ReoPro Side Effects
Generic name: abciximab
Medically reviewed by Drugs.com. Last updated on Oct 17, 2020.
Note: This document contains side effect information about abciximab. Some of the dosage forms listed on this page may not apply to the brand name ReoPro.
For the Consumer
Applies to abciximab: parenteral injection
Side effects include:
For Healthcare Professionals
Applies to abciximab: intravenous solution
There was no significant increase in bleeding between patients who received abciximab (the active ingredient contained in ReoPro) and those who received aspirin, heparin, or placebo among the 58 patients from the EPIC trial who underwent emergency coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) after PTCA. The authors concluded that surgery can be performed after treatment with abciximab with acceptable mortality and bleeding complications. These data are supported by data from the Thrombolysis and Angioplasty in Myocardial Infarction (TAMI) 8 pilot study.
In the EPILOG trial, use of weight-adjusted abciximab infusion and low-dose weight-adjusted heparin, early removal of the femoral sheath, and arterial access guidelines reduced the incidence of major bleeding in patients receiving abciximab and heparin to rates similar to patients receiving placebo.
Immediate discontinuation of abciximab (and heparin) is recommended in the event of serious bleeding that cannot be controlled by compression.
The first and second most common sites of bleeding are the femoral artery access site and the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, respectively. Great care should be exercised when placing the femoral artery introducer. Indwelling arterial and venous lines should be in place prior to administration of abciximab, and recent puncture sites should be monitored closely.
In clinical trials, the incidence of intracranial hemorrhage in treated patients was similar to placebo, but the incidence of major bleeding events from GI, genitourinary, retroperitoneal, and other sites was higher in treated patients.
The incidence of hematologic side effects such as bleeding increases when abciximab is given following full dose thrombolytic therapy. In a Canadian study involving 147 acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients, the researchers reported a 2-fold increase in bleeding risk in patients who had received full dose thrombolytics followed by adjunctive abciximab (plus low dose heparin) therapy during rescue or urgent PTCA. The patients were treated with full dose thrombolytics within the first 12 hours following the onset of AMI symptoms. Abciximab was given to 57 patients as adjunctive therapy during rescue (PTCA within 12 hours of AMI) or urgent (PTCA within 48 hours of AMI) angioplasty. The remaining 90 patients did not receive abciximab, and served as the control group. The authors reported that the risk of intracranial or fatal bleeding events was the same for both treated and non-treated groups, however, the risk for minor bleeding was doubled for the abciximab-treated group.
Major bleeding events were increased in patients receiving abciximab within 24 hours of full dose thrombolytic therapy according to a study conducted between July 1995 and March 1999. Of the 214 total patients studied, 50 (23%) experienced major bleeding episodes. A total of 34 patients required transfusions. Intracranial bleeding occurred in 3 (1.4%) patients. The authors concluded that major bleeding occurs in about 20% to 25% of patients when abciximab is used within 24 hours of full-dose thrombolytic therapy.
Risk factors for bleeding events in patients treated with glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa inhibitors undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) have been identified and include advanced age, renal dysfunction, female gender, peripheral vascular disease, lower body weight, duration of GP IIb/IIIa inhibitor infusion, baseline platelet count, lower baseline hemoglobin, diabetes, and elevated peak activated clotting time. According to one study (CRUSADE trial) involving patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTEACS) treated with a GP IIb/IIIa inhibitor, women are at a greater risk of bleeding than men, primarily because of excessive dosing. Results of another study indicate that among patients with NSTEACS undergoing a PCI, compared with men, women experienced a greater incidence of major and minor bleeding complications and required more transfusions of blood products.[Ref]
Hematologic complications are the most common and potentially life-threatening side effects of abciximab. Thrombocytopenia (less than 100,000 cells/mcL) associated with abciximab and standard dose heparin occurred at a rate of 2.5% to 6% (1% to 2% had platelet counts less than 50,000 cells/mcL.). Thrombocytopenia (less than 100,000 cells/mcL) associated with abciximab and low-dose weight-adjusted heparin (EPILOG) occurred at a rate of 2.5% (less than 0.5% had platelet counts less than 50,000 cells/mcL).
