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Telmisartan

Pronunciation

Pronunciation

(tel mi SAR tan)

Dosage Forms

Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for generics); consult specific product labeling.

Tablet, Oral:

Micardis: 20 mg, 40 mg, 80 mg

Generic: 20 mg, 40 mg, 80 mg

Brand Names: U.S.

  • Micardis

Pharmacologic Category

  • Angiotensin II Receptor Blocker
  • Antihypertensive

Pharmacology

Angiotensin II acts as a vasoconstrictor. In addition to causing direct vasoconstriction, angiotensin II also stimulates the release of aldosterone. Once aldosterone is released, sodium as well as water is reabsorbed. The end result is an elevation in blood pressure. Telmisartan is a nonpeptide AT1 angiotensin II receptor antagonist. This binding prevents angiotensin II from binding to the receptor thereby blocking the vasoconstriction and the aldosterone secreting effects of angiotensin II.

Distribution

Vd: 500 L

Metabolism

Hepatic via conjugation to inactive metabolites; not metabolized via CYP

Excretion

Feces (97%)

Clearance: Total body: 800 mL/minute

Onset of Action

1 to 2 hours; Peak effect: 0.5 to 1 hours

Time to Peak

Plasma: 0.5 to 1 hours

Duration of Action

Up to 24 hours

Half-Life Elimination

Terminal: 24 hours

Protein Binding

>99.5%; primarily to albumin and alpha1-acid glycoprotein

Special Populations: Renal Function Impairment

Telmisartan is not removed from blood by hemofiltration.

Special Populations: Hepatic Function Impairment

Plasma concentrations are increased and absolute bioavailability approaches 100%.

Special Populations: Gender

Plasma concentrations are generally 2 to 3 times higher in women than in men.

Use: Labeled Indications

Cardiovascular risk reduction: Cardiovascular risk reduction in patients ≥55 years of age unable to take ACE inhibitors and who are at high risk of major cardiovascular events (eg, MI, stroke, death)

Hypertension: For the treatment of hypertension, alone or in combination with other antihypertensive agents

Guideline recommendations:

Hypertension: The 2014 guideline for the management of high blood pressure in adults (Eighth Joint National Committee [JNC 8; James, 2013]) recommends initiation of pharmacologic treatment to lower blood pressure for the following patients:

• Patients ≥60 years of age with systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥150 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥90 mm Hg. Goal of therapy is SBP <150 mm Hg and DBP <90 mm Hg.

• Patients <60 years of age with SBP ≥140 mm Hg or DBP ≥90 mm Hg. Goal of therapy is SBP <140 mm Hg and DBP <90 mm Hg.

• Patients ≥18 years of age with diabetes and SBP ≥140 mm Hg or DBP ≥90 mm Hg. Goal of therapy is SBP <140 mm Hg and DBP <90 mm Hg.

• Patients ≥18 years of age with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and SBP ≥140 mm Hg or DBP ≥90 mm Hg. Goal of therapy is SBP <140 mm Hg and DBP <90 mm Hg.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and hypertension: Regardless of race or diabetes status, the use of an ACE inhibitor (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) as initial therapy is recommended to improve kidney outcomes. In the general nonblack population (without CKD), including those with diabetes, initial antihypertensive treatment should consist of a thiazide-type diuretic, calcium channel blocker, ACEI, or ARB. In the general black population (without CKD), including those with diabetes, initial antihypertensive treatment should consist of a thiazide-type diuretic or a calcium channel blocker instead of an ACEI or ARB.

Coronary artery disease and hypertension: The American Heart Association, American College of Cardiology and American Society of Hypertension (AHA/ACC/ASH) 2015 scientific statement for the treatment of hypertension in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) recommends the use of an ARB (or ACE inhibitor) as part of a regimen in patients with hypertension and chronic stable angina if there is prior MI, LV systolic dysfunction, diabetes mellitus, or CKD. A BP target of <140/90 mm Hg is reasonable for the secondary prevention of cardiovascular events. A lower target BP (<130/80 mm Hg) may be appropriate in some individuals with CAD, previous MI, stroke or transient ischemic attack, or CAD risk equivalents (AHA/ACC/ASH [Rosendorff 2015]).

