Ramipril Side Effects
It is possible that some side effects of ramipril may not have been reported. These can be reported to the FDA here. Always consult a healthcare professional for medical advice.
For the Consumer
Applies to ramipril: oral capsule, oral tablet
As well as its needed effects, ramipril may cause unwanted side effects that require medical attention.
If any of the following side effects occur while taking ramipril, check with your doctor immediately:More common
- Blurred vision
- dizziness, faintness, or lightheadedness when getting up suddenly from a lying or sitting position
- unusual tiredness or weakness
- Arm, back, or jaw pain
- chest pain or discomfort
- chest tightness or heaviness
- cloudy urine
- cold sweats
- decrease in urine output or decrease in urine-concentrating ability
- fast or irregular heartbeat
- shortness of breath
Some ramipril side effects may not need any medical attention. As your body gets used to the medicine these side effects may disappear. Your health care professional may be able to help you prevent or reduce these side effects, but do check with them if any of the following side effects continue, or if you are concerned about them:More common
- feeling of constant movement of self or surroundings
- sensation of spinning
For Healthcare Professionals
Applies to ramipril: oral capsule, oral tablet
Ramipril is generally well-tolerated. Most side effects are reported as often in patients taking placebo. Less than 3% of patients discontinue ramipril due to an adverse drug event.
Nervous system side effects include headache, dizziness, and lightheadedness in 2% to 5% of patients. Asthenia and fatigue occur in 2% of patients.
The exact mechanism by which ACE inhibitors produce angioedema is not well known, but is believed to involve stimulation of the kallikrein-kinin system, particularly in patients who are genetically or environmentally predisposed.
Cardiovascular problems are limited mainly to hypotension in 0.5% of patients. Angioneurotic edema is reported in 0.1% to 0.5% of patients, and may be fatal.
Rare cases of abdominal pain associated with elevated enzymes suggestive of pancreatitis are reported.
Gastrointestinal complaints of nausea or dyspepsia are reported in approximately 1% of patients. Rare problems include general abdominal pain or fullness, dry mouth, dysphasia, constipation, diarrhea, gastroenteritis, anorexia, vomiting, increased salivation, and dysgeusia.
Several agents have been studied for treating cough with ACE inhibitors. No long term trials exist to allow a definitive treatment option. Cromolyn has the most data showing some benefit. Other agents studied include baclofen, theophylline, sulindac, and benzonatate.
Respiratory side effects are limited to an idiosyncratic and reversible cough in approximately 3% of patients.
Renal insufficiency occurs in approximately 1% to 2% of patients and is usually transient. In general, ACE inhibitor-induced renal insufficiency is much more likely in sodium- or intravascular volume-depleted patients, or in those patients on concomitant diuretic therapy.
In one study of 13 patients with congestive heart failure, mean creatinine clearance increased during ramipril therapy.
Ramipril has not been associated with deleterious changes in blood glucose or serum lipids in patients with diabetes mellitus.
Increases in serum potassium are associated with ACE inhibitors because they decrease aldosterone secretion, which usually promotes renal potassium excretion.
The mechanism of hyponatremia (rare) is unknown. Hyponatremia associated with ACE inhibitors presents like SIADH and may be due to inhibition of bradykinin metabolism or direct stimulation of ADH secretion by angiotensin II in the central nervous system (angiotensin I accumulates during ACE inhibitor therapy and crosses the blood-brain barrier).
Ramipril, like other ACE inhibitors does not appear to exert a significant effect on plasma glucose, insulin, or C-peptide levels.
Metabolic changes include significant increases in serum potassium in 1% to 2% of patients. Extremely rare cases of hyponatremia have been associated with the use of ramipril (and other ACE inhibitors) in the elderly.
Genitourinary complaints are limited to impotence in 0.4% of patients.
Patients with intestinal angioedema generally present with abdominal pain (with or without nausea or vomiting) and in some cases there was no prior history of facial angioedema, and C-1 esterase levels were normal. These symptoms resolve after stopping the ACE inhibitor.
Hypersensitivity reactions to angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors may be life threatening. Angioedema of the face, extremities, lips, tongue, glottis and/or pharynx have been reported rarely in patients receiving ACE inhibitors. In addition, intestinal angioedema has been reported in patients treated with ACE inhibitors. It is recommended that any patient with dyspnea, dysphagia, or significant facial angioedema stop therapy immediately and avoid ACE inhibitor therapy in general.
Dermatitis, pruritus, and photosensitivity have also been reported.
ACE inhibitors have been used to treat post renal transplant erythrocytosis. Data have shown that they may decrease circulating erythropoietin levels in these patients.
Hematologic side effects including agranulocytosis have been associated with ACE inhibitors including ramipril.
Musculoskeletal pains--both arthralgias and myalgias--have rarely been associated with the use of some ACE inhibitors, including ramipril.
Dermatologic side effects are typically the result of hypersensitivity reactions. Rare cases of pemphigus, including lichen planus pemphigoides, have been associated with the use of ramipril and other ACE inhibitors. In addition, Stevens-Johnson syndrome has been associated with ramipril therapy.
Drug-induced pemphigus has also been associated with a related drug, captopril. The mechanism remains unknown but drugs containing a thiol group may be involved as they are able to produce acantholysis of epidermal cells in vitro. Drugs containing an amide group have also been associated with pemphigus. These include enalapril which also induced acantholysis in vitro. (Four cases of enalapril-induced pemphigus have been reported.) Spontaneous remission of the skin lesions after drug withdrawal is less common with drugs containing the amide group compared with drugs containing the thiol group (15% vs. 50%).
Hepatic side effects including hepatic failure, hepatitis, jaundice and pancreatitis have been reported rarely.
More about ramipril
- Other brands: Altace
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