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Echothiophate Iodide

Medically reviewed by Drugs.com. Last updated on Aug 28, 2020.

Pronunciation

(ek oh THYE oh fate EYE oh dide)

Index Terms

  • Ecostigmine Iodide

Dosage Forms

Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for generics); consult specific product labeling.

Solution Reconstituted, Ophthalmic:

Phospholine Iodide: 0.125% (5 mL)

Brand Names: U.S.

  • Phospholine Iodide

Pharmacologic Category

  • Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor
  • Ophthalmic Agent, Antiglaucoma
  • Ophthalmic Agent, Miotic

Pharmacology

Long-acting inhibition of cholinesterase enhances activity of endogenous acetylcholine. Reduced degradation of acetylcholine leads to continuous stimulation of the ciliary muscle producing miosis; other effects include potentiation of accommodation and facilitation of aqueous humor outflow, with attendant reduction in intraocular pressure.

Onset of Action

Miosis: ≤60 minutes; Peak effect: Intraocular pressure decrease: 24 hours

Duration of Action

Miosis: 1 to 4 weeks; Intraocular pressure: Days to weeks.

Use: Labeled Indications

Accommodative esotropia: Concomitant esotropias with a significant accommodative component

Elevated intraocular pressure: Reduction of elevated intraocular pressure

Contraindications

Hypersensitivity to echothiophate or any component of the formulation; most cases of angle-closure glaucoma without iridectomy (due to possibility of increasing angle block); active uveal inflammation

Dosing: Adult

Elevated intraocular pressure: Ophthalmic:

Initial: Instill 1 drop in affected eye(s) twice daily (prior to bedtime and in the morning)

Maintenance: Twice-daily dosing is preferred, but some patients have been treated with once-daily or every-other-day dosing (with 1 dose just prior to bedtime).

Dosage adjustment for concomitant therapy: Significant drug interactions exist, requiring dose/frequency adjustment or avoidance. Consult drug interactions database for more information.

Dosing: Geriatric

Refer to adult dosing.

Dosing: Pediatric

Esotropia, accommodative: Children and Adolescents: Ophthalmic:

Diagnosis: Instill 1 drop once daily into both eyes at bedtime for 2 to 3 weeks

Treatment: Instill 1 drop every other day in both eyes; gradually lower dose as treatment progresses. Maximum daily dose: 1 drop once daily in both eyes. Note: Use lowest frequency which gives satisfactory response; if necessary, more aggressive therapy may be used for short periods of time.

Dosage adjustment for concomitant therapy: Significant drug interactions exist, requiring dose/frequency adjustment or avoidance. Consult drug interactions database for more information.

Reconstitution

Pour diluent into drug container; without compressing rubber bulb, insert dropper assembly into drug container and screw down tightly. Shake well to ensure mixing.

Administration

Ophthalmic: Proper administration technique is required for maximal benefit. The nasolacrimal duct(s) should be compressed for 1 to 2 minutes after instillation of the drops. Excess fluid around the eye should be blotted with tissue; wash hands after instillation.

Storage

Store undiluted vials at 2°C to 8°C (36°F to 46°F). Store reconstituted solutions at ~25°C (~77°F); do not refrigerate; discard unused solution after 4 weeks.

Drug Interactions

Cyclopentolate: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Echothiophate Iodide. Monitor therapy

Mivacurium: Echothiophate Iodide may increase the serum concentration of Mivacurium. Monitor therapy

Succinylcholine: Echothiophate Iodide may increase the serum concentration of Succinylcholine. Management: For patients receiving echothiophate iodide eye drops, consider using a neuromuscular-blocking agents other than succinylcholine. If succinylcholine is used, consider a reduced dose, and monitor for enhanced/prolonged effects. Consider therapy modification

Adverse Reactions

The following adverse drug reactions and incidences are derived from product labeling unless otherwise specified.

Frequency not defined.

Cardiovascular: Bradycardia, cardiac abnormality, flushing, hypotension

Central nervous system: Brow ache, myasthenia

Dermatologic: Diaphoresis

Gastrointestinal: Diarrhea, nausea, vomiting

Ophthalmic: Blepharospasm, blurred vision, burning sensation of eyes, cataract, conjunctival abnormalities (thickening), conjunctival erythema, eye redness, increased intraocular pressure (paradoxical), iris cyst, iritis (latent), lacrimal duct obstruction (nasolacrimal canal), lacrimation, miosis, myopia, retinal detachment, stinging of eyes, uveitis (activation)

Respiratory: Dyspnea

Warnings/Precautions

Concerns related to adverse effects:

• Cardiac irregularities: Temporarily or permanently discontinue if cardiac irregularities occur.

