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Normal Growth and Development of Adolescents
WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW:
Normal growth and development is how your adolescent grows physically, mentally, emotionally, and socially. An adolescent is 10 to 20 years old. This time period is divided into 3 stages, including early (10 to 13 years of age), middle (14 to 17 years of age), and late (18 to 20 years of age).
Your child's voice will get deeper and body odor will develop. Acne may appear. Hair begins to grow on certain parts of your child's body, such as underarms or face. Boys grow about 4 inches per year during this time frame. Girls grow about 3½ inches per year. Boys gain about 20 pounds per year. Girls gain about 18 pounds per year.
Emotional and social changes:
- Your child may become more independent. He may spend less time with family and more time with friends. His responsibility will increase and he may learn to depend on himself.
- Your child may be influenced by his friends and peer pressure. He may try things like smoking, drinking alcohol, or become sexually active.
- Your child's relationships with others will grow. He may learn to think of the needs of others before himself.
- Your child will change how he views himself. He will begin to develop his own ideals, values, and principles. He may find new beliefs and question old ones.
- Your child will learn to think in new ways and understand complex ideas. He will learn through selective and divided attention. Your child will think logically, use sound judgment, and develop abstract thinking. Abstract thinking is the ability to understand and make sense out of symbols or images.
- Your child will develop his self-image and plan for the future. He will decide who he wants to be and what he wants to do in life. He sets realistic goals and has learned the difference between goals, fantasy, and reality.
Help your child develop:
- Set clear rules and be consistent. Be a good role model for your child. Talk to your child about sex, drugs, and alcohol.
- Get involved in your child's activities. Stay in contact with his teachers. Get to know his friends. Spend time with him and be there for him. Learn the early signs of drug use, depression, and eating problems, such as anorexia or bulimia. This can give you a chance to help your child before problems become serious.
- Encourage good nutrition and at least 1 hour of exercise each day. Good nutrition includes fruit, vegetables, and protein, such as chicken, fish, and beans. Limit foods that are high in fat and sugar. Make sure he eats breakfast to give him energy for the day.
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