Medications for ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder)
Other names: ADD; Attention Deficit Disorder; Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD); Childhood Hyperkinesis
What is Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)?
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common behavioral disorder diagnosed in roughly 10 percent of school-aged children and adolescents. There are three main subgroups of ADHD:
- Predominantly inattentive ADHD: inattention is the main characteristic, daydreaming is common
- Predominantly hyperactive/impulsive ADHD: hyperactivity and impulsiveness predominate
- Combined ADHD: all three behaviors (inattention, hyperactivity and impulsiveness) are present.
What are the Symptoms of ADHD?
Each person varies in the severity and frequency of their symptoms. Originally it was thought that ADHD was more common in boys; however, experts believe girls are more likely to present with inattentive characteristics and are more likely overlooked. ADHD occurs across all races and socioeconomic groups.
Symptoms can be grouped depending on the predominant behavior.
Examples of inattentive behavior include:
- Being easily distracted
- Making silly mistakes
- Often late
- Short attention span.
Examples of hyperactive behavior include:
- Constantly moving
- High energy levels
- Trouble sitting still
- Trouble switching off/sleeping.
Examples of impulsive behavior include:
- Acting without thinking
- Blurting out answers/secrets
- Prone to accidents.
Other symptoms that are common to people with ADHD include:
- High Intelligence
- Delayed social maturity
What Causes ADHD?
The causes of ADHD are not fully known, but research is actively ongoing. There does appear to be a link between a family history of ADHD (genetics) with over 25% of relatives of families with a child with ADHD who also had the condition. There is also an 82% chance that identical twins will both have ADHD if at least one of them has the condition compared to a 38% chance among fraternal twins.
Other factors that have been identified as possibly contributing to ADHD include:
- Brain injury from a traumatic event (eg, stroke, head trauma, tumor)
- Exposure to lead after birth
- Low birth weight
- Fetal exposure to alcohol or cigarette smoke
There is no evidence that poor parenting, certain foods, sugar, or vaccinations cause ADHD.
How is ADHD Diagnosed?
If your child has symptoms suggestive of ADHD then talk with your doctor or pediatrician. They will talk with you, your child, and possibly your child’s school and ask questions that focus on:
- Ability to control emotions
- Home and school relationships
They will ask if your family has any other family members with ADHD. Most cases of ADHD are diagnosed at age 7 or 8, but symptoms may begin sooner. ADHD usually still persists into adulthood; however, some people have learned how to manage their symptoms better so it may not be as noticeable.
How is ADHD Treated?
Behavioral education should be considered as first-line treatment for any case of ADHD, particularly in children aged less than 6 years of age, with mild symptoms, or if the family prefers this option over drug therapy.
Pharmacological treatments for ADHD include:
- Amphetamine and dextroamphetamine salts
- Other treatments, such as clonidine or guanfacine.
Drugs Used to Treat ADHD
The following list of medications are in some way related to, or used in the treatment of this condition.
|Drug name||Rx / OTC||Pregnancy||CSA||Alcohol||Reviews||Rating||Activity|
|imipramine Off Label||3 reviews||
Generic name: imipramine systemic
Drug class: tricyclic antidepressants
Off Label: Yes
Topics under ADHD
- Oppositional Defiant Disorder (1 drug)
Alternative treatments for ADHD
The following products are considered to be alternative treatments or natural remedies for ADHD. Their efficacy may not have been scientifically tested to the same degree as the drugs listed in the table above. However there may be historical, cultural or anecdotal evidence linking their use to the treatment of ADHD.
Learn more about ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder)
Symptoms and treatments
Drugs.com Health Center
ICD-10 CM Clinical Codes (External)
|OTC||Over the Counter|
|Rx/OTC||Prescription or Over the Counter|
|Off Label||This medication may not be approved by the FDA for the treatment of this condition.|
|A||Adequate and well-controlled studies have failed to demonstrate a risk to the fetus in the first trimester of pregnancy (and there is no evidence of risk in later trimesters).|
|B||Animal reproduction studies have failed to demonstrate a risk to the fetus and there are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women.|
|C||Animal reproduction studies have shown an adverse effect on the fetus and there are no adequate and well-controlled studies in humans, but potential benefits may warrant use in pregnant women despite potential risks.|
|D||There is positive evidence of human fetal risk based on adverse reaction data from investigational or marketing experience or studies in humans, but potential benefits may warrant use in pregnant women despite potential risks.|
|X||Studies in animals or humans have demonstrated fetal abnormalities and/or there is positive evidence of human fetal risk based on adverse reaction data from investigational or marketing experience, and the risks involved in use in pregnant women clearly outweigh potential benefits.|
|N||FDA has not classified the drug.|
|Controlled Substances Act (CSA) Schedule|
|N||Is not subject to the Controlled Substances Act.|
|1||Has a high potential for abuse. Has no currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States. There is a lack of accepted safety for use under medical supervision.|
|2||Has a high potential for abuse. Has a currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States or a currently accepted medical use with severe restrictions. Abuse may lead to severe psychological or physical dependence.|
|3||Has a potential for abuse less than those in schedules 1 and 2. Has a currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States. Abuse may lead to moderate or low physical dependence or high psychological dependence.|
|4||Has a low potential for abuse relative to those in schedule 3. It has a currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States. Abuse may lead to limited physical dependence or psychological dependence relative to those in schedule 3.|
|5||Has a low potential for abuse relative to those in schedule 4. Has a currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States. Abuse may lead to limited physical dependence or psychological dependence relative to those in schedule 4.|
|X||Interacts with Alcohol.|
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