(DAP toe mye sin)
Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for generics); consult specific product labeling.
Solution Reconstituted, Intravenous [preservative free]:
Cubicin: 500 mg (1 ea)
Cubicin RF: 500 mg (1 ea)
Generic: 500 mg (1 ea)
Brand Names: U.S.
- Cubicin RF
- Antibiotic, Cyclic Lipopeptide
Daptomycin binds to components of the cell membrane of susceptible organisms and causes rapid depolarization, inhibiting intracellular synthesis of DNA, RNA, and protein. Daptomycin is bactericidal in a concentration-dependent manner.
Neonates and Infants <3 months: Median: 0.21 L/kg (range: 0.11 to 0.34 L/kg) (Cohen-Wolkowiez 2012)
Children 2 to 6 years: 0.14 L/kg (Abdel-Rahman 2008; Abdel-Rahman 2011)
Children 7 to 17 years: 0.11 ± 0.02 L/kg (Abdel-Rahman 2008)
Adults: 0.1 L/kg; Critically-ill patients: Vss: 0.23 ± 0.14 L/kg (Vilay 2010)
Minor amounts of oxidative metabolites have been detected; does not induce or inhibit cytochrome P450 enzymes
Urine (78%; primarily as unchanged drug); feces (5.7%)
Neonates and Infants <3 months: Median: 21 mL/hour/kg (range: 16 to 34 mL/hour/kg) (Cohen-Wolkowiez 2012)
Children 2 to 6 years: 19 to 20 mL/hour/kg (Abdel-Rahman 2008; Abdel-Rahman 2011)
Children 7 to 11 years: 17 mL/hour/kg (Abdel-Rahman 2008)
Children: 12 to 17 years: 11 mL/hour/kg (Abdel-Rahman 2008)
Adults: 8.3 to 9 mL/hour/kg
Neonates and Infants <3 months: Median: 6.2 hours (range: 3.7 to 9 hours) (Cohen-Wolkowiez 2012)
Children 2 to 6 years: Mean range: 5.3 to 5.7 hours (Abdel-Rahman 2008; Abdel-Rahman 2011)
Children 7 to 11 years: 5.6 ± 2.2 hours (Abdel-Rahman 2008)
Children 12 to 17 years: 6.7 ± 2.2 hours (Abdel-Rahman 2008)
Adults: 8 to 9 hours (up to 28 hours in renal impairment)
90% to 93%; 84% to 88% in patients with CrCl <30 mL/minute
Special Populations: Renal Function Impairment
Mean total plasma clearance was 9%, 22%, and 46% lower in patients with mild (CrCl 50 to 80 mL/minute), moderate (CrCl 30 to <50 mL/minute), and severe (CrCl <30 mL/minute) renal impairment, respectively, compared with those with healthy renal function. Mean AUC, half-life, and Vd at steady state increased with decreasing renal function.
Special Populations: Elderly
Mean total clearance is reduced approximately 35% and AUC is increased approximately 58% in elderly patients compared with younger healthy subjects.
Special Populations Note
Obesity: Plasma clearance was 15% and 23% lower and AUC increased by 30% and 31% in moderately obese patients and extremely obese patients, respectively, compared with nonobese controls.
Use: Labeled Indications
Skin and skin structure infections, complicated: Treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus (including methicillin-resistant isolates), Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis, and Enterococcus faecalis (vancomycin-susceptible strains only).
S. aureus bloodstream infections: Treatment of S. aureus bloodstream infections (bacteremia), including those with right-sided infective endocarditis, caused by methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant isolates.
Limitations of use: Not indicated for the treatment of pneumonia.
