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Sofosbuvir, Velpatasvir, and Voxilaprevir

Medically reviewed by Drugs.com. Last updated on Jul 15, 2019.

Pronunciation

(soe FOS bue vir, vel PAT as vir, & vox i LA pre vir)

Index Terms

  • Velpatasvir, Voxilaprevir, and Sofosbuvir
  • Voxilaprevir, Velpatasvir, and Sofosbuvir

Dosage Forms

Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for generics); consult specific product labeling.

Tablet, Oral:

Vosevi: Sofosbuvir 400 mg, velpatasvir 100 mg, and voxilaprevir 100 mg

Brand Names: U.S.

  • Vosevi

Pharmacologic Category

  • Antihepaciviral, NS5A Inhibitor
  • Antihepaciviral, Polymerase Inhibitor (Anti-HCV)
  • NS3/4A Inhibitor
  • NS5A Inhibitor
  • NS5B RNA Polymerase Inhibitor

Pharmacology

Sofosbuvir is an inhibitor of the HCV NS5B RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, which is required for viral replication and acts a s a chain terminator.

Velpatasvir is an inhibitor of the HCV NS5A protein, which is also required for viral replication.

Voxilaprevir is a noncovalent, reversible inhibitor of the NS3/4A protease, which is necessary for the proteolytic cleavage of the HCV-encoded polyprotein (into mature forms of the NS3, NS4A, NS4B, NS5A, and NS5B proteins) and is essential for viral replication.

Use: Labeled Indications

Chronic hepatitis C: Treatment of adults with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection without cirrhosis or with compensated cirrhosis (Child-Pugh class A) who have genotype 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6 infection and have previously been treated with an HCV regimen containing an NS5A inhibitor or who have genotype 1a or 3 infection and have previously been treated with an HCV regimen containing sofosbuvir without an NS5A inhibitor

Off Label Uses

Chronic hepatitis C, genotype 3, treatment-naive or peginterferon + ribavirin treatment-experienced

Based on the AASLD/IDSA Recommendations for Testing, Managing, and Treating Hepatitis C guidelines, sofosbuvir, velpatasvir, and voxilaprevir is a recommended and effective regimen for treatment of hepatitis C virus genotype 3 infection in peginterferon/ribavirin treatment-experienced patients with compensated cirrhosis. It is also a recommended and effective alternative regimen for treatment of hepatitis C virus genotype 3 infection in treatment-naive patients with compensated cirrhosis, or peginterferon/ribavirin treatment-experienced patients without cirrhosis, when Y93H substitution is present. Hepatitis C treatment guidelines are constantly changing with the advent of new treatment therapies and information; consult current clinical practice guidelines for the most recent treatment recommendations.

Contraindications

Concurrent use with rifampin

Canadian labeling: Additional contraindications (not in US labeling): Hypersensitivity to sofosbuvir, velpatasvir, voxilaprevir, or any component of the formulation; concurrent use with dabigatran, phenobarbital, phenytoin, rosuvastatin, or St John’s wort

Dosing: Adult

Chronic hepatitis C (without cirrhosis or with compensated cirrhosis [Child-Pugh class A]): Oral:

Genotype 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6 (previously treated with a regimen containing a direct-acting antiviral [including NS5A inhibitors]): One tablet once daily for 12 weeks. For patients with genotype 3 with prior NS5A inhibitor failure and cirrhosis, concomitant ribavirin should be used (AASLD/IDSA 2018).

Genotype 1a (previously treated with a regimen containing sofosbuvir without an NS5A inhibitor): One tablet once daily for 12 weeks (AASLD/IDSA 2018)

Genotype 3 treatment-naive with compensated cirrhosis (Child-Pugh class A) when Y93H substitution is present (alternative regimen) (off-label use): One tablet once daily for 12 weeks (AASLD/IDSA 2018)

Genotype 3 peginterferon/ribavirin-experienced without cirrhosis (alternative regimen) or with compensated cirrhosis (Child-Pugh class A) (off-label use): One tablet once daily for 12 weeks. Note: In patients without cirrhosis, use is only recommended when Y93H substitution is present (AASLD/IDSA 2018).

Dosing: Geriatric

Refer to adult dosing.

Administration

Administer with food.

Storage

Store below 30°C (86ºF); dispense in original container.

