmacologic support of BP may be required230 231

Calcium-channel blockers (e.g., diltiazem)

Possible potentiation of cardiovascular effects of nimodipine (e.g., negative inotropic effect)155

Clinical importance not known;1 230 231 avoid combined therapy if possible231


Decreased clearance and increased plasma nimodipine concentrations1 243

Clinical importance not known243


Low doses (i.e., 30 mg twice daily) of nimodipine do not alter the pharmacokinetics or hemodynamic effects of digoxin137


Possible potentiation of analgesia in patients undergoing heart surgery154


Possible decreased phenytoin metabolism1 179

Monitor plasma phenytoin concentrations when nimodipine is initiated or discontinued179

No drug interactions reported in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage receiving concomitant therapy 230

Nimodipine Pharmacokinetics



Rapidly1 46 85 89 213 and almost completely4 5 213 absorbed following oral administration, with peak concentrations attained within 1 hour.1 46 89 213

Bioavailability is about 13% and variable due to extensive first-pass metabolism in the liver.1 46 85 213 230


Food substantially decreases the extent of absorption; peak plasma concentrations reduced by 68% and bioavailability by 38%.1

Special Populations

In patients with hepatic cirrhosis, systemic availability, peak serum drug concentrations, and AUCs may be increased substantially.1 89 230



Widely distributed into body tissues after oral or IV administration in animals.87

Distributes to a limited extent into CSF.4 22 86 231

May distribute more extensively into CSF in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage.1 230

In animals, nimodipine crosses the placenta4 87 and is distributed into milk.1 91

Plasma Protein Binding

>95%.1 4 213



Extensively metabolized in the liver1 5 4 88 89 213 to either inactive or substantially less active metabolites1 124 125 213 principally via demethylation followed by dehydrogenation.4 85 86

Elimination Route

Following oral administration, approximately 50% excreted in urine as metabolites and to a lesser extent in feces (possibly secondary to biliary excretion).4

In animals, nimodipine and/or its metabolites appear to undergo extensive enterohepatic circulation;123 possible enterohepatic circulation in humans.89


Following oral administration: 1.7–9 hours.1 4 5 46 85 86 88 89 213

Following IV (IV dosage form currently is not commercially available in the US)d administration: 0.9–1.5 hours.4 46 85 86 213

Special Populations

Substantially decreased clearance in patients with hepatic dysfunction.4 89 231 Mean clearance rates in patients with hepatic cirrhosis were decreased by >50% in one study.89

Increased half-life and reduced plasma clearance reported in patients with renal impairment; findings may have been related in part to age-related reductions in liver function.88

Hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis not likely to affect elimination.1 230 231





25°C (may be exposed to 15–30°C) in the original container.1 Do not freeze; protect from light.1 129


  • Inhibits transmembrane influx of extracellular calcium ions across the membranes of myocardial, vascular smooth muscle, and neuronal cells.1 4 7 10 14 41 48 49 53 126 128 132 133 236

  • Appears to affect the CNS preferentially.1 4 7 8 13 17 35 42 45 55 82 155 185 206 229 230

  • Mechanism of selectivity for cerebral tissue is complex and has not been fully elucidated; tissue selectivity of 1,4-dihydropyridine calcium-channel blockers may be related to differences in chemical structure, binding site characteristics, and/or calcium-channel gating behavior.47 48 210

  • Mechanism(s) of clinical benefit in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage has not been fully elucidated;1 4 20 69 102 current evidence suggests that dilation of small cerebral resistance vessels,2 23 36 102 131 with a resultant increase in collateral circulation,4 5 23 52 67 83 98 131 and/or a direct effect involving prevention of calcium overload in neurons2 4 5 13 23 68 69 82 83 96 102 104 132 206 may be responsible.

Advice to Patients

  • Importance of informing clinicians of existing or contemplated concomitant therapy, including prescription and OTC drugs, as well as any concomitant illnesses.1

  • Importance of women informing clinicians if they are or plan to become pregnant or plan to breast-feed.1

  • Importance of advising patients of other important precautionary information.1 (See Cautions.)


Excipients in commercially available drug preparations may have clinically important effects in some individuals; consult specific product labeling for details.

Please refer to the ASHP Drug Shortages Resource Center for information on shortages of one or more of these preparations.



Dosage Forms


Brand Names



Capsules, liquid-filled

30 mg



AHFS DI Essentials™. © Copyright 2020, Selected Revisions February 1, 2011. American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc., 4500 East-West Highway, Suite 900, Bethesda, Maryland 20814.

† Use is not currently included in the labeling approved by the US Food and Drug Administration.


1. Bayer. Nimotop (nimodipine) capsules prescribing information. West Haven, CT; 2005 Dec.

2. Tettenborn D, Porto L, Ryman T et al. Survey of clinical experience with nimodipine in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Neurosurg Rev. 1987; 10: 77-84.

3. van Zwieten PA. Differentiation of calcium entry blockers into calcium channel blockers and calcium overload blockers. Eur Neurol. 1986; 25(Suppl 1): 57-67.

4. Langley MS, Sorkin EM. Nimodipine: a review of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and therapeutic potential in cerebrovascular disease. Drugs. 1989; 37:669-99.

5. Anon. Nimodipine for cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Med Lett Drugs Ther. 1989; 31:47-8.

6. Kirsch JR, Dean JM, Rogers MC. Current concepts in brain resuscitation. Arch Intern Med. 1986; 146:1413-9.

7. Katz AM, Leach NM. Differential effects of 1, 4-dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers: therapeutic implications. J Clin Pharmacol. 1987; 27:825-34.

8. Freedman DD, Waters DD. “Second generation” dihydropyridine calcium antagonists: greater vascular selectivity and some unique applications. Drugs. 1987; 34:578-98.

9. Mathew NT, Rivera VM, Meyer JS et al. Double-blind evaluation of glycerol therapy in acute cerebral infarction. Lancet. 1972; 2:1327-9.

10. Gelmers HJ. Calcium-channel blockers: effects on cerebral blood flow and potential uses for acute stroke. Am J Cardiol. 1985; 55:144-8B.

11. Gelmers HJ. Nimodipine, a new calcium antagonist, in the prophylactic treatment of migraine. Headache. 1983; 23:106-9.

12. Havanka-Kanniainen H, Myllyla VV, Hokkanen E. Nimodipine in the prophylaxis of migraine, a double blind study. Acta Neurol Scand. 1982; 65(Suppl 90):77-8.