Contraindications

Known hypersensitivity (eg, anaphylaxis, angioedema) to telmisartan or any component of the formulation; concurrent use of aliskiren in patients with diabetes

Canadian labeling: Additional contraindications: Concomitant use with aliskiren in patients with moderate-to-severe renal impairment (GFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2); pregnancy; breast-feeding; fructose intolerance

Dosage

Adults: Oral:

Hypertension: Initial: 40 mg once daily; usual dosage range (ASH/ISH [Weber, 2014]): 40 to 80 mg daily. Patients with volume depletion should be initiated on the lower dosage with close supervision.

Cardiovascular risk reduction: Oral: 80 mg once daily. Note: It is unknown whether doses <80 mg daily are associated with a reduction in risk of cardiovascular morbidity or mortality.

Elderly: Refer to adult dosing.

Dosage adjustment in renal impairment: No dosage adjustment necessary; hemodialysis patients are more susceptible to orthostatic hypotension

Dosage adjustment in hepatic impairment: Initiate therapy with low dose; titrate slowly and monitor closely.

Canadian labeling: Recommended initial dose: 40 mg daily

Administration

May be administered without regard to meals.

Dietary Considerations

May be taken without regard to meals. Product contains sorbitol.

Storage

Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions are permitted between 15°C and 30°C (59°F and 86°F). Tablets should not be removed from blisters until immediately before administration.

Drug Interactions

ACE Inhibitors: Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of ACE Inhibitors. Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers may increase the serum concentration of ACE Inhibitors. Management: In US labeling, use of telmisartan and ramipril is not recommended. It is not clear if any other combination of an ACE inhibitor and an ARB would be any safer. Consider alternatives to the combination when possible. Consider therapy modification

Alfuzosin: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy

Aliskiren: May enhance the hyperkalemic effect of Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers. Aliskiren may enhance the hypotensive effect of Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers. Aliskiren may enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers. Management: Aliskiren use with ACEIs or ARBs in patients with diabetes is contraindicated. Combined use in other patients should be avoided, particularly when CrCl is less than 60 mL/min. If combined, monitor potassium, creatinine, and blood pressure closely. Consider therapy modification

Amifostine: Blood Pressure Lowering Agents may enhance the hypotensive effect of Amifostine. Management: When amifostine is used at chemotherapy doses, blood pressure lowering medications should be withheld for 24 hours prior to amifostine administration. If blood pressure lowering therapy cannot be withheld, amifostine should not be administered. Consider therapy modification

Amphetamines: May diminish the antihypertensive effect of Antihypertensive Agents. Monitor therapy

Antipsychotic Agents (Second Generation [Atypical]): Blood Pressure Lowering Agents may enhance the hypotensive effect of Antipsychotic Agents (Second Generation [Atypical]). Monitor therapy

Barbiturates: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy

Brimonidine (Topical): May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy

Canagliflozin: May enhance the hyperkalemic effect of Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers. Canagliflozin may enhance the hypotensive effect of Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers. Monitor therapy

Cardiac Glycosides: Telmisartan may increase the serum concentration of Cardiac Glycosides. Monitor therapy

Ciprofloxacin (Systemic): Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers may enhance the arrhythmogenic effect of Ciprofloxacin (Systemic). Monitor therapy

CycloSPORINE (Systemic): Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers may enhance the hyperkalemic effect of CycloSPORINE (Systemic). Monitor therapy

Dapoxetine: May enhance the orthostatic hypotensive effect of Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers. Monitor therapy

Diazoxide: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy

Drospirenone: Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers may enhance the hyperkalemic effect of Drospirenone. Monitor therapy

DULoxetine: Blood Pressure Lowering Agents may enhance the hypotensive effect of DULoxetine. Monitor therapy

Eplerenone: May enhance the hyperkalemic effect of Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers. Monitor therapy

Heparin: May enhance the hyperkalemic effect of Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers. Monitor therapy

Heparin (Low Molecular Weight): May enhance the hyperkalemic effect of Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers. Monitor therapy

Herbs (Hypertensive Properties): May diminish the antihypertensive effect of Antihypertensive Agents. Monitor therapy

Herbs (Hypotensive Properties): May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy

Hypotension-Associated Agents: Blood Pressure Lowering Agents may enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotension-Associated Agents. Monitor therapy

Levodopa: Blood Pressure Lowering Agents may enhance the hypotensive effect of Levodopa. Monitor therapy

Lithium: Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers may increase the serum concentration of Lithium. Management: Lithium dosage reductions will likely be needed following the addition of an angiotensin II receptor antagonist. Consider therapy modification

Methylphenidate: May diminish the antihypertensive effect of Antihypertensive Agents. Monitor therapy