Drug Interactions

Afatinib: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Afatinib. Management: Reduce afatinib by 10 mg if not tolerated. Some non-US labeling recommends avoiding combination if possible. Iif used, administer the P-gp inhibitor simultaneously with or after the dose of afatinib. Consider therapy modification

Alpelisib: BCRP/ABCG2 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Alpelisib. Management: Avoid coadministration of BCRP/ABCG2 inhibitors and alpelisib due to the potential for increased alpelisib concentrations and toxicities. If coadministration cannot be avoided, closely monitor for increased alpelisib adverse reactions. Consider therapy modification

Amiodarone: Sofosbuvir may enhance the bradycardic effect of Amiodarone. Avoid combination

Antacids: May decrease the serum concentration of Velpatasvir. Management: Separate administration of velpatasvir and antacids by at least 4 hours. Consider therapy modification

Antidiabetic Agents: Direct Acting Antiviral Agents (HCV) may enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Antidiabetic Agents. Monitor therapy

Asunaprevir: OATP1B1/1B3 (SLCO1B1/1B3) Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Asunaprevir. Avoid combination

Atazanavir: May increase the serum concentration of Voxilaprevir. Avoid combination

BCRP/ABCG2 Substrates: Voxilaprevir may increase the serum concentration of BCRP/ABCG2 Substrates. Avoid combination

Betrixaban: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Betrixaban. Management: Decrease the adult betrixaban dose to an initial single dose of 80 mg followed by 40 mg once daily if combined with a P-glycoprotein inhibitor. Consider therapy modification

Bilastine: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Bilastine. Management: Consider alternatives when possible; bilastine should be avoided in patients with moderate to severe renal insufficiency who are receiving p-glycoprotein inhibitors. Consider therapy modification

Brentuximab Vedotin: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Brentuximab Vedotin. Specifically, concentrations of the active monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE) component may be increased. Monitor therapy

Celiprolol: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Celiprolol. Monitor therapy

Cladribine: BCRP/ABCG2 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Cladribine. Management: Avoid concomitant use of BCRP inhibitors during the 4 to 5 day oral cladribine treatment cycles whenever possible. If combined, consider dose reduction of the BCRP inhibitor and separation in the timing of administration. Consider therapy modification

Colchicine: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Colchicine. Colchicine distribution into certain tissues (e.g., brain) may also be increased. Management: Colchicine is contraindicated in patients with impaired renal or hepatic function who are also receiving a p-glycoprotein inhibitor. In those with normal renal and hepatic function, reduce colchicine dose as directed. See full monograph for details. Consider therapy modification

CYP2B6 Inducers (Moderate): May decrease the serum concentration of Velpatasvir. Avoid combination

CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate): May decrease the serum concentration of Velpatasvir. Avoid combination

CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong): May decrease the serum concentration of Velpatasvir. Avoid combination

CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong): May decrease the serum concentration of Voxilaprevir. Avoid combination

Dabigatran Etexilate: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Dabigatran Etexilate. Management: Dabigatran dose reductions may be needed. Specific recommendations vary considerably according to US vs Canadian labeling, specific P-gp inhibitor, renal function, and indication for dabigatran treatment. Refer to full monograph or dabigatran labeling. Consider therapy modification

Deferasirox: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Monitor therapy

Digoxin: Velpatasvir may increase the serum concentration of Digoxin. Monitor therapy

DOXOrubicin (Conventional): P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of DOXOrubicin (Conventional). Management: Seek alternatives to P-glycoprotein inhibitors in patients treated with doxorubicin whenever possible. One U.S. manufacturer (Pfizer Inc.) recommends that these combinations be avoided. Consider therapy modification

Edoxaban: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Edoxaban. Management: See full monograph for details. Reduced doses are recommended for patients receiving edoxaban for venous thromboembolism in combination with certain P-gp inhibitors. Similar dose adjustment is not recommended for edoxaban use in atrial fibrillation. Consider therapy modification

Elagolix: OATP1B1/1B3 (SLCO1B1/1B3) Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Elagolix. Avoid combination

Erdafitinib: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Monitor therapy

Erdafitinib: May increase the serum concentration of P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Substrates. Monitor therapy

Everolimus: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Everolimus. Monitor therapy

Grazoprevir: OATP1B1/1B3 (SLCO1B1/1B3) Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Grazoprevir. Avoid combination

Histamine H2 Receptor Antagonists: May decrease the serum concentration of Velpatasvir. Monitor therapy

HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors (Statins): Voxilaprevir may increase the serum concentration of HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors (Statins). Management: Use the lowest statin dose possible if combined with voxilaprevir and monitor patients for increased statin effects/toxicities. Avoid concomitant use of voxilaprevir with rosuvastatin or pitavastatin, and limit pravastatin doses to 40 mg daily. Consider therapy modification

Ivosidenib: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Monitor therapy

Larotrectinib: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Larotrectinib. Monitor therapy

Lefamulin: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Lefamulin. Management: Avoid concomitant use of lefamulin tablets with P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 inhibitors. If concomitant use is required, monitor for lefamulin adverse effects. Consider therapy modification

Lopinavir: May increase the serum concentration of Voxilaprevir. Avoid combination

Modafinil: May decrease the serum concentration of Sofosbuvir. Avoid combination

Naldemedine: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Naldemedine. Monitor therapy

Naloxegol: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Naloxegol. Monitor therapy

OATP1B1/1B3 (SLCO1B1/1B3) Inhibitors: May increase the serum concentration of Voxilaprevir. Avoid combination

OXcarbazepine: May decrease the serum concentration of Sofosbuvir. Avoid combination

PAZOPanib: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of PAZOPanib. Avoid combination

PAZOPanib: BCRP/ABCG2 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of PAZOPanib. Avoid combination

P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inducers: May decrease the serum concentration of Sofosbuvir. Avoid combination

P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inducers: May decrease the serum concentration of Velpatasvir. Avoid combination

P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors: May increase the serum concentration of P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Substrates. P-glycoprotein inhibitors may also enhance the distribution of p-glycoprotein substrates to specific cells/tissues/organs where p-glycoprotein is present in large amounts (e.g., brain, T-lymphocytes, testes, etc.). Monitor therapy

P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Substrates: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Substrates. P-glycoprotein inhibitors may also enhance the distribution of p-glycoprotein substrates to specific cells/tissues/organs where p-glycoprotein is present in large amounts (e.g., brain, T-lymphocytes, testes, etc.). Exceptions: Loperamide. Monitor therapy

PHENobarbital: May decrease the serum concentration of Sofosbuvir. Avoid combination

Pitavastatin: Voxilaprevir may increase the serum concentration of Pitavastatin. Avoid combination

Primidone: May decrease the serum concentration of Sofosbuvir. Avoid combination

Proton Pump Inhibitors: May decrease the serum concentration of Velpatasvir. Avoid combination

Prucalopride: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Prucalopride. Monitor therapy

Ranolazine: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Ranolazine. Monitor therapy

Ranolazine: May increase the serum concentration of P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Substrates. Monitor therapy

Revefenacin: OATP1B1/1B3 (SLCO1B1/1B3) Inhibitors may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Revefenacin. Avoid combination

Rifabutin: May decrease the serum concentration of Sofosbuvir. Avoid combination

RifAMPin: May increase the serum concentration of Voxilaprevir. Specifically, a single dose of rifampin may increase voxilaprevir concentrations, while chronic daily use of rifampin may decrease voxilaprevir concentrations. RifAMPin may decrease the serum concentration of Voxilaprevir. Avoid combination

Rifapentine: May decrease the serum concentration of Sofosbuvir. Avoid combination

RifAXIMin: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of RifAXIMin. Monitor therapy

Ritonavir: May decrease the serum concentration of Velpatasvir. Ritonavir may increase the serum concentration of Velpatasvir. Consider therapy modification

Rosuvastatin: Voxilaprevir may increase the serum concentration of Rosuvastatin. Avoid combination

Sarilumab: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Monitor therapy

Silodosin: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Silodosin. Monitor therapy

Siltuximab: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Monitor therapy

Tacrolimus (Systemic): Sofosbuvir may decrease the serum concentration of Tacrolimus (Systemic). Monitor therapy

Talazoparib: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Talazoparib. Management: These listed exceptions are discussed in detail in separate interaction monographs. Monitor therapy

Talazoparib: BCRP/ABCG2 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Talazoparib. Monitor therapy

Tegaserod: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Tegaserod. Monitor therapy

Tenofovir Alafenamide: Sofosbuvir may increase the serum concentration of Tenofovir Alafenamide. Monitor therapy

Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate: Velpatasvir may increase the serum concentration of Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate. Monitor therapy

Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate: May increase the serum concentration of Voxilaprevir. Monitor therapy