13. Brandt L, Andersson KE, Ljunggren B et al. Cerebrovascular and cerebral effects of nimodipine—an update. Acta Neurochir. 1988; 45(Suppl):11-20.

14. Gelmers HJ. Nimodipine in ischemic stroke. Clin Neuropharmacol. 1987; 10:412-22.

15. Towart R. The selective inhibition of serotonin-induced contractions of rabbit cerebral vascular smooth muscle by calcium-antagonistic dihydropyridines: an investigation of the mechanism of action of nimodipine. Circ Res. 1981; 48:650-7.

16. Scriabine A, Schuurman T, Traber J. Pharmacological basis for the use of nimodipine in central nervous system disorders. FASEB J. 1989; 3:1799-806.

17. Andersson KE, Edvinsson L, MacKenzie ET et al. Influence of extracellular calcium and calcium antagonists on contractions induced by potassium and prostaglandin F in isolated cerebral and mesenteric arteries of the cat. Br J Pharmacol. 1983; 79:135-40.

18. Haws CW, Gourley JK, Heistad DD. Effects of nimodipine on cerebral blood flow. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1983; 225:24-8.

19. Vinge E, Brandt L, Ljunggren B et al. Thromboxane B2 levels in serum during continuous administration of nimodipine to patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Stroke. 1988; 19:644-7.

20. Pickard JD, Murray GD, Illingworth R et al. Effect of oral nimodipine on cerebral infarction and outcome after subarachnoid hemorrhage: British aneurysm nimodipine trial. BMJ. 1989; 298:636-42.

21. Philippon J, Grob R, Dagreou F et al. Prevention of vasospasm in subarachnoid hemorrhage: a controlled study with nimodipine. Acta Neurochir. 1986; 82:110-4.

22. Allen GS, Ahn HS, Preziosi TJ et al. Cerebral arterial spasm—a controlled trial of nimodipine in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. N Engl J Med. 1983; 308:619-24.

23. Petruk KC, West M, Mohr G et al. Nimodipine treatment in poor-grade aneurysm patients: results of a multicenter double-blind placebo-controlled trial. J Neurosurg. 1988; 68:505-17.

24. van den Kerkhoff W, Drewes LR. Transfer of the Ca-antagonists nifedipine and nimodipine across the blood-brain barrier and their regional distribution in vivo. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1985; 5:459-60.

25. Mohamed AA, Mendelow AD, Teasdale GM et al. Effect of the calcium antagonist nimodipine on local cerebral blood flow and metabolic coupling. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1985; 5:26-33.

26. Heffez DS, Passonneau JV. Effect of nimodipine on cerebral metabolism during ischemia and recirculation in the Mongolian gerbil. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1985; 5:523-8.

27. Mabe H, Nagai H, Takagi T et al. Effect of nimodipine on cerebral functional and metabolic recovery following ischemia in the rat brain. Stroke. 1986; 17:501-5.

28. Hoffmeister F, Tettenborn D. Calcium agonists and antagonists of the dihydropyridine type: antinociceptive effects, interference with opiate-μ-receptor agonists and neuropharmacological actions in rodents. Psychopharmacology. 1986; 90: 299-307.

29. Little HJ, Dolin SJ, Halsey MJ. Calcium channel antagonists decrease the ethanol withdrawal syndrome. Life Sci. 1986; 39:2059-65.

30. Bongianni F, Carla V, Moroni F. Calcium channel inhibitors suppress the morphine-withdrawal syndrome in rats. Br J Pharmacol. 1986; 88:561-7.

31. Meyer FB, Anderson RE, Sundt TM Jr et al. Selective central nervous system calcium channel blockers—a new class of anticonvulsant agents. Mayo Clin Proc. 1986; 61:239-47.

32. Morocutti C, Pierelli F, Sanarelli L et al. Antiepileptic effects of a calcium antagonist (nimodipine) on cefazolin-induced epileptogenic foci in rabbits. Epilepsia. 1986; 27:498-503.

33. Heffez DS, Nowak TS Jr, Passonneau JV. Nimodipine levels in gerbil brain following parenteral drug administration. J Neurosurg. 1985; 63:589-92.

34. Kazda S, Garthoff B, Krause HP et al. Cerebrovascular effects of the calcium antagonistic dihydropyridine derivative nimodipine in animal experiments. Arzneimittelforschung. 1982; 32:331-8.

35. Müller-Schweinitzer E, Neumann P. In vitro effects of calcium antagonists PN 200-110, nifedipine, and nimodipine on human and canine cerebral arteries. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1983; 3:354-61.

36. Auer LM, Oberbauer RW, Schalk HV. Human pial vascular reactions to intravenous nimodipine-infusion during EC-IC bypass surgery. Stroke. 1983; 14:210-3.

37. Espinosa F, Weir B, Overton T et al. A randomized placebo-controlled double-blind trial of nimodipine after SAH in monkeys. J Neurosurg. 1984; 60:1167-75.

38. Gotoh O, Mohamed AA, McCulloch J et al. Nimodipine and the haemodynamic and histopathological consequences of middle cerebral artery occlusion in the rat. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1986; 6:321-31.

39. Bellemann P, Schade A, Towart R. Dihydropyridine receptor in rat brain labeled with [3H]nimodipine. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1983; 80:2356-60.

40. Buchheit F, Boyer P. Review of treatment of symptomatic cerebral vasospasm with nimodipine. Acta Neurochir. 1988; 45(Suppl):51-5.

41. Towart R, Kazda S. The cellular mechanism of action of nimodipine (BAY e 9736), a new calcium antagonist. Br J Pharmacol. 1979; 67(Suppl):409-10P.

42. Singh BN. The mechanism of action of calcium antagonists relative to their clinical applications. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1986; 21:109-21S.

43. Auer LM, Ito Z, Suzuki A et al. Prevention of symptomatic vasospasm by topically applied nimodipine. Acta Neurochir. 1982; 63:297-302.

44. Kistler JP, Ropper AH, Martin JB. Cerebrovascular diseases. In: Braunwald E et al, eds. Harrison’s principles of internal medicine. 11th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 1987:1930-60.

45. Dompert WU, Traber J. Binding sites for dihydropyridine calcium antagonists. Perspect Cardiovasc Res. 1984; 9:175-9.

46. Ramsch KD, Lücker PW, Wetzelsberger N. Pharmacokinetics of intravenously and orally administered nimodipine. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1987; 41:216.

