Scientific Name(s): Verbena officinalis (L.) Wettst. Family: Verbenaceae
Common Name(s): Vervain, verbena, yerba de Santa Ana, enchanter's plant, herb of the cross, Juno's tears, pigeon's grass, pigeonweed, herb of grace, prostrate verbena, erba croce, erba dei tagli
Vervain has been used for many conditions, including stimulation of lactation and treatment of dysmenorrhea, jaundice, gout, kidney stones, and headache; however, there are few clinical trials of vervain or its components.
There is no clinical evidence to support specific dose recommendations for vervain. Traditional use for its astringent properties required 2 to 4 g daily in an infusion.
Contraindications have not been identified.
Documented adverse reactions. Avoid use.
None well documented.
Research reveals little or no information regarding adverse reactions with the use of this product.
No toxicology studies have been reported on vervain.
Vervain is a slender perennial plant with small, pale lilac flowers borne on leafless spikes. It is indigenous to the Mediterranean region but has been widely cultivated throughout eastern Europe, North Africa, China, and Japan. 1 , 2
A different species in the verbena family, Aloysia triphylla (lemon verbena or lemon beebrush), is used to produce the essential oil of verbena known as vervaine. 1
The name verbenae was originally used in ancient Roman times to describe all plants used on altars for their aromatic qualities. Legend has it that Jesus' wounds were attended to with vervain after his removal from the cross. Vervain is listed in the British Herbal Pharmacopoeia and The Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China . 2 , 3 The aerial parts have been used traditionally for many conditions, including stimulation of lactation and treatment of dysmenorrhea, jaundice, gout, kidney stones, headache, depression, anxiety, and insomnia. 3 , 4 , 5 Vervain is also considered an astringent, a bitter digestive tonic, and a diuretic. 5 Traditionally it has been used in Spain as a topical hemostatic and antirheumatic, and it has been mixed with other herbs for thyroid dysfunction. 2
The most characteristic chemical constituents of vervain are the iridoid glycosides verbenalin 6 and hastatoside. 7 Also prominent is the caffeic acid glycoside verbascoside, which is found in a number of other medicinal plants. 8 Flavonoids, such as luteolin 7-diglucuronide have been isolated in vervain 9 as have rsolic acid, sterols, and several related triterpenes. 3 , 10 Other iridoid glycosides, sterols, and littorachalcone have been found in related verbena species ( Verbena litoralis and brasiliensis ). 11 , 12 , 13
The biosynthesis of the iridoid glycosides has been studied in detail. 14 Several methods have been published for the analysis of vervain constituents. High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) with postcolumn derivatization was used to quantify iridoids, flavonoids, and phenolics. 15 An HPLC separation with diode array detection was used to assay the same compounds in another study. 16 Micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography with mass spectrometry was used to achieve a separation and characterization of several iridoids, including verbenalin. 17
Uses and PharmacologyClinical Data
Despite the many and varied traditional uses of vervain, few human trials exist. One small (N = 68) randomized trial investigated the effect of a tea containing vervain as well as chamomile, licorice, fennel, and balm-mint on infantile colic. Reduced symptoms of colic were noted, but the study was limited by the large volume of tea required for effect. 18Animal Data
Animal experiments and in vitro models abound, but none with consistent direction.
Anti-inflammatory activity of a vervain extract and several fractions in a carrageenan paw edema model was reported; however, specific triterpenes, iridoids, and phenolics isolated were not bioassayed to identify which were active. 19 Other reports have shown verbenalin to be active in blocking 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol acetate-induced mouse ear edema and carrageenan-induced paw edema. 20 In comparison with piroxicam gel, a 3% preparation of 50% methanolic verbena extract produced better anti-inflammatory results, while the same preparation had less analgesic activity than methyl salicylate ointment. 3
Vervain extracts lacked pharmacologic activity in thyroid hormone models. 21 , 22 Modest inhibition of progesterone and estrogen receptor binding activity by a vervain extract was detected; however, no effects in more complex cellular models were reported. 23
The differentiation of a human adenocarcinoma cell line was induced by verbascoside, reducing the malignant phenotype. 24 Verbascoside affected telomerase activity and telomere length, as well as inducing apoptosis in a gastric cancer cell line. 25 A further experiment found that verbascoside counteracted muscle fatigue in an isolated tissue preparation. 26
In the isolated rat heart, verbascoside increased heart rate, force, and coronary perfusion, with a marked increase in cyclic AMP levels. 27 A later study found an increase in prostacyclin levels, which may be responsible for the observed effects. 28
Antioxidant effects of verbascoside have been demonstrated in several models, including radical scavenging 29 and pulse radiolysis methods. 30 Vervain essential oil was active in an antioxidant screen, although the oil is not expected to contain verbascoside. 31
Modest antiviral activity against vesicular stomatitis virus, but not herpes simplex, at a high dose of verbascoside was observed. 32 Antibiotic activity caused by an effect on protein synthesis and leucine incorporation was also found with verbascoside. 33 Vervain flavonoids have been studied infrequently; however, a flavonoid fraction of vervain inhibited growth of several bacterial species at relatively high concentrations. 34
Verbascoside has been isolated from a wide variety of plants and has been studied in many pharmacologic and biochemical models. It has been reported to inhibit protein kinase C by competing at the adenosine triphosphate binding site. 35
An aqueous extract of verbena prevented extracellular accumulation of beta-amyloid peptide, a factor considered to trigger neuronal death in Alzheimer disease. Decreased destruction of neurites and decreased neuronal apoptosis were also observed. 2
There is no recent clinical evidence to support specific dose recommendations for vervain. Traditional use for its astringent properties required 2 to 4 g daily in an infusion. 36
Documented adverse reactions. Avoid use. 37
In an in vitro model of an infant's GI system, infusions of vervain reduced the absorption of iron, especially at a high pH. 38
Verbenone, a constituent of vervain, was demonstrated to be converted via CYP-450 2A6 to 10-hydroxyverbenone. It is unclear if the metabolite is active, inactive, or toxic. 39
Research reveals little or no information regarding adverse reactions with the use of vervain. No adverse reactions were noted in infants ingesting a tea of vervain and other herbs, but the trial sample size was too small to observe anything other than major events. 3
No toxicology studies have been reported on vervain.