Pseudothrombocytopenia, which is considered a benign laboratory condition that does not increase bleeding, stroke, need for transfusion or repeat revascularization, has been reported as the cause of more than one third of low platelet counts in patients undergoing coronary interventions treated with abciximab. Compared with placebo, the incidence of pseudothrombocytopenia in four trials using abciximab was 0.6% vs 2.1%, respectively.
Major bleeding, defined as either an intracranial hemorrhage or a decrease in hemoglobin greater than 5 g/dL, has been reported in 2% to 11% of patients receiving abciximab and standard-dose heparin. Major bleeding was reported in 1% of patients receiving abciximab and low-dose heparin (EPILOG). Minor bleeding, including spontaneous gross hematuria, spontaneous hematemesis, observed blood loss with a hemoglobin decrease of greater than 3 g/dL, or a decrease in hemoglobin of at least 4 g/dL without an identified bleeding site, has been reported in 4% to 17% of patients receiving abciximab and standard-dose heparin. Minor bleeding was reported in 4% of patients receiving abciximab and low-dose heparin (EPILOG).
Excess spontaneous major organ bleeding has occurred primarily in abciximab treated patients weighing 75 kg or less. In addition, patients who experienced a greater incidence of major bleeding episodes have included: patients greater than 65 years old; those who had a prior history of GI disease; those who had received thrombolytics; those who were administered heparin; those who received PTCA within 12 hours of the onset of AMI symptoms; those whose PTCA procedure was greater than 70 minutes in length; and those who failed PTCA.
Abciximab can induce the formation of human anti-chimeric antibodies (HACA) and can produce allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis and thrombocytopenia. These antibodies may diminish the potential benefit of readministration of abciximab (the active ingredient contained in ReoPro) (not recommended by manufacturer). Human anti-chimeric antibodies to abciximab may appear at approximately 14 days after initiating therapy and peak at 4 to 6 weeks.[Ref]
Hypersensitivity reactions (which may be anticipated whenever protein solutions such as abciximab are administered) may present as anaphylaxis, and may require epinephrine, dopamine, theophylline, antihistamine, and corticosteroid therapy. To date, anaphylaxis has not been reported with abciximab therapy.[Ref]
Cardiovascular side effects have included hypotension in 14% of patients (often related to hemorrhagic complications) and bradycardia in 5% of patients. Chest pain has been reported in 11% of patients and peripheral edema has been reported in 2% of patients. The following cardiovascular side effects have occurred at incidences less than 0.5% higher for patients who received abciximab (the active ingredient contained in ReoPro) than for patients who received placebo: ventricular tachycardia (1.4%), pseudoaneurysm (0.8%) , palpitation (0.5%), arteriovenous fistula (0.4%), incomplete AV block (0.3%), nodal arrhythmia (0.2%), peripheral coldness (0.2%), complete AV block (0.1%), embolism (limb) (0.1%), and thromboembolism (0.1%).
Analysis of one study (TARGET trial) indicates that patients with renal dysfunction undergoing PCI and receiving a GP IIb/IIIa inhibitor (i.e., tirofiban, abciximab) are at a higher risk of developing ischemic complications (30-day death, myocardial infarction,urgent revascularization) than patients with normal creatinine clearance.[Ref]
Gastrointestinal side effects have included nausea and vomiting in 14% and 7% of patients, respectively and abdominal pain in 3% of patients. The following GI system side effects have occurred at incidences less than 0.5% higher for patients who received abciximab (the active ingredient contained in ReoPro) than for patients who received placebo: dyspepsia (2.1%), diarrhea (1.1%), ileus or gastroesophageal reflux or enlarged abdomen or dry mouth (0.1%).[Ref]