47. Hess P, Lansman JB, Tsien RW. Different modes of Ca channel gating behaviour favoured by dihydropyridine Ca agonists and antagonists. Nature. 1984; 311:538-44.

48. Triggle DJ, Janis RA. The 1,4-dihydropyridine receptor: a regulatory component of the Ca2+ channel. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1984; 6(Suppl 7):S949-55.

49. Triggle DJ, Swamy VC. Calcium antagonists: some chemical-pharmacologic aspects. Circ Res. 1983; 52(Suppl I):I-17-28.

50. Schmidli J, Santillan GG, Saeed M et al. The effect of nimodipine, a calcium antagonist, on intracortical arterioles in the cat brain. Curr Ther Res. 1985; 38:94-103.

51. Auer LM, Mokry M. Effect of topical nimodipine versus its ethanol-containing vehicle on cat pial arteries. Stroke. 1985; 17:225-8.

52. Brandt L, Ljunggren B, Saveland H et al. Cerebral vasospasm and calcium channel blockade. Nimodipine treatment in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Acta Pharmacol Toxicol (Copenh). 1986; 58(Suppl 2):151-5.

53. Kanda K, Flaim SF. Effects of nimodipine on cerebral blood flow in conscious rat. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1986; 236:41-7.

54. Stullken EH Jr, Balestrieri FJ, Prough DS et al. The hemodynamic effects of nimodipine in patients anesthetized for cerebral aneurysm clipping. Anesthesiology. 1985; 62:346-8.

55. Peroutka SJ, Banghart SB, Allen GS. Relative potency and selectivity of calcium antagonists used in the treatment of migraine. Headache. 1984; 24:55-8.

56. Auer LM. Pial arterial and venous reaction to intravenous infusion of nimodipine in cats. J Neurosurg Sci. 1982; 26:213-8.

57. Haws CW, Heistad DD. Effects of nimodipine on cerebral vasoconstrictor responses. Am J Physiol. 1984; 247(2 Part 2):H170-6.

58. Tanaka K, Gotoh F, Muramatsu F et al. Effects of nimodipine (Bay e 9736) on cerebral circulation in cats. Arzneimittelforschung. 1980; 30:1494-7.

59. Rosenblum WI. Effects of calcium channel blockers on pial vascular responses to receptor mediated constrictors. Stroke. 1984; 15:284-7.

60. Grabowski M, Johansson BB. Nifedipine and nimodipine: effect on blood pressure and regional cerebral blood flow in conscious normotensive and hypertensive rats. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1985; 7:1127-33.

61. Takayasu M, Bassett JE, Dacey RG Jr. Effects of calcium antagonists on intracerebral penetrating arterioles in rats. J Neurosurg. 1988; 69:104-9.

62. Haws CW, Gourley JK, Heistad DD. Effects of nimodipine on cerebral blood flow. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1983; 225:24-8.

63. McCalden TA, Nath RG, Thiele K. The effects of a calcium antagonist (nimodipine) on basal cerebral blood flow and reactivity to various agonists. Stroke. 1984; 15:527-30.

64. Mohamed AA, McCulloch J, Mendelow AD et al. Effect of the calcium antagonist nimodipine on local cerebral blood flow: relationship to arterial blood pressure. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1984; 4:206-11.

65. Auer LM, Suzuki A, Yasui N et al. Intraoperative topical nimodipine after aneurysm clipping. Neurochirurgia. 1984; 27:36-8.

66. Gelmers HJ. Effect of nimodipine (Bay e 9736) on postischaemic cerebrovascular reactivity, as revealed by measuring regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). Acta Neurochir. 1982; 63:283-90.

67. Ljunggren B, Brandt L, Saveland H et al. Outcome in 60 consecutive patients treated with early aneurysm operation and intravenous nimodipine. J Neurosurg. 1984; 61:864-73.

68. Baethmann A, Jansen M. Possible role of calcium entry blockers in brain protection. Eur Neurol. 1986; 25(Suppl 1):102-14.

69. Mee E, Dorrance D, Lowe D et al. Controlled study of nimodipine in aneurysm patients treated early after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Neurosurgery. 1988; 22:484-91.

70. Kazda S, Garthoff B, Luckhaus G. Calcium antagonists prevent brain damage in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats independent of their effect on blood pressure. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1983; 3(Suppl 1):S526-7.

71. Ulrich G. Zur Wirkung von Nimodipin auf die topische Verteilung der absoluten Alpha-Leistung im EEG sowie die aktuelle Befindlichkeit gesunder Probanden. (German; with English abstract.) Arzneim-Forsch. 1987; 37:541-5.

72. Ulrich G, Stieglitz RD. Effect of nimodipine upon electroencephalographic vigilance in elderly persons with minor impairment of brain functions. Arzneimittelforschung. 1988; 38:392-6.

73. Onoda JM, Sloane BF, Honn KV. Antithrombogenic effects of calcium channel blockers: synergism with prostacyclin and thromboxane synthase inhibitors. Thromb Res. 1984; 34:367-78.

74. Schmunk GA, Lefer AM. Anti-aggregatory actions of calcium channel blockers in cat platelets. Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol. 1982; 35:179-87.

75. Schanne FAK, Kane AB, Young EE et al. Calcium dependence of toxic cell death: a final common path. Science. 1979; 206:700-2.

76. Gelmers HJ. The effects of nimodipine on the clinical course of patients with acute ischemic stroke. Acta Neurol Scand. 1984; 69:232-9.

77. Gelmers HJ, Gorter K, de Weerdt CJ et al. A controlled trial of nimodipine in acute ischemic stroke. N Engl J Med. 1988; 318:203-7.

78. Bussone G, Baldini S, D’Andrea G et al. Nimodipine versus flunarizine in common migraine: a controlled pilot trial. Headache. 1987; 27:76-9.

79. Havanka-Kanniainen H, Hokkanen E, Myllyla VV. Efficacy of nimodipine in the prophylaxis of migraine. Cephalalgia. 1985; 5:39-43.

80. Stewart DJ, Gelston A, Hakim A. Effect of prophylactic administration of nimodipine in patients with migraine. Headache. 1988; 28:260-2.

81. Deyo RA, Straube KT, Disterhoft JF. Nimodipine facilitates associative learning in aging rabbits. Science. 1989; 243:809-11.