Tipranavir: May decrease the serum concentration of Sofosbuvir. Avoid combination

Tocilizumab: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Monitor therapy

Tolvaptan: May increase the serum concentration of OATP1B1/1B3 (SLCO1B1/1B3) Substrates. Consider therapy modification

Topotecan: Velpatasvir may increase the serum concentration of Topotecan. Avoid combination

Venetoclax: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Venetoclax. Management: Consider a venetoclax dose reduction by at least 50% in patients requiring concomitant treatment with P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitors. Consider therapy modification

VinCRIStine (Liposomal): P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of VinCRIStine (Liposomal). Avoid combination

Vitamin K Antagonists (eg, warfarin): Antihepaciviral NS5B RNA Polymerase Inhibitors may diminish the anticoagulant effect of Vitamin K Antagonists. Monitor therapy

Voxilaprevir: OATP1B1/1B3 (SLCO1B1/1B3) Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Voxilaprevir. Avoid combination

Adverse Reactions

Also see Sofosbuvir monograph.

>10%:

Central nervous system: Headache (21% to 23%), fatigue (17% to 19%)

Gastrointestinal: Diarrhea (13% to 14%), nausea (10% to 13%)

Hepatic: Increased serum bilirubin (4% to 13%)

1% to 10%:

Central nervous system: Insomnia (3% to 6%), depression (≤1%)

Dermatologic: Skin rash (2%)

Gastrointestinal: Increased serum lipase (2%)

Neuromuscular & skeletal: Weakness (4% to 6%)

<1%, postmarketing, and/or case reports: Acute hepatic failure (FDA Safety Alert, August 28, 2019), increased creatine phosphokinase, severe hepatic disease (FDA Safety Alert, August 28, 2019)

ALERT: U.S. Boxed Warning

Hepatitis B virus reactivation:

Test all patients for evidence of current or prior hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection before initiating treatment with sofosbuvir/velpatasvir/voxilaprevir. HBV reactivation has been reported in hepatitis C virus (HCV)/HBV coinfected patients who were undergoing or had completed treatment with HCV direct-acting antivirals and were not receiving HBV antiviral therapy. Some cases have resulted in fulminant hepatitis, hepatic failure, and death. Monitor HCV/HBV coinfected patients for hepatitis flare or HBV reactivation during HCV treatment and post-treatment follow-up. Initiate appropriate patient management for HBV infection as clinically indicated.

Warnings/Precautions

Concerns related to adverse effects:

• Hepatitis B virus reactivation: [US Boxed Warning]: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation has been reported in hepatitis C virus (HCV)/HBV co-infected patients who were receiving or had completed treatment with HCV direct-acting antivirals and were not receiving HBV antiviral therapy; some cases have resulted in fulminant hepatitis, hepatic failure, and death. Test all patients for evidence of current or prior HBV infection prior to initiation of sofosbuvir/velpatasvir/voxilaprevir; monitor HCV/HBV co-infected patients for hepatitis flare or HBV reactivation during treatment and post-treatment follow-up. Initiate treatment for HBV infection as clinically indicated. HBV reactivation has been reported in HBsAg-positive patients and in patients with serologic evidence of resolved HBV infection (ie, HBsAg negative and anti-HBc positive) and is characterized by an abrupt increase in HBV replication manifested as a rapid increase in serum HBV DNA level; reappearance of HBsAg may occur in patients with resolved HBV infection. Risk of HBV reactivation may be increased in patients receiving certain immunosuppressants or chemotherapeutic agents.

Disease-related concerns:

• Diabetes: Rapid reduction in hepatitis C viral load during direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy for hepatitis C may lead to improvement in glucose metabolism in patients with diabetes, potentially resulting in symptomatic hypoglycemia if antidiabetic agents are continued at the same dose. Monitor for changes in glucose tolerance and inform patients of the risk of hypoglycemia during DAA therapy, particularly within the first 3 months. Modification of antidiabetic therapy may be necessary (Ciancio 2018; Dawood 2017; Hum 2017).

• Hepatic impairment: Use is not recommended in patients with moderate or severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh class B or C).