Nervous system side effects are unusual, but have included headache in 6.4%, hyperesthesia or increased sweating in 1% and confusion in 0.6% of patients. The following nervous system side effects have occurred at incidences less than 0.5% higher for patients who received abciximab (the active ingredient contained in ReoPro) than for patients who received placebo: abnormal vision (0.3%), dizziness (2.9%), anxiety (1.7%), abnormal thinking (1.3%), agitation (0.7%), hypesthesia (0.6%), confusion (0.5%), muscle contractions (0.4%), coma (0.2%), hypertonia (0.2%), and diplopia (0.1%).[Ref]
Respiratory side effects have rarely included pulmonary hemorrhage (0.19%), with fatalities reported in 6 cases. All patients presented with acute myocardial infarction and abnormal chest X-ray at baseline. Five patients presented with a history of COPD. The following respiratory side effects have occurred at incidences less than 0.5% higher for patients who received abciximab (the active ingredient contained in ReoPro) than for patients who received placebo: pneumonia or rales (0.4%), pleural effusions or bronchitis or bronchospasm (0.3%), pleurisy or pulmonary embolism (0.2%), and rhonchi (0.1%).[Ref]
Musculoskeletal pain, primarily back pain, has been reported in up to 18% of patients. Asthenia has been report in 0.7% and myalgias in less than 0.2% of patients.[Ref]
Genitourinary side effects that have occurred at incidences less than 1% higher for patients who received abciximab (the active ingredient contained in ReoPro) than for patients who received placebo include: urinary retention (0.7%), dysuria or abnormal renal function (0.4%), frequent micturition or cystalgia or urinary incontinence or prostatitis (0.1%).[Ref]
Dermatologic side effects that have occurred at incidences equal to or less than 0.5% in patients who received abciximab (the active ingredient contained in ReoPro) include: pruritus (0.5%), wound or cellulitis (0.2%), injection site pain or bullous eruption or inflammation or pallor (0.1%). These side effects occurred at an equal or greater frequency in patients receiving a placebo.[Ref]
Pain at the puncture site or incision pain has occurred in 3.6% and 0.6% of patients, respectively.[Ref]
Drug toxicity has occurred in 0.1% of patients receiving abciximab (the active ingredient contained in ReoPro) [Ref]
Readministration of abciximab (the active ingredient contained in ReoPro) to 29 healthy volunteers who did not develop a human anti-chimeric antibody (HACA) response following the initial dose did not alter the pharmacokinetic disposition of abciximab or reduce its antiplatelet activity. However, results in this group indicate that the incidence of HACA formation may be increased after readministration. The clinical significance of a positive HACA titer remains to be determined.[Ref]
Abciximab can induce the formation of human anti-chimeric antibodies (HACA). Most patients develop IgG rather than IgE immune globulins (associated with anaphylaxis) that do not appear to interfere with abciximab binding to GP IIb/IIIa receptors. Human anti-chimeric antibodies to abciximab may appear at approximately 14 days after initiating therapy and peak at 4 to 6 weeks.[Ref]
More about ReoPro (abciximab)
- During Pregnancy or Breastfeeding
- Dosage Information
- Drug Interactions
- Compare Alternatives
- Drug class: glycoprotein platelet inhibitors
Related treatment guides
1. Lenderink T, Boersma E, Ruzyllo W, et al. "Bleeding events with abciximab in acute coronary syndromes without early revascularization: An analysis of GUSTO IV-ACS." Am Heart J 147 (2004): 865-73
2. Madan M, Kereiakes DJ, Hermiller JB, Rund MM, Tudor G, Anderson L, McDonald MB, Berkowitz SD, Sketch MH, Phillips HR, Tchen "Efficacy of abciximab readministration in coronary intervention." Am J Cardiol 85 (2000): 435-40
3. Cote AV, Berger PB, Holmes DR Jr, Scott CG, Bell MR "Hemorrhagic and vascular complications after percutaneous coronary intervention with adjunctive abciximab." Mayo Clin Proc 76 (2001): 890-6