82. Allen GS. Role of calcium antagonists in cerebral arterial spasm. Am J Cardiol. 1985; 55(Suppl):149-53B.

83. Biller J, Godersky JC, Adams HP Jr. Management of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Stroke. 1988; 19:1300-5.

84. Kazner E, Sprung C, Adelt D et al. Clinical experience with nimodipine in the prophylaxis of neurological deficits after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Neurochirurgia. 1985; 28:110-3.

85. Ramsch KD, Graefe KH, Scherling D et al. Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of calcium-blocking agents nifedipine, nitrendipine, and nimodipine. Am J Nephrol. 1986; 6(Suppl 1):73-80.

86. Ramsch KD, Ahr G, Tettenborn D et al. Overview on pharmacokinetics of nimodipine in healthy volunteers and in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Neurochirurgia. 1985; 28:74-8.

87. Suwelack D, Weber H, Maruhn D. Pharmacokinetics of nimodipine. II. Communication: distribution, elimination and placental transfer in rats following single and multiple doses of [14C]nimodipine. Arzneimittelforschung. 1985; 35:1787-94.

88. Kirch W, Ramsch KD, Dührsen U et al. Clinical pharmacokinetics of nimodipine in normal and impaired renal function. Int J Clin Pharm Res. 1984; 4:381-4.

89. Gengo FM, Fagan SC, Krol G et al. Nimodipine disposition and haemodynamic effects in patients with cirrhosis and age-matched controls. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1987; 23:47-53.

90. Kamath B, Lettieri J, Krol G et al. Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of radiolabeled nimodipine. Pharmacol Res. 1987; 4(Suppl 2):S80.

91. Maruhn D, Siefert HM, Weber H et al. Pharmacokinetics of nimodipine. I. Communication: absorption, concentration in plasma and excretion after single administration of [14C]nimodipine in rat, dog and monkey. Arzneimittelforschung. 1985; 35:1781-6.

92. Seiler RW, Grolimund P, Zurbruegg HR. Evaluation of the calcium-antagonist nimodipine for the prevention of vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a prospective transcranial Doppler ultrasound study. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 1987; 85: 7-16.

93. Koos WT, Perneczky A, Auer LM et al. Nimodipine treatment of ischemic neurological deficits due to cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage: clinical results of a multicenter study. Neurochirurgia. 1985; 28:114-7.

94. Böker DK, Solymosi L, Wassmann H. Immediate postangiographic intraarterial treatment of cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage with nimodipine: report on 3 cases. Neurochirurgia. 1985; 28(Suppl 1):118-20.

95. Gilsbach JM. Nimodipine in the prevention of ischaemic deficits after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage. Acta Neurochir. 1988; 45(Suppl):41-50.

96. Grotenhuis JA, Bettag W. Prevention of symptomatic vasospasm after SAH by constant venous infusion of nimodipine. Neurol Res. 1986; 8:243-9.

97. Kostron H, Rumpl E, Stampfl G et al. Treatment of cerebral vasospasm following severe head injury with the calcium influx blocker nimodipine. Neurochirurgia. 1985; 28:103-9.

98. Fieschi C, Argentino C, Toni D et al. Calcium antagonists in ischemic stroke. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1988; 12(Suppl 6):S83-5.

99. Gaab MR, Haubitz I, Brawanski A et al. Acute effects of nimodipine on the cerebral blood flow and intracranial pressure. Neurochirurgia. 1985; 28(Suppl 1):93-9.

100. de Carolis P, Baldrati A, Agati R et al. Nimodipine in episodic cluster headache: results and methodological considerations. Headache. 1987; 27:397-9.

101. Gelmers HJ. Calcium-channel blockers in the treatment of migraine. Am J Cardiol. 1985; 55(Suppl):139-43B.

102. Ljunggren B, Brandt L, Saveland H et al. Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: prevention of delayed ischemic dysfunction with intravenous nimodipine. Neurosurg Rev. 1987; 10:255-63.

103. Pan M, Janis RA. Stimulation of Na+,K+-ATPase of isolated smooth muscle membranes by the Ca2+ channel inhibitors, nimodipine and nitrendipine. Biochem Pharmacol. 1984; 33:787-91.

104. Rodriguez R, Baena Y, Gaetani P et al. Effect of nimodipine on arachidonic acid metabolites after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Acta Neurol Scand. 1987; 76:267-71.

105. Ohman J, Heiskanen O. Effect of nimodipine on the outcome of patients after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and surgery. J Neurosurg. 1988; 69:683-6.

106. Jan M, Buchheit F, Tremoulet M. Therapeutic trial of intravenous nimodipine in patients with established cerebral vasospasm after rupture of intracranial aneurysms. Neurosurgery. 1988; 23:154-7.

107. Vermeulen M, van Gijn J, Hijdra A et al. Nimodipine for cerebral arterial spasm in subarachnoid hemorrhage. N Engl J Med. 1983; 309:437.

108. Allen GS. Nimodipine for cerebral arterial spasm in subarachnoid hemorrhage. N Engl J Med. 1983; 309:437.

109. Yasuda SU, Tietze KJ. Nimodipine in the treatment of subarachnoid hemorrhage. DICP. 1989; 23:451-5.

110. Auer LM. Acute operation and preventive nimodipine improve outcome in patients with ruptured cerebral aneurysms. Neurosurgery. 1984; 15:57-66.

111. Das G. Fundamentals of calcium channel blockers. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol. 1988; 26:575-84.

112. Brandt L, Saveland H, Ljunggren B et al. Control of epilepsy partialis continuans with intravenous nimodipine. J Neurosurg. 1988; 69:949-50.

113. Hadjiev D, Velcheva I, Ivanova L. Nimodipine in the treatment of headache in chronic cerebral ischemia. Cephalalgia. 1986; 6:131-4.

114. Jonsdottir M, Meyer JS, Rogers RL. Efficacy, side effects and tolerance compared during headache treatment with three different calcium blockers. Headache. 1987; 27:364-9.

115. Gilsbach JM, Harders A. Early aneurysm operation and vasospasm: intracranial Doppler findings. Neurochirurgia. 1985; 28(Suppl 1):100-2.

116. Ohman J, Heiskanen O. Timing of operation for ruptured supratentorial aneurysms: a prospective randomized study. J Neurosurg. 1989; 70:55-60.