Bibliography1. Verbena officinalis L. USDA, NRCS. 2007. The PLANTS Database ( http://plants.usda.gov , Oct 1, 2007). National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.
2. Lai SW , Yu MS , Yuen WH , Chang RC . Novel neuroprotective effects of the aqueous extracts from Verbena officinalis Linn . Neuropharmacology . 2006 ; 50 ( 6 ): 641-650 .
3. Calvo MI . Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of the topical preparation of Verbena officinalis L . J Ethnopharmacol . 2006 ; 107 ( 3 ): 380-382 .
4. Guarrera PM , Forti G , Marignoli S . Ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal uses of plants in the district of Acquapendente (Latium, Central Italy) . J Ethnopharmacol . 2005 ; 96 ( 3 ): 429-444 .
5. Owen N . Verbena officinalis L. Vervain. Br J Phytother . 2001 ; 5 : 114-117 .
6. von Karrer P , Salomon H . Verbenalin . Helv Chim Acta . 1946 ; 29 : 1544-1554 .
7. Rimpler H , Schafer B . Hastatoside, a new iridoid from Verbena officinalis and Verbena hastata (Verbenaceae) . Tetrahedron Lett . 1973 ; 17 : 1463-1464 .
8. Bianco A , et al. Iridoid and phenylpropanoid glycosides from new sources . J Nat Prod . 1984 ; 47 : 901-902 .
9. Carnat A , Carnat AP , Chavignon O , Heitz A , Wylde R , Lamaison JL . Luteolin 7-diglucuronide, the major flavonoid compound from Aloysia triphylla and Verbena officinalis . Planta Med . 1995 ; 61 ( 5 ): 490 .
10. Deepak M , Handa SS . 3α, 24-dihydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid from Verbena officinalis . Phytochemistry . 1998 ; 49 : 269-271 .
11. Ono M , Oishi K , Abe H , et al. New iridoid glucosides from the aerial parts of Verbena brasiliensis . Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2006 ; 54 ( 10 ): 1421-1424 .
12. Li Y , Ishibashi M , Satake M , Oshima Y , Ohizumi Y . A new iridoid glycoside with nerve growth factor-potentiating activity, gelsemiol 6'-trans-caffeoyl-1-glucoside, from Verbena littoralis . Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2003 ; 51 ( 9 ): 1103-1105 .
13. Li Y , Ishibashi M , Chen X , Ohizumi Y . Littorachalcone, a new enhancer of NGF-mediated neurite outgrowth, from Verbena littoralis . Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2003 ; 51 ( 7 ): 872-874 .
14. Damtoft S , Jensen SR , Nielsen BJ . Biosynthesis of the iridoid glucosides cornin, hastatoside, and griselinoside in Verbena species . J Chem Soc Perkin Trans . 1983 ; 1 : 1943-1948 .
15. Calvo MI , San Julian A , Fernandez M . Identification of the major compounds in extracts of Verbena officinalis L. by HPLC with post-column derivatization . Chromatographia . 1997 ; 46 : 241-244 .
16. Deepak M , Handa SS . Quantitative determination of the major constituents of Verbena officinalis using high performance thin layer chromatography and high pressure liquid chromatography . Phytochem Anal . 2000 ; 11 : 351-355 .
17. Suomi J , Wiedmer SK , Jussila M , Riekkola ML . Determination of iridoid glycosides by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography-mass spectrometry with use of the partial filling technique . Electrophoresis . 2001 ; 22 ( 12 ): 2580-2587 .
18. Crotteau CA , Wright ST , Eglash A . What is the best treatment for infants with colic? J Fam Pract . 2006 ; 55 ( 7 ): 634-636 .