4. Tcheng JE, Kereiakes DJ, Braden GA, Jordan RE, Mascelli MA, Langrall MA, Effron MB "Readministration of abciximab: Interim report of the ReoPro Readministration Registry." Am Heart J 138 (1999): s33-8
5. Cantor WJ, Kaplan AL, Velianou JL, Sketch MH, Barsness GW, Berger PB, Ohman EM "Effectiveness and safety of Abciximab after failed thrombolytic therapy." Am J Cardiol 87 (2001): 439+
6. Kleiman NS, Ohman EM, Califf RM, George BS, Kereiakes D, Aguirre FV, Weisman H, Schaible T, Topol EJ "Profound inhibition of platelet aggregation with monoclonal antibody 7E3 Fab after thrombolytic therapy. Results of the Thrombolysis and Angioplasty in Myocardial Infarction (TAMI) 8 Pilot Study." J Am Coll Cardiol 22 (1993): 381-9
7. Kereiakes DJ, Essell JH, Abbottsmith CW, Broderick TM, Runyon JP "Abciximab-associated profound thrombocytopenia: therapy with immunoglobulin and platelet transfusion." Am J Cardiol 78 (1996): 1161
8. Mehilli J, Ndrepepa G, Kastrati A, et al. "Sex and effect of abciximab in patients with acute coronary syndromes treated with percutaneous coronary interventions: Results from Intracoronary Stenting and Antithrombotic Regimen: Rapid Early Action for Coronary Treatment 2 trial." Am Heart J 154 (2007): 158.e1-7
9. Simoons ML, Rutsch W, Vahanian A, Adgey J, Maseri A, Vassanelli C, Col J, Adelman A, Macaya C, Miller H, deBoer MJ, McCloskey "Randomised placebo-controlled trial of abciximab before and during coronary intervention in refractory unstable angina: The CAPTURE study." Lancet 349 (1997): 1429-35
10. EPIC Investigators "Use of a monoclonal antibody directed against the platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor in high-risk coronary angiopasty." N Engl J Med 330 (1994): 956-61
11. Sundlof DW, Rerkpattanapitat P, Wongpraparut N, Pathi P, Kotler MN, Jacobs LE, Ledley GS, Yazdanfar S "Incidence of bleeding complications associated with Abciximab use in conjunction with thrombolytic therapy in patients requiring percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty." Am J Cardiol 83 (1999): 1569-71
12. Kleiman NS, Lincoff AM, Kereiakes DJ, Miller DP, Aguirre FV, Anderson KM, Weisman HF, Califf RM, Topol EJ "Diabetes mellitus, glycoprotein IIb/IIIa blockade, and heparin: Evidence for a complex interaction in a multicenter trial." Circulation 97 (1998): 1912-20
13. Juran NB "Minimizing bleeding complications of percutaneous coronary intervention and glycoprotein IIb-IIIa antiplatelet therapy." Am Heart J 138 (1999): s297-306
14. The CAPTURE Investigators "Randomised placebo-controlled trial of abciximab before and during coronary intervention in refractory unstable angina: the CAPTURE study." Lancet 349 (1997): 1429-35
15. Faulds D, Sorkin EM "Abciximab (c7E3 Fab): a review of its pharmacology and therapeutic potential in ischaemic heart disease." Drugs 48 (1994): 583-98
16. Mascarenhas DA, Chang KS "Experience with abciximab on re-administration." Am J Cardiol 80 (1997): s62
17. The EPILOG Investigators "Platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor blockade and low-dose heparin during percutaneous coronary revascularization." N Engl J Med 336 (1997): 1689-96
18. Adgey AA "An overview of the results of clinical trials with glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors." Am Heart J 135 (1998): s43-55
19. Sane DC, Damaraju LV, Topol EJ, Cabot CF, Mascelli MA, Harrington RA, Simoons ML, Califf RM "Occurrence and clinical significance of pseudothrombocytopenia during abciximab therapy." J Am Coll Cardiol 36 (2000): 75-83
20. Brouse SD, Wiesehan VG "Evaluation of bleeding complications associated with glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors." Ann Pharmacother 38 (2004): 1783-8
21. Simoons ML, Brand MV, Hoorntje JC "Chimeric 7E3 antiplatelet antibody Fab for treatment of refractory unstable angina: a placebo-controlled pilot study." J Am Coll Cardiol 21 (1993): a269