117. Seiler RW, Reulen HJ, Huber P et al. Outcome of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in a hospital population: a prospective study including early operation, intravenous nimodipine, and transcranial Doppler ultrasound. Neurosurgery. 1988; 23:598-604.

118. Hillman J, v Essen C, Leszniewski W. Results of treatment for cerebral saccular aneurysms in a small neurosurgical unit—evaluation of early operation and nimodipine treatment. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 1988; 94:28-31.

119. Gilsbach JM, Harders AG, Eggert HR et al. Early aneurysm surgery: a 7 year clinical practice report. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 1988; 90:91-102.

120. Gilsbach JM, Harders AG. Morbidity and mortality after early aneurysm surgery—a prospective study with nimodipine prevention. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 1989; 96:1-7.

121. Ljunggren B, Saveland H, Brandt L. Causes of unfavorable outcome after early aneurysm operation. Neurosurgery. 1983; 13:629-33.

122. Tettenborn D, Dycka J, Volberg E et al. Blood pressure and heart rate during treatment with nimodipine in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Neurochirurgia. 1985; 28:84-6.

123. Suwelack D, Weber H. Assessment of enterohepatic circulation of radioactivity following a single dose of [14C]nimodipine in the rat. Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 1985; 10:231-9.

124. Vinge E, Andersson KE, Brandt L et al. Pharmacokinetics of nimodipine in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1986; 30:421-5.

125. Towart R, Wehinger E, Meyer H et al. The effects of nimodipine, its optical isomers and metabolites on isolated vascular smooth muscle. Arzneimittelforschung. 1982; 32:338-46.

126. Meyer H, Wehinger E, Bossert F et al. Nimodipine: synthesis and metabolic pathway. Arzneimittelforschung. 1983; 33:106-12.

127. Torrealba G, Sharp A, Soto B. Nimodipine-treated subarachnoid hemorrhage associated with acute pseudo-obstruction of the colon. Surg Neurol. 1987; 28:150-2.

128. Schlüter G. Toxicological investigations with nimodipine: summary of relevant studies. Arzneimittelforschung. 1986; 36:1733-5.

129. Jakobsen P, Mikkelsen EO. Determination of nimodipine by gas chromatography using electron-capture detection; external factors influencing nimodipine concentrations during intravenous adminstration. J Chromatogr. 1986; 374:383-7.

130. Walley TJ, Woods KL, Barnett DB. Effects of calcium channel blockers on in vitro platelet function in whole blood using single platelet counting. Thromb Haemost. 1989; 61:137-9.

131. Auer LM. Preventive nimodipine and acute aneurysm surgery: heading for the control of complications after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Neurochirurgia. 1985; 28:87-92.

132. Scriabine A, van den Kerckhoff W. Pharmacology of nimodipine: a review. Ann NY Acad Sci. 1988; 522:698-706.

133. Kazda S. Pharmacology of nimodipine, a calcium antagonist with preferential cerebrovascular activity. Neurochirurgia. 1985; 28:70-3.

134. Steen PA, Newberg LA, Milde JH et al. Cerebral blood flow and neurologic outcome when nimodipine is given after complete cerebral ischemia in the dog. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1984; 4:82-7.

135. Steen PA, Newberg LA, Milde JH et al. Nimodipine improves cerebral blood flow and neurologic recovery after complete cerebral ischemia in the dog. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1983; 3:38-43.

136. DePover A, Grupp IL, Grupp G et al. Diltiazem potentiates the negative inotropic action of nimodipine in heart. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1983; 114: 922-9.

137. Ziegler R, Horstmann R, Wingender W et al. Do dihydropyridines influence pharmacokinetic and hemodynamic parameters of digoxin? J Clin Pharmacol. 1987; 27:712. Abstract No. 31.

138. Draski LJ, Johnston JE, Isaacson RL. Nimodipine’s interactions with other drugs: II. Diazepam. Life Sci. 1985; 37:2123-8.

139. Isaacson RL, Molina JC, Draski LJ et al. Nimodipine’s interactions with other drugs: I. Ethanol. Life Sci. 1985; 36:2195-9.

140. Onoda JM, Nelson KK, Taylor JD et al. In vivo characterization of combination antitumor chemotherapy with calcium channel blockers and cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II). Cancer Res. 1989; 49:2844-50.

141. Mickisch G, Keilhauer G, Schlick E et al. Calcium antagonists reverse multidrug resistance (MDR) of primary human renal cell carcinomas (RCC). Proc Annu Meet Am Assoc Cancer Res. 1989; 30:A2116.

142. Ljunggren B, Brandt L, Sundbarg G et al. Early management of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Neurosurgery. 1982; 11:412-8.

143. Taneda M. Effect of early operation for ruptured aneurysms on prevention of delayed ischemic symptoms. J Neurosurg. 1982; 57:622-8.

144. Harders A, Gilsbach J. Haemodynamic effectiveness of nimodipine on spastic brain vessels after subarachnoid hemorrhage evaluated by the transcranial Doppler method: a review of clinical studies. Acta Neurochir. 1988; 45(Suppl):21-8.

145. Seiler RW, Grolimund P, Aaslid R et al. Cerebral vasospasm evaluated by transcranial ultrasound correlated with clinical grade and CT-visualized subarachnoid hemorrhage. J Neurosurg. 1986; 64: 594-600.

146. Kassell NF, Torner JC. The International Cooperative Study on Timing of Aneurysm Surgery—an update. Stroke. 1984; 15:566-70.

147. Takata Y, Kato H. Comparative study on acute antihypertensive effects and pharmacokinetics of nisoldipine, nifedipine, nimodipine and nicardipine administered orally to conscious renal hypertensive dogs. Arzneimittelforschung. 1986; 36:1464-71.

148. Satoh K, Kawada M, Wada Y et al. Cardiovascular actions of the dihydropyridine calcium antagonist nimodipine in the dog. Arzneimittelforschung. 1984; 34:563-8.

149. Huyghens LP, Buylaert WA, Corne L et al. Plasma concentrations and haemodynamic effects of nimodipine in patients resuscitated after cardiac arrest. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1989; 36:327-33.

150. Roine RO, Kaste M, Kinnunen A et al. Safety and efficacy of nimodipine in resuscitation of patients outside hospital. BMJ. 1987; 294:20.

151. Laursen J, Jensen F, Mikkelsen E et al. Nimodipine treatment of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 1988; 90:329-37.