Treatment of severe infections caused by MRSA or VRE; treatment of prosthetic joint infection caused by staphylococci (oxacillin-susceptible or -resistant) or Enterococcus (penicillin-susceptible or -resistant)
Hypersensitivity to daptomycin or any component of the formulation
Infective endocarditis, treatment: IV:
S. aureus (right-sided, native valve): Note: Clinical trial demonstrating noninferiority to standard therapy for S. aureus right-sided endocarditis included only patients with native valve infective endocarditis (Fowler 2006)
US labeling: 6 mg/kg once daily for 2 to 6 weeks
Canadian labeling: 6 mg/kg once daily for 10 days to 6 weeks; may consider an additional 2 weeks of therapy
Alternate recommendation: 8 to 10 mg/kg once daily (IDSA [Liu 2011])
S. aureus (left-sided, native valve) (off-label use): ≥8 mg/kg once daily for 6 weeks, consultation with infectious disease specialist recommended for dosage selection (AHA [Baddour 2015])
Enterococcus (penicillin-, aminoglycoside-, and vancomycin-resistant) (off-label use): 10 to 12 mg/kg once daily for a minimum of 6 weeks; combination therapy with ampicillin or ceftaroline may be considered in patients with persistent bacteremia or strains with high MICs (3 mcg/mL) (AHA [Baddour 2015])
Osteomyelitis (off-label use): IV: 6 mg/kg once daily for a minimum of 8 weeks (some experts combine with rifampin) (Liu 2011)
Prosthetic joint infection (off-label use): IV:
Enterococcus spp (penicillin-susceptible or -resistant) (alternative treatment): 6 mg/kg every 24 hours for 4 to 6 weeks (consider adding an aminoglycoside) followed by an oral antibiotic suppressive regimen (Osmon 2013)
Staphylococci (oxacillin-susceptible or -resistant) (alternative treatment): 6 mg/kg every 24 hours for 2 to 6 weeks used in combination with rifampin followed by oral antibiotic treatment and suppressive regimens (Osmon 2013)
S. aureus bloodstream infections: IV:
US labeling: 6 mg/kg once daily for 2 to 6 weeks
Canadian labeling: 6 mg/kg once daily for 10 days to 6 weeks; may consider an additional 2 weeks of therapy
Alternate recommendation: 8 to 10 mg/kg once daily for complicated bacteremia (IDSA [Liu 2011])
Septic arthritis (off-label use): IV: 6 mg/kg once daily for 3 to 4 weeks (Liu 2011)
Skin and skin structure infections, complicated: IV: 4 mg/kg once daily for 7 to 14 days
Refer to adult dosing.
Dosing: Renal Impairment
CrCl ≥30 mL/minute: No dosage adjustment necessary.
CrCl <30 mL/minute:
Skin and soft tissue infections: 4 mg/kg every 48 hours
Staphylococcal bacteremia: 6 mg/kg every 48 hours
End-stage renal disease (ESRD) on intermittent hemodialysis (IHD): Note: Hemodialysis: Dialyzable: 15% (removed by 4-hour hemodialysis session); 50% (removed by 4-hour high permeability intermittent hemodialysis session) (Salama 2010). A notable amount of drug may be removed in the last 30 minutes of dialysis; administration after dialysis is completed is preferred (Haselden 2013).
Manufacturer's labeling: Dose as in CrCl <30 mL/minute (administer after hemodialysis on dialysis days).
Alternate dosing: Administer usual recommended dose (ie, 4 or 6 mg/kg) on 48 hour intradialytic days; increase dose by 50% after dialysis on the 72 hour intradialytic day (eg, if the dose is 6 mg/kg for a patient on a Monday, Wednesday, Friday dialysis schedule, administer 6 mg/kg after dialysis on Monday and Wednesday and on Friday administer 9 mg/kg after dialysis) (Haselden 2013, Patel 2011).
Peritoneal dialysis (PD): Dose as in CrCl <30 mL/minute
Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) (Heintz 2009; Trotman 2005): Drug clearance is highly dependent on the method of renal replacement, filter type, and flow rate. Appropriate dosing requires close monitoring of pharmacologic response, signs of adverse reactions due to drug accumulation, as well as drug concentrations in relation to target trough (if appropriate). The following are general recommendations only (based on dialysate flow/ultrafiltration rates of 1 to 2 L/hour and minimal residual renal function) and should not supersede clinical judgment:
Continuous veno-venous hemodialysis (CVVHD): 8 mg/kg every 48 hours (Vilay 2010)
Note: For other forms of CRRT (eg, CVVH or CVVHDF), dosing as with CrCl <30 mL/minute may result in low Cmax. May consider 4 to 6 mg/kg every 24 hours (or 8 mg/kg every 48 hours) depending on site or severity of infection or if not responding to standard dosing; therapeutic drug monitoring and/or more frequent serum CPK levels may be necessary (Heintz 2009).
Slow extended daily dialysis (or extended dialysis): 6 mg/kg every 24 hours (Kielstein 2010); Note: Dialysis should be initiated within 8 hours of administering daptomycin dose to avoid dose accumulation.
Dosing: Hepatic Impairment
No dosage adjustment necessary for mild-to-moderate impairment (Child-Pugh class A or B). Not evaluated in severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh class C).
Cubicin: Reconstitute vial with 10 mL NS to a concentration of 50 mg/mL. Add NS to vial and rotate gently to wet powder. Allow to stand for 10 minutes, then gently swirl to obtain completely reconstituted solution. Do not shake or agitate vial vigorously. If administering via IVPB, further dilute in 50 mL NS prior to administration.