22. Khanlou H, Tsiodras S, Eiger G, Abousy K, Goldberg S, Nakhjavan F, Yazdanfar S "Fatal alveolar hemorrhage and Abciximab (ReoPro(TM)) therapy for acute myocardial infarction." Cathet Cardiovasc Diagn 44 (1998): 313-6
23. Genetta TB, Mauro VF "Abciximab: a new antiaggregant used in angioplasty." Ann Pharmacother 30 (1996): 251-7
24. Coller BS, Scudder LE, Beer J, et al. "Monoclonal antibodies to platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa as antithrombotic agents." Ann N Y Acad Sci 614 (1991): 193-213
25. Haase KK, Mahrholdt H, Schroder S, Baumbach A, Oberhoff M, Herdeg C, Karsch KR "Frequency and efficacy of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa therapy for treatment of threatened or acute vessel closure in 1332 patients undergoing percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty." Am Heart J 137 (1999): 234-40
26. Jong P, Cohen EA, Batchelor W, Lazzam C, Kreatsoulas C, Natarajan MK, Strauss BH "Bleeding risks with abciximab after full-dose thrombolysis in rescue or urgent angioplasty for acute myocardial infarction." Am Heart J 141 (2001): 218-25
27. Holmes MB, Kabbani S, Watkins MW, Battle RW, Schneider DJ "Abciximab-associated pseudothrombocytopenia." Circulation 101 (2000): 938-9
28. Curtis BR, Swyers J, Divgi A, McFarland JG, Aster RH "Thrombocytopenia after second exposure to abciximab is caused by antibodies that recognize abciximab-coated platelets." Blood 99 (2002): 2054-2059
29. Berger PB, Best PJ, Topol EJ, et al. "The relation of renal function to ischemic and bleeding outcomes with 2 different glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors: the do Tirofiban and ReoPro Give Similar Efficacy Outcome (TARGET) trial." Am Heart J 149 (2005): 869-75
30. Kirtane AJ, Piazza G, Murphy SA, et al. "Correlates of bleeding events among moderate- to high-risk patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention and treated with eptifibatide: observations from the PROTECT-TIMI-30 trial." J Am Coll Cardiol 47 (2006): 2374-9
31. Klootwijk P, Meij S, Melkert R, Lenderink T, Simoons ML "Reduction of recurrent ischemia with abciximab during continuous ECG-ischemia monitoring in patients with unstable angina refractory to standard treatment (CAPTURE)." Circulation 98 (1998): 1358-64
32. Lincoff AM, Tcheng JE, Califf RM, Bass T, Popma JJ, Teirstein PS, Kleiman NS, Hattel LJ, Anderson HV, Ferguson JJ, Cabot "Standard versus low-dose weight-adjusted heparin in patients treated with the platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor antibody fragment abciximab (c7e3 fab) during percutaneous coronary revascularization." Am J Cardiol 79 (1997): 286-91
33. Miller JM, Smalling R, Ohman EM, Bode C, Betriu A, Kleiman NS, Schildcrout JS, Bastos E, Topol EJ, Califf RM "Effectiveness of early coronary angioplasty and abciximab for failed thrombolysis (Reteplase or alteplase) during acute myocardial infarction (Results from the GUSTO-III trial)." Am J Cardiol 84 (1999): 779-84
34. Arjomand H, Mascarenhas DAN, Morgan RJ "Abciximab and the risk of bleeding during emergency cardiac operations." Ann Thorac Surg 67 (1999): 292-3
35. Ghaffari S, Kereiakes DJ, Lincoff AM, Kelly TA, Timmis GC, Kleiman NS, Ferguson JJ, Miller DP, Califf RA, Topol EJ "Platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIa receptor blockade with abciximab reduces ischemic complications in patients undergoing directional coronary atherectomy." Am J Cardiol 82 (1998): 7-12
36. The EPISTENT Investigators. "Randomised placebo-controlled and balloon-angioplasty-controlled trial to assess safety of coronary stenting with use of platelet glycoprotein-IIb/IIIa blockade." Lancet 352 (1998): 87-92
37. Bernardi MM, Califf RM, Kleiman N, Ellis SG, Topol EJ "Lack of usefulness of prolonged bleeding times in predicting hemorrhagic events in patients receiving the 7E3 glycoprotein IIb/IIIa platelet antibody. The TAMI Study Group." Am J Cardiol 72 (1993): 1121-5