152. Fagan SC, Gengo FM, Bates V et al. Effect of nimodipine on blood pressure in acute ischemic stroke in humans. Stroke. 1988; 19:401-2.

153. Itil TM, Michael ST, Hoffmeister F et al. Nimodipine, a calcium antagonist vasodilator with psychotropic properties (a controlled quantitative pharmaco-EEG study). Curr Ther Res. 1984; 35:405-22.

154. von Bormann B, Boldt J, Sturm G et al. [Calcium antagonists in anesthesia. Additive analgesia using nimodipine in heart surgery] Anaesthesist. 1985; 34:429-34.

155. Snyder SH, Reynolds IJ. Calcium-antagonist drugs: receptor interactions that clarify therapeutic effects. N Engl J Med. 1985; 313:995-1002.

156. Ackerman Z, Lysy J, Meiner-Lavie V. The association of fecal impaction and verapamil in a patient with scleroderma. Am J Gastroenterol. 1989; 84:981-2.

157. Fletcher AE, Chester PC, Hawkins CM et al. The effects of verapamil and propranolol on quality of life in hypertension. J Hum Hypertens. 1989; 3:125-30.

158. Guerrero JR, Martin SS. Verapamil: full spectrum calcium channel blocking agent: an overview. Med Res Rev. 1984; 4:87-109.

159. Russell RP. Side effects of calcium channel blockers. Hypertension. 1988; 11(3 Part 2):II42-4.

160. Krebs R. Adverse reactions with calcium antagonists. Hypertension. 1983; 5(4 Part 2):II125-9.

161. Stullken EH, Johnston WE Jr, Prough DS et al. Implications of nimodipine prophylaxis of cerebral vasospasm on anesthetic management during intracranial aneurysm clipping. J Neurosurg. 1985; 62:200-5.

162. Pellettieri L, Bolander H, C et al. Nimodipine treatment of selected good-risk patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage: no significant difference between present and historical results. Surg Neurol. 1988; 30:180-6.

163. Heikkinen ER, Koivukangas J. Surgery of vertebrobasilar aneurysms and nimodipine. Ann Clin Res. 1986; 18(Suppl 47):51-6.

164. DuCharme DW, Freyburger WA, Graham BE et al. Pharmacologic properties of minoxidil: a new hypotensive agent. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1973; 184:662-70.

165. Van Vleet JF, Herman EH, Ferrans VJ. Cardiac morphologic alterations in acute minoxidil cardiotoxicity in miniature swine. Exp Mol Pathol. 1984; 41:10-25.

166. Herman EH, Ferrans VJ, Young RS et al. A comparative study of minoxidil-induced myocardial lesions in beagle dogs and miniature swine. Toxicol Pathol. 1989; 17(1 Part 2):182-92.

167. Sobota JT. Review of cardiovascular findings in humans treated with minoxidil. Toxicol Pathol. 1989; 17(1 Pt 2):193-202.

168. Malcolm N, Callegari P, Goldberg J et al. Massive diltiazem overdosage: clinical and pharmacokinetic observations. Drug Intell Clin Pharm. 1986; 20:888.

169. Jakubowski AT, Mizgala HF. Effects of diltiazem overdose. Am J Cardiol. 1987; 60:932-3.

170. Henry M, Kay MM, Viccellio P. Cardiogenic shock associated with calcium-channel and beta blockers: reversal with intravenous calcium chloride. Am J Emerg Med. 1985; 3:334-6.

171. Moroni F, Mannaioni PF, Dolara A et al. Calcium gluconate and hypertonic sodium chloride in a case of massive verapamil poisoning. Clin Toxicol. 1980; 17:395-400.

172. Perkins CM. Serious verapamil poisoning: treatment with intravenous calcium gluconate. Br Med J. 1978; 2:1127.

173. Woie L, Storstein L. Successful treatment of suicidal verapamil poisoning with calcium gluconate. Eur Heart J. 1981; 2:239-42.

174. Class IV drugs: calcium channel blockers. In: Ellenhorn MJ, Barceloux DG, eds. Medical toxicology: diagnosis and treatment of human poisoning. New York: Elsevier Science Publishing, Inc; 1988:195-200.

175. Strubelt O, Diederich KW. Experimental investigations on the antidotal treatment of nifedipine overdosage. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 1986; 24:135-49.

176. Strubelt O. Antidotal treatment of the acute cardiovascular toxicity of verapamil. Acta Pharmacol Toxicol (Copenh). 1984; 55:231-7.

177. Passal DB, Crespin FH Jr. Verapamil poisoning in an infant. Pediatrics. 1984; 73:543-5.

178. Herrington DM, Insley BM, Weinmann GG. Nifedipine overdose. Am J Med. 1986; 81:344-6.

179. Hansten PD, Horn JR. Drug interactions: clinical significance of drug-drug interactions. 6th ed. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger; 1989:11.

180. Ahmad S. Nifedipine—phenytoin interaction. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1984; 3:1581.

181. Messing RO, Carpenter CL, Greenberg DA. Mechanism of calcium channel inhibition by phenytoin: comparison with classical calcium channel antagonists. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1985; 235:407-11.

182. Harris RA, Jones SB, Bruno P et al. Effects of dihydropyridine derivatives and aniconvulsant drugs on [3H]nitrendipine binding and calcium and sodium fluxes. Biochem Pharmacol. 1985; 34:2187-91.

183. Ots ME, Yaksh TL, Anderson RE et al. Effect of dihydropyridines and diphenylalkylamines on pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures and cerebral blood flow in cats. J Neurosurg. 1987; 67:406-13.

184. Meyer FB, Tally PW, Anderson RE et al. Inhibition of electrically induced seizures by a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker. Brain Res. 1986; 384:180-3.

185. Meyer JS. Calcium channel blockers in the prophylactic treatment of vascular headache. Ann Intern Med. 1985; 102:395-7.

186. Snyder SH. Drug and neurotransmitter receptors in the brain. Science. 1984; 224:22-31.

187. Bolger GT, Gengo P, Klockowski R et al. Characterization of binding of the Ca++ channel antagonist, [3H]nitrendipine, to guinea-pig ileal smooth muscle. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1983; 225: 291-309.

188. Murphy KM, Gould RJ, Largent BL et al. A unitary mechanism of calcium antagonist drug action. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1983; 80:860-4.