Molsidomine: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy

Nicorandil: May enhance the hyperkalemic effect of Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers. Monitor therapy

Nicorandil: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy

Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents. Specifically, the combination may result in a significant decrease in renal function. Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers. The combination of these two agents may also significantly decrease glomerular filtration and renal function. Monitor therapy

Obinutuzumab: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Management: Consider temporarily withholding blood pressure lowering medications beginning 12 hours prior to obinutuzumab infusion and continuing until 1 hour after the end of the infusion. Consider therapy modification

Pentoxifylline: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy

Phosphodiesterase 5 Inhibitors: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy

Potassium Salts: May enhance the hyperkalemic effect of Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers. Monitor therapy

Potassium-Sparing Diuretics: Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers may enhance the hyperkalemic effect of Potassium-Sparing Diuretics. Monitor therapy

Prostacyclin Analogues: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy

Ramipril: Telmisartan may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Ramipril. Telmisartan may increase the serum concentration of Ramipril. Concentrations of the active metabolite, ramiprilat, may also be increased. Avoid combination

Sodium Phosphates: Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers may enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Sodium Phosphates. Specifically, the risk of acute phosphate nephropathy may be enhanced. Management: Consider avoiding this combination by temporarily suspending treatment with ARBs, or seeking alternatives to oral sodium phosphate bowel preparation. If the combination cannot be avoided, maintain adequate hydration and monitor renal function closely. Consider therapy modification

Tolvaptan: May enhance the hyperkalemic effect of Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers. Monitor therapy

Trimethoprim: May enhance the hyperkalemic effect of Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers. Monitor therapy

Yohimbine: May diminish the antihypertensive effect of Antihypertensive Agents. Monitor therapy

Adverse Reactions

May be associated with worsening of renal function in patients dependent on renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.

1% to 10%:

Cardiovascular: Intermittent claudication (7%; placebo 6%), chest pain (≥1%), hypertension (≥1%), peripheral edema (≥1%)

Central nervous system: Dizziness (≥1%), fatigue (≥1%), headache (≥1%), pain (≥1%)

Dermatologic: Skin ulcer (3%; placebo 2%)

Gastrointestinal: Diarrhea (3%), abdominal pain (≥1%), dyspepsia (≥1%), nausea (≥1%)

Genitourinary: Urinary tract infection (≥1%)

Neuromuscular & skeletal: Back pain (3%), myalgia (≥1%)

Respiratory: Upper respiratory infection (7%), sinusitis (3%), cough (≥1%), pharyngitis (1%)

<1% (Limited to important or life-threatening): Abnormal ECG, abscess, allergic reaction, anaphylaxis, anemia, angina, angioedema, arthritis, asthma, atrial fibrillation, bradycardia, cerebrovascular disorder, CHF, conjunctivitis, creatinine kinase increased, depression, diabetes mellitus, eczema, edema, epistaxis, erectile dysfunction, fixed drug eruption, fungal infection, gastroenteritis, gout, hepatic dysfunction, hypercholesterolemia, hyperkalemia, hypersensitivity, hypoglycemia (diabetic patients), hypotension, impotence, insomnia, MI, migraine, neoplasm, orthostatic hypotension (more frequent in dialysis patients), otitis media, renal failure, rhabdomyolysis, reflux, serum creatinine increased, syncope, tachycardia, tendon pain, thrombocytopenia, uric acid increased

ALERT: U.S. Boxed Warning

Fetal toxicity:

When pregnancy is detected, discontinue telmisartan as soon as possible. Drugs that act directly on the renin-angiotensin system can cause injury and even death to the developing fetus.

Warnings/Precautions

Concerns related to adverse effects:

• Angioedema: Angioedema has been reported rarely with some angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs) and may occur at any time during treatment (especially following first dose). It may involve the head and neck (potentially compromising airway) or the intestine (presenting with abdominal pain). Patients with idiopathic or hereditary angioedema or previous angioedema associated with ACE-inhibitor therapy may be at an increased risk. Prolonged frequent monitoring may be required, especially if tongue, glottis, or larynx are involved, as they are associated with airway obstruction. Patients with a history of airway surgery may have a higher risk of airway obstruction. Discontinue therapy immediately if angioedema occurs. Aggressive early management is critical. Intramuscular (IM) administration of epinephrine may be necessary. Do not readminister to patients who have had angioedema with ARBs.