19. Deepak M , Handa SS . Anti-inflammatory activity and chemical composition of extracts of Verbena officinalis . Phytother Res . 2000 ; 14 ( 6 ): 463-465 .
20. Recio MC , Giner RM , Manez S , Rios JL . Structural considerations on the iridoids as anti-inflammatory agents . Planta Med . 1994 ; 60 ( 3 ): 232-234 .
21. Auf'mkolk M , Ingbar JC , Amir SM , et al. Inhibition by certain plant extracts of the binding and adenylate cyclase stimulatory effect of bovine thyrotropin in human thyroid membranes . Endocrinology . 1984 ; 115 ( 2 ): 527-534 .
22. Auf'mkolk M , Ingbar JC , Kubota K , Amir SM , Ingbar SH . Extracts and auto-oxidized constituents of certain plants inhibit the receptor-binding and the biological activity of Graves' immunoglobulins . Endocrinology . 1985 ; 116 ( 5 ): 1687-1693 .
23. Zava DT , Dollbaum CM , Blen M . Estrogen and progestin bioactivity of foods, herbs, and spices . Proc Soc Exp Biol Med . 1998 ; 217 ( 3 ): 369-378 .
24. Li J , Zheng Y , Zhou H , Su B , Zheng R . Differentiation of human gastric adenocarcinoma cell line MGc80-3 induced by verbascoside . Planta Med . 1997 ; 63 ( 6 ): 499-502 .
25. Zhang F , Jia Z , Deng Z , et al. In vitro modulation of telomerase activity, telomere length and cell cycle in MKN45 cells by verbascoside . Planta Med . 2002 ; 68 ( 2 ): 115-118 .
26. Liao F , Zheng RL , Gao JJ , Jia ZJ . Retardation of skeletal muscle fatigue by the two phenylpropanoid glycosides: verbascoside and martynoside from Pedicularis plicata Maxim . Phytother Res . 1999 ; 13 ( 7 ): 621-623 .
27. Pennacchio M , Alexander E , Syah YM , Ghisalberti EL . The effect of verbascoside on cyclic 3′,5′-adenosine monophosphate levels in isolated rat heart . Eur J Pharmacol . 1996 ; 305 ( 1-3 ): 169-171 .
28. Pennacchio M , Syah YM , Alexander E , Ghisalberti EL . Mechanism of action of verbascoside on the isolated rat heart: increases in level of prostacyclin. Phytother Res . 1999 ; 13 ( 3 ): 254-255 .
29. Wang P , Kang J , Zheng R , et al. Scavenging effects of phenylpropanoid glycosides from Pedicularis on superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical by the spin trapping method(95)02255-4 . Biochem Pharmacol . 1996 ; 51 ( 5 ): 687-691 .
30. Li W , Zheng R , Su B , et al. Repair of dGMP hydroxyl radical adducts by verbascoside via electron transfer: a pulse radiolysis study . Int J Radiat Biol . 1996 ; 69 ( 4 ): 481-485 .
31. Mantle D , Anderton JG , Falkous G , et al. Comparison of methods for determination of total antioxidant status: application to analysis of medicinal plant essential oils . Comp Biochem Physiol . 1998 ; 121B : 385-391 .
32. Bermejo P , Abad MJ , Diaz AM , et al. Antiviral activity of seven iridoids, three saikosaponins and one phenylpropanoid glycoside extracted from Bupleurum rigidum and Scrophularia scorodonia . Planta Med . 2002 ; 68 ( 2 ): 106-110 .
33. Avila JG , de Liverant JG , Martinez A , et al. Mode of action of Buddleja cordata verbascoside against Staphylococcus aureus . J Ethnopharmacol . 1999 ; 66 ( 1 ): 75-78 .
34. Hernandez NE , Tereschuk ML , Abdala LR . Antimicrobial activity of flavonoids in medicinal plants from Tafi del Valle (Tucuman, Argentina) . J Ethnopharmacol . 2000 ; 73 ( 1-2 ): 317-322 .
35. Herbert JM, Maffrand JP. Verbascoside isolated from Lantana camara , an inhibitor of protein kinase C . J Nat Prod . 1991 ; 54 ( 6 ): 1595-1600 .
36. Gruenwald J , ed. PDR for Herbal Medicines . 2nd ed. Medical Economics Company; 2000 : 804 .
37. Newall CC , Anderson LA , Phillipson JD , eds. Herbal Medicines: A Guide for Health-Care Professionals . London: Pharmaceutical Press; 1996 .
38. Zaida F , Bureau F , Guyot S , et al. Iron availability and consumption of tea, vervain and mint during weaning in Morocco . Ann Nutr Metab . 2006 ; 50 ( 3 ): 237-241 .
39. Miyazawa M , Sugie A , Shimada T . Roles of human CYP2A6 and 2B6 and rat YP2C11 and 2B1 in the 10-hydroxylation of (-)-verbenone by liver microsomes . Drug Metab Dispos . 2003 ; 31 ( 8 ): 1049-1053 .
Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health