189. Gould RJ, Murphy KM, Snyder SH. Tissue heterogeneity of calcium channel antagonist binding sites labeled by [3H]nitrendipine. Mol Pharmacol. 1984; 25:235-41.

190. Safa AR. Photoaffinity labeling of the multidrug-resistance-related p-glycoprotein with photoactive analogs of verapamil. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1988; 85:7187-91.

191. Tsuruo T. [Reversal of acquired resistance to vinca alkaloids and anthracycline antibiotics by calcium channel blockers and calmodulin inhibitors.] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 1984; 11(3 Part 2):750-9.

192. Safa AR, Glover CJ, Sewell JL et al. The calcium channel blocker-binding specificity of a 150-180 KDA surface membrane glycoprotein from multidrug-resistant cells. Proc Annu Meet Am Assoc Cancer Res. 1987; 28:283.

193. Racker E, Wu LT, Westcott D. Use of slow Ca2+ channel blockers to enhance inhibition by taxol of growth of drug-sensitive and -resistant Chinese hamster ovary cells. Cancer Treat Rep. 1986; 70:275-8.

194. Bressoud P, Harty J, Tseng M. Flunarizine enhancement of Adriamycin (A) treated cultures of the murine bladder carcinoma MBT-409. Proc Annu Meet Am Assoc Cancer Res. 1985; 26:372.

195. Tsuruo T, Iida H, Nojiri M et al. Circumvention of vincristine and Adriamycin resistance in vitro and in vivo by calcium influx blockers. Cancer Res. 1983; 43:2905-10.

196. Kunert-Radek J, Stepien H, Radek A et al. Inhibitory effect of calcium channel blockers on proliferation of human glioma cells in vitro. Acta Neurol Scand. 1989; 79:166-9.

197. Honn KV, Onoda JM, Pampalona K et al. Inhibition by dihydropyridine class calcium channel blockers of tumor cell-platelet-endothelial cell interactions in vitro and metastasis in vivo. Biochem Pharmacol. 1985; 34:235-41.

198. Honn KV, Onoda JM, Taylor JD et al. Antimetastatic therapy with calcium active compounds. In: Hellmann K, Eccles SA, eds. Treatment of metastasis: problems and prospects. Proceedings. Philadelphia: Taylor and Francis; 1985:259-62.

199. Honn KV, Onoda JM, Diglio CA et al. Inhibition of tumor cell-platelet interactions and tumor metastasis by the calcium channel blocker, nimodipine. Clin Exp Metastasis. 1984; 2:61-72.

200. Onoda JM, Sloane BF, Taylor JD et al. Calcium channel blockers: inhibitors of tumor cell-platelet-endothelial cell interactions. Dev Oncol. 1984; 22:244-58.

201. Enyeart JJ, Sheu SS, Hinkle PM. Dihydropyridine modulators of voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channels specifically regulate prolactin production by GH4Cl pituitary tumor cells. J Biol Chem. 1987; 262:3154-9.

202. Hinkle PM, Jackson AE, Thompson TM et al. Calcium channel agonists and antagonists: effects of chronic treatment on pituitary prolactin synthesis and intracellular calcium. Mol Endocrinol. 1988; 2: 1132-8.

203. Enyeart JJ, Aizawa T, Hinkle PM. Dihydropyridine Ca2+ antagonists: potent inhibitors of secretion from normal and transformed pituitary cells. Am J Physiol. 1985; 248(5 Part 1):C510-9.

204. Enyeart JJ, Hinkle PM. The calcium antagonist Bay K 8644 stimulates secretion from a pituitary cell line. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1984; 122:991-6.

205. Tanner LA, Bosco LA. Gynecomastia associated with calcium channel blocker therapy. Arch Intern Med. 1988; 148:379-80.

206. Tietze K, Schwartz ML, Vlasses PH. Calcium antagonists in cerebral/peripheral vascular disorders: current status. Drugs. 1987; 32:531-8.

207. Peroutka SJ. The pharmacology of calcium channel antagonists: a novel class of anti-migraine agents? Headache. 1983; 23:278-83.

208. Taylor JW, Cleary JD. Primary headache disorders. In: DiPiro JT, Talbert RL, Hayes PE et al., eds. Pharmacotherapy: a pathophysiologic approach. New York: Elsevier; 1989:660-9.

209. Adams RD, Martin JB. Headache. In: Harrison’s principles of internal medicine. 11th ed. Braunwald E, Isselbacher KJ, Petersdorf RG et al, eds. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co; 1987:26-33.

210. Glossmann H, Goll A, Rombusch M et al. Molecular pharmacology of Ca2+ channels: receptor binding studies. In: Betz E, Deck K, Hoffmeister F, eds. Nimodipine: pharmacological and clinical properties. Stuttgart: Schattauer Verlag; 1985:57-73.

211. Kiesewetter H, Jung F, Radtke H et al. Investigation of the rheological effectiveness of nimodipine in comparison to other established rheologica with an in vitro stress model with calcium. In: Betz E, Deck K, Hoffmeister F, eds. Nimodipine: pharmacological and clinical properties. Stuttgart: Schattauer Verlag; 1985:127-35.

212. Itil TM, Itil KZ. The comparative CNS pharmacology of nimodipine in humans. In: Betz E, Deck K, Hoffmeister F, eds. Nimodipine: pharmacological and clinical properties. Stuttgart: Schattauer Verlag; 1985:185-202.

213. Raemsch KD, Graefe KH, Sommer J. Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of nimodipine. In: Betz E, Deck K, Hoffmeister F, eds. Nimodipine: pharmacological and clinical properties. Stuttgart: Schattauer Verlag; 1985:147-61.

214. Auer LM, Reulen HJ, Gilsbach J et al. Prevention of brain infarction from arterial spasm by acute aneurysm surgery and preventive nimodipine treatment in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. In: Betz E, Deck K, Hoffmeister F, eds. Nimodipine: pharmacological and clinical properties. Stuttgart: Schattauer Verlag; 1985:397-408.

215. Fine RL, Chabner BA. Multidrug resistance. Cancer Chemother. 1986; 8:117-28.

216. Cornwell MM, Pastan I, Gottesman MM. Certain calcium channel blockers bind specifically to multidrug-resistant human KB carcinoma membrane vesicles and inhibit drug binding to P-glycoprotein. J Biol Chem. 1987; 262:2166-70.