Cubicin RF: Reconstitute vial with 10 mL SWFI or bacteriostatic water to a concentration of 50 mg/mL; do not use saline based diluents (will result in hyperosmotic solution that may cause infusion site reactions when administered as an IV injection over 2 minutes). Add diluent to vial and rotate or swirl for a few minutes, as needed, to obtain a completely reconstituted solution. If administering via IVPB, further dilute in 50 mL NS prior to administration.
May administer IV push over 2 minutes or infuse IVPB over 30 minutes. Do not use in conjunction with ReadyMED® elastomeric infusion pumps (Cardinal Health, Inc) due to an impurity (2-mercaptobenzothiazole) leaching from the pump system into the daptomycin solution.
Cubicin: Stable in NS or LR; incompatible with dextrose-containing solutions.
Cubicin RF: Stable in NS. Note: NS should not be used to reconstitute powder; NS may be used only to further dilute reconstituted solution for IVPB. Incompatible with dextrose-containing solutions.
Cubicin: Store intact vials at 2°C to 8°C (36°F to 46°F); avoid excessive heat. Refer to manufacturer's labeling for specific storage instructions after reconstitution and/or dilution (varies by product and diluent). Extended storage information for reconstituted vial and diluted solution may be available; contact product manufacturer to obtain current recommendations.
Cubicin RF: Store intact vials at 20°C to 25°C (68°F to 77°F); excursions permitted to 15°C to 30°C (59°F to 86°F). Refer to manufacturer's labeling for specific storage instructions after reconstitution and/or dilution (varies by product and diluent).
HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of DAPTOmycin. Specifically, the risk of skeletal muscle toxicity may be increased. Management: Consider temporarily stopping HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor therapy prior to daptomycin. If used together, regular (i.e., at least weekly) monitoring of CPK concentrations is recommended. Consider therapy modification
Daptomycin may cause false prolongation of the PT and increase of INR with certain recombinant thromboplastin reagents. This appears to be a dose-dependent phenomenon. If PT/INR is elevated, repeat PT/INR immediately prior to next daptomycin dose (eg, trough). If PT/INR remains elevated, repeat PT/INR using alternate reagents (if available) and evaluate for other causes of elevated PT/INR.
Gastrointestinal: Diarrhea (5% to 12%), vomiting (3% to 12%), constipation (6% to 11%)
Hematologic & oncologic: Anemia (2% to 13%)
1% to 10%:
Cardiovascular: Chest pain (7%), peripheral edema (7%), hypertension (1% to 6%), hypotension (2% to 5%)
Central nervous system: Insomnia (5% to 9%), headache (5% to7%), dizziness (2% to 6%), anxiety (5%)
Dermatologic: Skin rash (4% to 7%), pruritus (3% to 6%), diaphoresis (5%), erythema (5%)
Endocrine & metabolic: Hypokalemia (9%), hyperkalemia (5%), hyperphosphatemia (3%)
Gastrointestinal: Nausea (6% to 10%), abdominal pain (6%), dyspepsia (1% to 4%), loose stools (4%), gastrointestinal hemorrhage (2%)
Genitourinary: Urinary tract infection (2% to 7%)
Hematologic & oncologic: Eosinophilia (2%), increased INR (2%)
Hepatic: Increased serum transaminases (2% to 3%), increased serum alkaline phosphatase (2%)
Infection: Gram-negative organism infection (8%), bacteremia (5%), sepsis (5%), fungal infection (2% to 3%)
Local: Injection site reaction (3% to 6%)
Neuromuscular & skeletal: Increased creatine phosphokinase (3% to 9%), limb pain (2% to 9%), back pain (7%), osteomyelitis (6%), weakness (5%), arthralgia (1% to 3%)
Renal: Renal failure (2% to 3%)
Respiratory: Pharyngolaryngeal pain (8%), pleural effusion (6%), cough (3%), pneumonia (3%), dyspnea (2% to 3%)
Miscellaneous: Fever (2% to 7%)
<1% (Limited to important or life-threatening): Atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, candidiasis, cardiac arrest, Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea, coma (post anaesthesia/surgery), eczema, eosinophilic pneumonitis, hallucination, hypomagnesemia, hypersensitivity, jaundice, increased lactate dehydrogenase, lymphadenopathy, mental status changes, neutropenia (Knoll 2013), oral candidiasis, peripheral neuropathy, proteinuria, prolonged prothrombin time, renal insufficiency, rhabdomyolysis, increased serum bicarbonate, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, stomatitis, supraventricular cardiac arrhythmia, thrombocytopenia, thrombocythemia
Concerns related to adverse effects:
• Eosinophilic pneumonia: Use may result in eosinophilic pneumonia; generally develops 2 to 4 weeks after therapy initiation. Monitor for signs and symptoms of eosinophilic pneumonia, including new onset or worsening fever, dyspnea, difficulty breathing, new infiltrates on chest imaging studies, and/or >25% eosinophils present in bronchoalveolar lavage. Discontinue use immediately with signs/symptoms of eosinophilic pneumonia and initiate appropriate treatment (ie, corticosteroids). May reoccur with re-exposure.