• Hyperkalemia: May occur; risk factors include renal dysfunction, diabetes mellitus, concomitant use of potassium-sparing diuretics, potassium supplements and/or potassium containing salts. Use cautiously, if at all, with these agents and monitor potassium closely.

• Hypotension: Symptomatic hypotension may occur upon initiation in patients who are salt- or volume-depleted (eg, those treated with high-dose diuretics); correct volume depletion prior to administration. This transient hypotensive response is not a contraindication to further treatment with telmisartan.

• Renal function deterioration: May be associated with deterioration of renal function and/or increases in serum creatinine, particularly in patients with low renal blood flow (eg, renal artery stenosis, heart failure) whose glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is dependent on efferent arteriolar vasoconstriction by angiotensin II; deterioration may result in oliguria, acute renal failure, and progressive azotemia. Small increases in serum creatinine may occur following initiation; consider discontinuation only in patients with progressive and/or significant deterioration in renal function.

Disease-related concerns:

• Aortic/mitral stenosis: Use with caution in patients with significant aortic/mitral stenosis.

• Hepatic impairment: Use with caution in patients who have biliary obstructive disorders or hepatic dysfunction.

• Renal artery stenosis: Use telmisartan with caution in patients with unstented unilateral/bilateral renal artery stenosis. When unstented bilateral renal artery stenosis is present, use is generally avoided due to the elevated risk of deterioration in renal function unless possible benefits outweigh risks.

• Renal impairment: Use with caution with pre-existing renal insufficiency and severe renal impairment.

Concurrent drug therapy issues:

• Drug-drug interactions: Potentially significant interactions may exist, requiring dose or frequency adjustment, additional monitoring, and/or selection of alternative therapy. Consult drug interactions database for more detailed information.

Special populations:

• Pregnancy: [U.S. Boxed Warning]: Drugs that act on the renin-angiotensin system can cause injury and death to the developing fetus. Discontinue as soon as possible once pregnancy is detected.

• Surgical patients: In patients on chronic angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) therapy, intraoperative hypotension may occur with induction and maintenance of general anesthesia; however, discontinuation of therapy prior to surgery is controversial. If continued preoperatively, avoidance of hypotensive agents during surgery is prudent (Hillis, 2011).

Dosage form specific issues:

• Sorbitol: Product contains sorbitol. The Canadian labeling contraindicates use in fructose intolerant patients.

Monitoring Parameters

Blood pressure; electrolytes, serum creatinine, BUN

Pregnancy Risk Factor

D

Pregnancy Considerations

[U.S. Boxed Warning]: Drugs that act on the renin-angiotensin system can cause injury and death to the developing fetus. Discontinue as soon as possible once pregnancy is detected. The use of drugs which act on the renin-angiotensin system are associated with oligohydramnios. Oligohydramnios, due to decreased fetal renal function, may lead to fetal lung hypoplasia and skeletal malformations. Use is also associated with anuria, hypotension, renal failure, skull hypoplasia, and death in the fetus/neonate. The exposed fetus should be monitored for fetal growth, amniotic fluid volume, and organ formation. Infants exposed in utero should be monitored for hyperkalemia, hypotension, and oliguria (exchange transfusions or dialysis may be needed). These adverse events are generally associated with maternal use in the second and third trimesters.

Untreated chronic maternal hypertension is also associated with adverse events in the fetus, infant, and mother. The use of angiotensin II receptor blockers is not recommended to treat chronic uncomplicated hypertension in pregnant women and should generally be avoided in women of reproductive potential (ACOG, 2013).

Patient Education

• Discuss specific use of drug and side effects with patient as it relates to treatment. (HCAHPS: During this hospital stay, were you given any medicine that you had not taken before? Before giving you any new medicine, how often did hospital staff tell you what the medicine was for? How often did hospital staff describe possible side effects in a way you could understand?)

• Patient may experience rhinitis or sinusitis. Have patient report immediately to prescriber severe dizziness, syncope, arrhythmia, dyspnea, excessive weight gain, or edema of extremities (HCAHPS).

• Educate patient about signs of a significant reaction (eg, wheezing; chest tightness; fever; itching; bad cough; blue skin color; seizures; or swelling of face, lips, tongue, or throat). Note: This is not a comprehensive list of all side effects. Patient should consult prescriber for additional questions.

Intended Use and Disclaimer: Should not be printed and given to patients. This information is intended to serve as a concise initial reference for healthcare professionals to use when discussing medications with a patient. You must ultimately rely on your own discretion, experience and judgment in diagnosing, treating and advising patients.

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