217. Huet S, Robert J. The reversal of doxorubicin resistance by verapamil is not due to an effect on calcium channels. Int J Cancer. 1988; 41:283-6.

218. Nair S, Samy TSA, Krishan A. Calcium, calmodulin, and protein content of Adriamycin-resistant and -sensitive murine leukemic cells. Cancer Res. 1986; 46:229-32.

219. Kessel D. Circumvention of resistance to anthracyclines by calcium antagonists and other membrane-perturbing agents. Cancer Surv. 1986; 5: 109-27.

220. Martinez-Vila E, Martinez-Lage JM, Llera FG et al. Nimodipine in acute ischemic stroke. N Engl J Med. 1988; 319:249.

221. Earnest MP. Nimodipine in acute ischemic stroke. N Engl J Med. 1988; 319:249.

222. Vornov JJ, Levey A. Nimodipine in acute ischemic stroke. N Engl J Med. 1988; 319:250.

223. Hoffmeister F, Benz U, Heise A et al. Behavioral effects of nimodipine in animals. Arzneimittelforschung. 1982; 32:347-60.

224. Gelmers HJ. Effect of calcium antagonists on the cerebral circulation. Am J Cardiol. 1987; 59: 173-6B.

225. Haitas B, Joffe BI, Edelstein D et al. Calcium antagonists (nifedipine and nimodipine) and pituitary responses to thyrotropin releasing hormone stimulation. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1986; 8:1284-6.

226. Barnett GH, Bose B, Little JR et al. Effects of nimodipine on acute focal cerebral ischemia. Stroke. 1986; 17:884-90.

227. Sinar EJ, Mendelow AD, Graham DI et al. Experimental intracerebral haemorrhage: the effect of nimodipine pretreatment. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1988; 51:651-62.

228. Tally PW, Sundt TM Jr, Anderson RE. Improvement of cortical perfusion, intracellular pH, and electrocorticography by nimodipine during transient focal cerebral ischemia. Neurosurgery. 1989; 24:80-7.

229. Kazda S, Towart R. Nimodipine, a new calcium antagonistic drug with a preferential cerebrovascular action. Acta Neurochirurgica. 1982; 63:259-65.

230. Taylor RJ (Pharmaceutical Division, Miles Inc, West Haven, CT 06516). Personal communication; 1989 Oct 12.

231. Reviewers’ comments (personal observations); 1989 Oct 13.

232. Forsman M, Aarseth HP, Nordby HK et al. Effects of nimodipine on cerebral blood flow and cerebrospinal fluid pressure after cardiac arrest: correlation with neurologic outcome. Anesth Analg. 1989; 68:436-43.

233. Ansell E, Fazzone T, Festenstein R et al. Nimodipine in migraine prophylaxis. Cephalalgia. 1988; 8:269-72.

234. Meyer SJ. Nimodipine is effective in prophylactic treatment of migraine and cluster headaches. In: Betz E, Deck K, Hoffmeister F, eds. Nimodipine: pharmacological and clinical properties. Stuttgart: Schattauer Verlag; 1985:431-41.

235. Sheftell FD, Rapoport AM, Weeks RE et al. Nimodipine in the prevention of mixed headache disorders: a preliminary report. In: Betz E, Deck K, Hoffmeister F, eds. Nimodipine: pharmacological and clinical properties. Stuttgart: Schattauer Verlag; 1985:445-50.

236. White EJ, Bradford HF. Sites of action of Ca2+-channel blockers in rat cortical synaptosomes. Biochem Soc Trans. 1985; 13:916-7.

237. Hakim AM, Evans AC, Berger L et al. The effect of nimodipine on the evolution of human cerebral infarction studied by PET. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1989; 9:523-34.

238. Hadley MN, Zabramski JM, Spetzler RF et al. The efficacy of intravenous nimodipine in the treatment of focal cerebral ischemia in a primate model. Neurosurgery. 1989; 25:63-70.

239. Pozzilli C, Di Piero V, Pantano P et al. Influence of nimodipine on cerebral blood flow in human cerebral ischaemia. J Neurol. 1989; 236:199-202.

240. Martinez-Vila E, Guillen F, Villanueva JA et al. Placebo-controlled trial of nimodipine in the treatment of acute ischemic cerebral infarction. Stroke. 1990; 21:1023-8.

241. Roine RO, Kaste M, Kinnunen A et al. Nimodipine after resuscitation from out-of-hospital ventricular fibrillation: a placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized trial. JAMA. 1990; 264:3171-7.

242. Gelmers HJ, Hennerici M. Effect of nimodipine on acute ischemic stroke: pooled results from five randomized trials. Stroke. 1990; 21(Suppl IV):IV-81-4.

243. Muck W, Wingender W, Seiberling M et al. Influence of the H2-receptor antagonists cimetadine and ranitidine on the pharmacokinetics of nimodipine in healthy volunteers. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1992; 42:325-8.

244. Ramadan NM, Silberstein SD, Freitag FG et al. Evidence-based guidelines for migraine headache in the primary care setting: pharmacological management for prevention of migraine. St. Paul, MN; 2001. From the American Academy of Neurology web site.

245. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). FDA alert for healthcare professionals regarding potential serious medication administration errors from parenteral use of nimodipine capsules (marketed as Nimotop). From FDA website. Accessed on May 23, 2006.

246. Tucker E. Dear health care provider letter: Important drug warning regarding potential serious and life-threatening medication errors from parenteral use of Nimotop(nimodipine capsules). West Haven, CT; 2006 Feb.

247. Kaste M, Fogelholm R, Erila T et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of nimodipine in acute ischemic hemispheric stroke. Stroke. 1994; 25:1348-53.

248. Food and Drug Administration. Nimodipine oral capsules: medication errors--IV administration may result in death, serious harms. Rockville, MD; 2010 Aug 2. From the FDA website:

249. Food and Drug Administration. FDA drug safety communication: serious medication errors from intravenous administration of nimodipine oral capsules. Rockville, MD; 2010 Aug 2. From the FDA website:

250. FDA drug safety podcast for healthcare professionals: serious medication errors from intravenous administration of nimodipine oral capsules. Rockville, MD; 2010 Aug 2. From FDA website:

d. AHFS drug information 2006. McEvoy GK, ed. Nimodipine. Bethesda, MD: American Society of Health-System Pharmacists; 2006:1875-80.