Class: Antineoplastic Agents
- HDAC Inhibitors
- Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors
Chemical Name: N-Hydroxy-3-[3-[(phenylamino)sulfonyl]phenyl]-2-propenamide
Molecular Formula: C15H14N2O4S
CAS Number: 414864-00-9
Antineoplastic agent; a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor.
Uses for Belinostat
Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma
Treatment of relapsed or refractory peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) (designated an orphan drug by FDA for treatment of this cancer ). Efficacy determined based on overall response rate and duration of response in a noncomparative, open-label study in patients with relapsed or refractory PTCL.
Belinostat Dosage and Administration
Obtain CBC prior to initiation of therapy and weekly during therapy. Perform serum chemistry tests, including hepatic and renal function tests, before the first belinostat dose of each treatment cycle. (See Dosage Modification under Dosage and Administration.)
Consult specialized references for procedures for proper handling and disposal of antineoplastics.
For solution compatibility information, see Compatibility under Stability.
Administer by IV infusion through a 0.22-µm inline filter.
Belinostat powder for injection must be reconstituted and diluted prior to administration. (See Storage under Stability.)
Reconstitute vial containing 500 mg of belinostat with 9 mL of sterile water for injection to provide a solution containing 50 mg/mL. Swirl vial to ensure dissolution.
Dilute appropriate dose in 250 mL of 0.9% sodium chloride injection.
Rate of Administration
Administer over 30 minutes.
If infusion site reactions (e.g., pain) occur, may administer over 45 minutes.
Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma
1 g/m2 daily on days 1–5 of each 21-day cycle. Continue therapy until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity occurs.
For nadir ANC ≥500/mm3 and nadir platelet count ≥25,000/mm3, interrupt therapy until ANC ≥1000/mm3 and platelet count ≥50,000/mm3, and then resume at the same dosage.
For nadir ANC <500/mm3 with any platelet count, interrupt therapy until ANC ≥1000/mm3 and platelet count ≥50,000/mm3; upon resumption, reduce dosage by 25%.
For nadir platelet count <25,000/mm3 with any ANC, interrupt therapy until ANC ≥1000/mm3 and platelet count ≥50,000/mm3; upon resumption, reduce dosage by 25%.
If ANC <500/mm3 and/or platelet count <25,000/mm3 recurs following 2 dosage reductions, discontinue therapy.
For prolonged grade 3 or 4 nausea, vomiting, and/or diarrhea (persisting for >7 days despite supportive management) or for other grade 3 or 4 nonhematologic toxicity, interrupt therapy until toxicity resolves to grade 2 or less; upon resumption, reduce dosage by 25%.
If grade 3 or 4 nonhematologic toxicity recurs following 2 dosage reductions, discontinue therapy.
Reduced UGT1A1 ActivityIV
In patients who are homozygous for the UGT1A1*28 allele, reduce initial dose to 750 mg/m2. (See Elimination: Special Populations, under Pharmacokinetics.)
Moderate or severe hepatic impairment: Insufficient data to provide dosage recommendations. (See Hepatic Impairment under Cautions.)
Clcr ≤39 mL/minute: Insufficient data to provide dosage recommendations. (See Renal Impairment under Cautions.)
No specific dosage recommendations at this time. (See Geriatric Use under Cautions.)
Cautions for Belinostat
No known contraindications.
Thrombocytopenia, leukopenia (neutropenia and lymphopenia), and/or anemia may occur.
Monitor CBC weekly during therapy. (See Dosage Modification under Dosage and Administration.)
Serious and sometimes fatal infections, including pneumonia and sepsis, reported.
Risk for life-threatening infections may be increased in patients with history of extensive or intensive chemotherapy.
Patients with active infection should not receive belinostat.
Fatal hepatotoxicity and liver function test abnormalities may occur.
Perform liver function tests prior to initiation of therapy and prior to each cycle. (See Dosage Modification under Dosage and Administration.)
Tumor Lysis Syndrome
Tumor lysis syndrome, including at least 1 death, reported.
Increased risk of tumor lysis syndrome in patients with advanced stage disease and/or large tumor burden. Monitor closely and take appropriate precautions.
Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea occur frequently.
Antiemetic and antidiarrheal therapy may be necessary.
Fetal/Neonatal Morbidity and Mortality
May cause fetal harm. Based on mechanism of action, embryo and fetal lethality and teratogenicity may occur. Avoid pregnancy during therapy. If used during pregnancy or patient becomes pregnant, apprise of potential fetal hazard.
Impairment of Fertility
Animal studies suggest belinostat may impair male fertility.
Category D. (See Fetal/Neonatal Morbidity and Mortality under Cautions.)
Not known whether belinostat is distributed into milk. Discontinue nursing or the drug.
Safety and efficacy not established.
In patients with PTCL, overall response rate was 36% in patients ≥65 years of age compared with 16% in patients <65 years of age. No substantial differences in overall response rate in patients ≥75 years of age relative to younger adults.
No clinically important differences in safety relative to younger adults.
Data lacking in patients with moderate or severe hepatic impairment (total bilirubin concentration >1.5 times the ULN). (See Elimination under Pharmacokinetics.)