• Hypersensitivity: Hypersensitivity reactions and anaphylaxis (including angioedema, and drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms [DRESS]) have been reported with use; discontinue use immediately with signs/symptoms of hypersensitivity and initiate appropriate treatment.
• Myopathy: May be associated with an increased incidence of myopathy; discontinue in patients with signs and symptoms of myopathy in conjunction with an increase in CPK (>5 times ULN or 1,000 units/L) or in asymptomatic patients with a CPK ≥10 times ULN. Myopathy may occur more frequently at dose and/or frequency in excess of recommended dosages. Consider temporarily interrupting therapy with other agents associated with an increased risk of myopathy (eg, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors) during daptomycin therapy.
• Peripheral neuropathy: Symptoms suggestive of peripheral neuropathy have been observed with treatment; monitor for new-onset or worsening neuropathy.
• Superinfection: Prolonged use may result in fungal or bacterial superinfection, including C. difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) and pseudomembranous colitis; CDAD has been observed >2 months postantibiotic treatment.
• Persisting or relapsing S. aureus bacteremia or endocarditis: Repeat blood cultures in patients with persisting or relapsing S. aureus bacteremia/endocarditis or poor clinical response. If culture is positive for S. aureus, perform minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) susceptibility testing of the isolate and diagnostic evaluation of the patient to rule out sequestered foci of infection. Appropriate surgical intervention (eg, debridement, removal of prosthetic devices, valve replacement surgery) and/or consideration of a change in antibacterial therapy may be necessary.
• Renal impairment: Use with caution in patients with renal impairment; dosage adjustment required in severe renal impairment (CrCl <30 mL/minute). Limited data (eg, subgroup analysis) from cSSSI and endocarditis trials suggest possibly reduced clinical efficacy (relative to comparators) in patients with baseline moderate renal impairment (<50 mL/minute).
• Pediatric: Although not approved for use in children, the manufacturer recommends to avoid use in pediatric patients <12 months due to risk of potential muscular, neuromuscular, and/or nervous systems effects observed in neonatal canines.
Monitor signs and symptoms of infection. CPK should be monitored at least weekly during therapy; more frequent monitoring if current or prior statin therapy, unexplained CPK increases, and/or renal impairment. Monitor for muscle pain or weakness, especially if noted in distal extremities. Monitor for new onset or worsening peripheral neuropathy. Canadian labeling recommends CPK monitoring every 48 hours with unexplained muscle pain, tenderness, weakness or cramps. Monitor for signs/symptoms of eosinophilic pneumonia.
Pregnancy Risk Factor
Adverse events were not observed in animal reproduction studies. Successful use of daptomycin during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy has been described; however, only limited information is available from case reports.
• Discuss specific use of drug and side effects with patient as it relates to treatment. (HCAHPS: During this hospital stay, were you given any medicine that you had not taken before? Before giving you any new medicine, how often did hospital staff tell you what the medicine was for? How often did hospital staff describe possible side effects in a way you could understand?)
• Patient may experience diarrhea, headache, injection site irritation, insomnia, sweating a lot, or pharyngitis. Have patient report immediately to prescriber severe loss of strength and energy, burning or numbness feeling, muscle pain, muscle weakness, dark urine, jaundice, urinary retention, change in amount of urine passed, cough, shortness of breath, angina, edema, or signs of Clostridium difficile (C. diff)-associated diarrhea (stomach pain or cramps, very loose or watery stools, or bloody stools) (HCAHPS).
• Educate patient about signs of a significant reaction (eg, wheezing; chest tightness; fever; itching; bad cough; blue skin color; seizures; or swelling of face, lips, tongue, or throat). Note: This is not a comprehensive list of all side effects. Patient should consult prescriber for additional questions.
Intended Use and Disclaimer: Should not be printed and given to patients. This information is intended to serve as a concise initial reference for health care professionals to use when discussing medications with a patient. You must ultimately rely on your own discretion, experience, and judgment in diagnosing, treating, and advising patients.