38. Fahdi IE, Saucedo JF, Hennebry T, Ghani M, Sadanandan S, Garza-Arreola L "Incidence and time course of thrombocytopenia with abciximab and eptifibatide in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention." Am J Cardiol 93 (2004): 453-5
39. Khanlou H, Eiger G, Yazdanfar S "Abciximab and alveolar hemorrhage." N Engl J Med 339 (1998): 1861-2
40. Wool RL, Coleman TA, Hamill RL "Abciximab-associated pseudothrombocytopenia." Am J Med 113 (2002): 697-8
41. Dasgupta H, Blankenship JC, Wood GC, Frey CM, Demko SL, Menapace FJ "Thrombocytopenia complicating treatment with intravenous glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor inhibitors: A pooled analysis." Am Heart J 140 (2000): 206-11
42. Brener SJ, Barr LA, Burchenal JEB, Katz S, George BS, Jones AA, Cohen ED, Gainey PC, White HJ, Cheek HB, Moses JW, Mo "Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa blockade with primary angioplasty for acute myocardial infarction." Circulation 98 (1998): 734-41
43. Nightingale SL "Monoclonal antibody licensed for use in angioplasty." JAMA 273 (1995): 982
44. Effron MB, Braden G, Kereiakes D, et al. "Readministration of abciximab is as effective as first time administration with similar risks: interim results from the ReoPro Readministration Registry (R3)." Eur Heart J 19 Abstract Suppl (1998): 239
45. Bishara AI, Hagmeyer KO "Acute profound thrombocytopenia following abciximab therapy." Ann Pharmacother 34 (2000): 924-30
46. Boehrer JD, Kereiakes DJ, Navetta FI, Califf RM, Topol EJ "Effects of profound platelet inhibition with c7E3 before coronary angioplasty on complications of coronary bypass surgery." Am J Cardiol 74 (1994): 1166-70
47. "Product Information. ReoPro (abciximab)." Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
48. Landefeld CS, Cook EF, Flatley M, Weisberg M, Goldman L "Identification and preliminary validation of predictors of major bleeding in hospitalized patients starting anticoagulant therapy." Am J Med 82 (1987): 703-13
49. Alexander KP, Chen AY, Newby LK, et al. "Sex Differences in Major Bleeding With Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Inhibitors. Results From the CRUSADE (Can Rapid Risk Stratification of Unstable Angina Patients Suppress Adverse Outcomes With Early Implementation of the ACC/AHA Guidelines) Initiative." Circulation 114 (2006): 1380-7
50. Ferguson JJ, Kereiakes DJ, Adgey AA, et al. "Safe use of platelet GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors." Am Heart J 135 Suppl 4 (1998): s77-89
51. Iakovou Y, Manginas A, Melissari E, Cokkinos DV "Acute profound thrombocytopenia associated with anaphylactic reaction after abciximab therapy during percutaneous coronary angioplasty." Cardiology 95 (2001): 215-6
52. Topol EJ, Plow EF "Clinical trials of platelet receptor inhibitors." Thromb Haemost 70 (1993): 94-8
53. Moll S, Poepping I, Hauck S, Gulba D, Dietz R "Pseudothrombocytopenia after abciximab (ReoPro) treatment." Circulation 100 (1999): 1460
54. Tcheng JE, Kereiakes DJ, Lincoff AM, et al. "Abciximab readministration: results of the ReoPro Readministration Registry." Circulation 104 (2001): 870-5
55. Blankenship JC "Bleeding complications of glycoprotein IIb-IIIa receptor inhibitors." Am Heart J 138 (1999): s287-96
56. Machin SJ, Mackie IJ, Faint RW, et al. "Inhibition of platelet aggregation by antiplatelet GP IIb/IIIa (7E3) Fab murine monoclonal antibody: relationship to dose." Br J Haematol 76 Suppl 1 (1990): 194-202
57. Adderhuis KM, Deckers JW, Lincoff AM, et al. "Risk of stroke associated with abciximab among patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention." JAMA 286 (2001): 78-82
58. Kalra S, Bell MR, Rihal CS "Alveolar hemorrhage as a complication of treatment with abciximab." Chest 120 (2001): 126-31
59. Huxtable LM, Tafreshi MJ, Rakkar AN "Frequency and Management of Thrombocytopenia With the Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Receptor Antagonists." Am J Cardiol 97 (2006): 426-9
Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.
Some side effects may not be reported. You may report them to the FDA.