Systemic exposure not affected by Clcr >39 mL/minute.
Data lacking in patients with Clcr ≤39 mL/minute. (See Elimination under Pharmacokinetics.)
Common Adverse Effects
Nausea, fatigue, pyrexia, anemia, vomiting, constipation, diarrhea, dyspnea, rash, peripheral edema, cough, thrombocytopenia , pruritus, chills, elevated concentrations of serum LDH, decreased appetite, headache, infusion site pain, hypokalemia, prolonged QT interval, abdominal pain, hypotension, phlebitis, dizziness.
Interactions for Belinostat
Metabolized principally (80–90%) by UGT1A1.
Belinostat and its metabolites, including belinostat glucuronide, belinostat amide, and methyl belinostat, inhibit CYP2C8 and CYP2C9. Other metabolites, including 3-(anilinosulfonyl)-benzenecarboxylic acid (3-ASBA) and belinostat acid, inhibit CYP2C8.
Likely substrate, but unlikely inhibitor, of P-glycoprotein (P-gp).
Drugs Affecting Uridine Diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT)
Potent UGT1A1 inhibitors: Possible pharmacokinetic interaction (increased systemic exposure of belinostat). Avoid concomitant use.
No substantial effect on AUC and peak plasma concentration of R- or S-warfarin
Not known whether belinostat is distributed into milk.
Plasma Protein Binding
Systemic exposure not affected by Clcr >39 mL/minute.
Extensively metabolized in the liver, principally (80–90%) by UGT1A1. Also metabolized to belinostat amide and belinostat acid by CYP2A6, 2C9, and 3A4; enzymes responsible for conversion to methyl belinostat and 3-ASBA not determined to date.
Main circulating metabolites are excreted in urine; 2 metabolites (3-ASBA and belinostat glucuronide) predominate (4.61 and 30.5% of dose, respectively).
Minimally (<2%) excreted in urine as unchanged drug.
1.1 hours (over dosage range of 150–1200 mg/m2).
In patients with genetic polymorphisms associated with reduced UGT1A1 activity (e.g., individuals homozygous for the UGT1A1*28 allele), clearance may be reduced.
Powder for Injection
Unreconstituted drug: 20–25°C (may be exposed to 15–30°C).
Reconstituted drug: 15–25°C for up to 12 hours.
Diluted infusion solution: 15–25°C for up to 36 hours (including infusion time).
For information on systemic interactions resulting from concomitant use, see Interactions.
Sodium chloride 0.9%
Inhibits enzymatic activity of histone deacetylases and exhibits cytotoxic activity and induces apoptosis in various tumor cell lines at nanomolar concentrations; HDAC enzymes catalyze the removal of acetyl groups from the lysine residues of proteins, including histones and transcription factors.
Overexpression of HDAC enzymes or aberrant recruitment of HDAC enzymes to oncogenic transcription factors causing hypoacetylation of core nucleosomal histones observed in some cancer cells.
Hypoacetylation of histones is associated with a condensed chromatin structure and repression of gene transcription.
Inhibition of HDAC activity allows for accumulation of acetyl groups on the histone lysine residues, resulting in an open chromatin structure and transcriptional activation.
In vitro, causes accumulation of acetylated histones and induces cell cycle arrest and/or apoptosis of some transformed cells.
Advice to Patients
Importance of instructing patients to read the manufacturer’s patient information carefully before starting therapy and before each treatment.
Importance of informing patients that nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea occur frequently and antiemetic and/or antidiarrheal therapy may be necessary. Importance of informing clinicians if nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea occurs.
Risk of cytopenias. Importance of informing clinician immediately if unusual bleeding or bruising, tiredness, pallor, shortness of breath, or infection occurs.
Risk of infections. Importance of informing clinician if fever, flu-like symptoms, cough, shortness of breath, burning on urination, muscle aches, or worsening skin problems occur.
Risk of fetal harm. Importance of women informing clinicians if they are or plan to become pregnant or plan to breast-feed. Advise women of childbearing potential to avoid pregnancy. Apprise patient of potential fetal hazard if used during pregnancy.
Risk of hepatotoxicity and importance of liver function test monitoring. Importance of informing clinician if icteric changes, dark urine, pruritus, or abdominal pain (particularly in right upper quadrant) occurs.
Risk of tumor lysis syndrome.
Importance of informing clinicians of existing or contemplated concomitant therapy, including prescription and OTC drugs and herbal supplements, as well as any concomitant illnesses (e.g., hepatic impairment).
Importance of informing patients of other important precautionary information. (See Cautions.)
Excipients in commercially available drug preparations may have clinically important effects in some individuals; consult specific product labeling for details.
Please refer to the ASHP Drug Shortages Resource Center for information on shortages of one or more of these preparations.
For injection, for IV infusion
AHFS DI Essentials™. © Copyright 2021, Selected Revisions March 9, 2015. American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc., 4500 East-West Highway, Suite 900, Bethesda, Maryland 20814.
More about belinostat
- Side Effects
- During Pregnancy
- Dosage Information
- Drug Interactions
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- Drug class: histone deacetylase inhibitors