• Cholinergic effects: Discontinue if symptoms of excess cholinergic activity (eg, salivation, sweating, urinary incontinence); overdosage may result in cholinergic crisis, which must be distinguished from myasthenic crisis.

Disease-related concerns:

• Asthma: Not generally recommended for use in patients with asthma.

• Cardiovascular disease: Not generally recommended for use in patients with bradycardia, hypotension or recent MI. In a scientific statement from the American Heart Association, ophthalmic cholinergic agents have been determined to be agents that may exacerbate underlying myocardial dysfunction (magnitude: minor) (AHA [Page 2016]).

• Gastrointestinal disease: Not generally recommended for use in patients with spastic gastrointestinal disturbances or peptic ulcer disease.

• Parkinsonism: Not generally recommended for use in patients with Parkinsonism.

• Seizure disorder: Not generally recommended for use in patients with a history of seizure disorder.

• Vagotonia: Not generally recommended for use in patients with vagotonia.

Other warnings/precautions:

• Appropriate use: Do not use for tonometric glaucoma, or in patients with active or history of uveitis, or history of retinal detachment. Use cautiously prior to ophthalmic surgery due to risk of blood in the anterior chamber. Digital compression of the nasolacrimal ducts for 1 to 2 minutes following instillation to minimize drainage into the nasal chamber is recommended. Wash hands following instillation.

• Exposure to pesticides and insecticides: Use with caution in patients exposed to carbamate- or organophosphate-type insecticides and pesticides; absorption of the pesticide through skin or respiratory tract may result in additive systemic effects; respiratory masks and frequent clothing changes may be necessary during exposure to pesticides in patients receiving echothiophate iodide.

• Tolerance: Patients may develop tolerance after prolonged use; a rest period restores response to the drug.

Monitoring Parameters

Baseline measurement of anterior chamber angle; routine lens examinations (for opacities and during treatment of accommodative esotropia); IOP (at different times of the day)

Pregnancy Considerations

Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted.

Patient Education

What is this drug used for?

• It is used to lower high eye pressure.

• It is used to treat cross-eyed children.

All drugs may cause side effects. However, many people have no side effects or only have minor side effects. Call your doctor or get medical help if any of these side effects or any other side effects bother you or do not go away:

• Burning

• Stinging

• Blurred vision

• Headache

• Eye redness

• Eyelid twitching

• Watery eyes

WARNING/CAUTION: Even though it may be rare, some people may have very bad and sometimes deadly side effects when taking a drug. Tell your doctor or get medical help right away if you have any of the following signs or symptoms that may be related to a very bad side effect:

• Vision changes

• Eye pain

• Severe eye irritation

• Fast heartbeat

• Slow heartbeat

• Abnormal heartbeat

• Diarrhea

• Bladder incontinence

• Drooling

• Muscle weakness

• Sweating a lot

• Shortness of breath

• Signs of an allergic reaction, like rash; hives; itching; red, swollen, blistered, or peeling skin with or without fever; wheezing; tightness in the chest or throat; trouble breathing, swallowing, or talking; unusual hoarseness; or swelling of the mouth, face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Note: This is not a comprehensive list of all side effects. Talk to your doctor if you have questions.

Consumer Information Use and Disclaimer: This information should not be used to decide whether or not to take this medicine or any other medicine. Only the healthcare provider has the knowledge and training to decide which medicines are right for a specific patient. This information does not endorse any medicine as safe, effective, or approved for treating any patient or health condition. This is only a limited summary of general information about the medicine's uses from the patient education leaflet and is not intended to be comprehensive. This limited summary does NOT include all information available about the possible uses, directions, warnings, precautions, interactions, adverse effects, or risks that may apply to this medicine. This information is not intended to provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment and does not replace information you receive from the healthcare provider. For a more detailed summary of information about the risks and benefits of using this medicine, please speak with your healthcare provider and review the entire patient education leaflet.

Further information

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.

More about echothiophate iodide ophthalmic

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