Concurrent drug therapy issues:

• Amiodarone: Symptomatic bradycardia (some requiring pacemaker intervention) has occurred in patients receiving amiodarone and sofosbuvir in combination with daclatasvir or simeprevir. A fatal cardiac arrest was reported in a patient taking amiodarone with sofosbuvir/ledipasvir-containing regimen. Bradycardia generally occurred within hours to days following coadministration; however, some cases have occurred 2 weeks following the initiation of HCV treatment. The risk of bradycardia may be increased in patients taking beta blockers or patients with underlying cardiac comorbidities and/or advanced liver disease. Bradycardia generally resolves following discontinuation. Coadministration of amiodarone and sofosbuvir/velpatasvir/voxilaprevir is not recommended. However, if patients have no treatment alternatives, patients should have inpatient cardiac monitoring for the first 48 hours, followed by daily outpatient or self-monitoring of heart rate for at least the first 2 weeks of treatment. Due to the long half-life of amiodarone, cardiac monitoring (as described) is also recommended if amiodarone was discontinued just prior to beginning treatment with sofosbuvir/velpatasvir/voxilaprevir. Patients should seek medical attention immediately if they experience fainting or near-fainting, dizziness, light-headedness, malaise, weakness, excessive tiredness, shortness of breath, chest pains, confusion, or memory problems.

• Drug-drug interactions: Potentially significant interactions may exist, requiring dose or frequency adjustment, additional monitoring, and/or selection of alternative therapy. Consult drug interactions for more detailed information.

Monitoring Parameters

Baseline (within 12 weeks prior to starting antiviral therapy) CBC, INR, hepatic function panel (albumin, total and direct bilirubin, ALT, AST, and alkaline phosphatase), and calculated GFR; repeat CBC, serum creatinine, calculated GFR, and hepatic function panel after 4 weeks of therapy and as clinically indicated; baseline (at any time prior to starting therapy) HCV genotype and subtype and quantitative HCV viral load; repeat quantitative HCV viral load testing (after 4 weeks of therapy and at 12 weeks after completion of therapy). If quantitative HCV viral load is detectable at treatment week 4, repeat testing is recommended after 2 additional weeks of treatment (treatment week 6) (AASLD/IDSA 2018). Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) prior to initiation; in patients with serologic evidence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, monitor for clinical and laboratory signs of hepatitis flare or HBV reactivation during treatment and during post-treatment follow-up.

In patients with diabetes, monitor blood glucose and for signs/symptoms of hypoglycemia (Ciancio 2018; Dawood 2017; Hum 2017).

If used in combination with amiodarone (or in patients who discontinued amiodarone just prior to initiating sofosbuvir/velpatasvir), inpatient cardiac monitoring for the first 48 hours of coadministration, then outpatient or self-monitoring of heart rate daily through at least the first 2 weeks of treatment.

Pregnancy Considerations

Adverse events were not observed in animal reproduction studies using individual components of this combination. Refer to the sofosbuvir monograph for additional information.

Treatment of hepatitis C is not currently recommended to treat maternal infection or to decrease the risk of mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy (Tran 2016). HCV-infected females of childbearing potential should consider postponing pregnancy until therapy is complete to reduce the risk of HCV transmission (AASLD/IDSA 2018). When HCV infection is detected during pregnancy, treatment should be deferred until after delivery. Direct-acting antiviral medications should not be used in pregnant females outside of clinical trials until safety and efficacy information is available (SMFM [Hughes 2017]).

Patient Education

• Discuss specific use of drug and side effects with patient as it relates to treatment. (HCAHPS: During this hospital stay, were you given any medicine that you had not taken before? Before giving you any new medicine, how often did hospital staff tell you what the medicine was for? How often did hospital staff describe possible side effects in a way you could understand?)

• Patient may experience loss of strength and energy, headache, diarrhea, nausea, or insomnia. Have patient report immediately to prescriber signs of liver problems (dark urine, fatigue, lack of appetite, nausea, abdominal pain, light-colored stools, vomiting, or jaundice), bradycardia, chest pain, confusion, dizziness, passing out, memory impairment, shortness of breath, weakness, or fatigue (HCAHPS).

• Educate patient about signs of a significant reaction (eg, wheezing; chest tightness; fever; itching; bad cough; blue skin color; seizures; or swelling of face, lips, tongue, or throat). Note: This is not a comprehensive list of all side effects. Patient should consult prescriber for additional questions.

Intended Use and Disclaimer: Should not be printed and given to patients. This information is intended to serve as a concise initial reference for health care professionals to use when discussing medications with a patient. You must ultimately rely on your own discretion, experience, and judgment in diagnosing, treating, and advising patients.

Further information

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.

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