Scientific Name(s): Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino.
Common Name(s): Amachazuru (Japan), Dungkulcha (Korea), Five-leaf ginseng, Giao-co-lam tea (Vietnam), Herb of immortality, Immortal grass, Jiaogulan, Miracle grass, Penta tea, Poor man’s ginseng, Southern ginseng, Sweet tea vine, Twisting-vine orchid, Xiancao (China)
Limited clinical studies have been conducted to support therapeutic applications. Jiaogulan may have a role in the management of type 2 diabetes, obesity, fatty liver disease, immune response (such as asthma), and cancer. G. pentaphyllum extracts may also have a place in beneficial antioxidant therapy.
Clinical information is lacking. Jiaogulan tea (aqueous extract) 6 g/day, in divided doses twice a day 30 minutes before meals, has been studied in 2 clinical trials in patients with type 2 diabetes; 225 mg twice daily was used for 12 weeks in an antiobesity trial.
Contraindications have not yet been identified.
Information regarding safety and efficacy in pregnancy and lactation is lacking.
None well documented.
Severe nausea and increased bowel movements are possible.
No data available for human toxicity.
G. pentaphyllum (synonym: Vitis pentaphyllum) is a climbing, perennial vine native to China, Japan, and parts of Southeast Asia. The plant is dioecious—having both male and female flowers on separate plants. The leaves commonly grow in groups of 5, and small greenish-white florets are produced. Although a member of the gourd/cucumber family, G. pentaphyllum does not produce the characteristic fruit of this family. The plant grows abundantly and is harvested from the wild; it has been brought under cultivation and tissue culture has been achieved. The plant is now naturalized in the hotter, drier parts of the United States.1, 2, 3, 4
Jiaogulan has been incorporated into traditional Chinese medicine only in the last 20 years, although it has a history of folk use in the Guizhou province. Its properties are said to have been investigated when a Chinese census revealed a large number of elderly people in the province reported using the plant. The plant's potential as a sweetening agent stimulated chemical investigations in Japan. Commercialization and scientific study of the leaves have been promoted by provincial Chinese authorities, and the discovery that several ginseng-like saponins occur in the leaves has prompted aggressive promotion of the plant as a substitute for ginseng. The appearance of jiaogulan in American commerce has been heralded in popular publications.5, 6
Plant constituents primarily include sterols, acetylenic sterols, and triterpenols.7 The phenolic, saponin, and flavonoid composition is known to vary both geographically and by genotype.8 A large number of dammarane (triterpene) saponins, called gypenosides, have been elucidated from the plant leaves. Initial work on the gypenosides was undertaken primarily by 1 group of researchers, but constituents continue to be further described.9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14 Several of these saponins are identical to those found in ginseng, and the content is comparable with that of ginseng roots. However, wide variation in the amount and nature of gypenosides has made standardization of specific gypenosides problematic. Most current products are standardized on total saponin content. High-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry methods have been described to identify chemical constituents.15, 16
Uses and Pharmacology
Although jiaogulan contains ginseng-like saponins, it has not been reported to contain the other types of biologically active compounds, acetylenes, and polysaccharides found in ginseng. Thus, while ginseng pharmacology presents a reasonable starting point for investigation, jiaogulan cannot be considered as pharmacologically identical.
Limited antimicrobial activity has been shown for extracts of G. pentaphyllum.56
A G. pentaphyllum leaf ethanol extract, actiponin, was shown in experimental studies to improve the expression of key regulatory factors of fat oxidation and lipogenic transcription factors in a dose-dependent manner. As a follow up to subsequent studies in mouse obesity models that demonstrated reduced body fat mass, a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was conducted in 80 obese participants with a BMI between 25 and 30 who had no other diagnoses. Compared to placebo, administration of actiponin 225 mg twice daily for 12 weeks led to significant improvements in abdominal fat and anthropometric parameters but not lipid parameters. Respectively, the gender-adjusted results for placebo compared to actiponin were abdominal fat (−2.87 vs −20.90 cm2, P=0.044), body weight (−0.08 vs −1.35 kg, P=0.021), BMI (0 vs −0.49, P=0.029), body fat mass (+0.28 vs −1.25; P<0.0001), percent body fat (+0.37 vs −1.16, P<0.0001), and waist circumference (−1.33 vs −2.49 cm; P=0.029). Actiponin was well tolerated with no adverse events reported.69
Antioxidant activity has been described for jiaogulan extracts.14, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 57, 58 Cryoprotective effects on spermatozoa, possibly via antioxidant action, was demonstrated by a jiaogulan extract.59
An in vitro study of gypenosides in mice with leukemia showed increased survival for the treated mice.17
In vitro studies have evaluated the cytotoxicity of whole jiaogulan extracts as well as specific chemical constituents against various human cancer cell lines including brain, liver, oral, tongue, colon, and prostate cancers, and leukemia. Induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis has been demonstrated.8, 10, 12, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25 However, clinical trials are lacking.
The hot water extract of G. pentaphyllum was found to activate platelet aggregation; however, the active principle was not elucidated.26 Gypenosides inhibited platelet aggregation in another study.27 In rabbits, crude gypenosides decreased heart rate, increased stroke volume, dilated blood vessels, and reduced blood pressure while slightly increasing cardiac output.28 Purified gypenosides 5 and 10 were found to lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure, decrease coronary, brain, and peripheral blood vessel resistance, raise coronary flow, and lower heart rate in dogs.29 Crude gypenosides protected against cerebral ischemic damage in a rabbit model.30 Gypensoides protected the cardiac muscle in rats with diabetic cardiomyopathy as measured by left ventricular diastolic and systolic pressure.31
Clinical data regarding the use of jiaogulan for cardiovascular effects is lacking.
Antioxidant activity has been described for extracts of jiaogulan on nervous tissue samples.14, 32
Extracts of G. pentaphyllum fed to rats appeared to protect hippocampus cells from hypoxia/hypoglycemia injury, suggesting a potential application in stroke or reperfusion injury.33, 34 Similarly, in rats with chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, gypenosides appeared to exert a protective effect.35 In rodent models of Parkinson disease, gypenosides were neuroprotective against oxidative injury.36, 37 Experimental learning deficits induced in mice were attenuated by Gynostemma aqueous extract and specific gypenosides.38, 39
Research reveals no clinical data regarding the use of jiaogulan for nervous system conditions.
In obese mice, oral administration of G. pentaphyllum saponin extract over 8 weeks resulted in decreased body weight.40 A protective effect was observed by histology in rats with induced fatty liver disease fed jiaogulan.41 In mice with type 2 diabetes, high-dose G. pentaphyllum extract preserved insulin production and protected the pancreas (on histology).42
A small (N = 24) 12-week clinical trial evaluated the effect of jiaogulan tea 6 g/day in patients with type 2 diabetes. Decreases in fasting blood sugar, HbA1c and insulin resistance were observed. No effect on serum lipids was noted. No adverse effects were noted.43 A similar study (N = 25) conducted by the same researchers found the tea to be effective as add-on therapy to standard gliclazide treatment.44 A single-blind study evaluated the effect of 80 mL aqueous G. pentaphyllum extract daily over 6 months in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and found improvements in both insulin resistance and fatty liver scores.45
A protectant effect against induced hepatic fibrosis in rats has been demonstrated.60, 61
A single-blind study evaluated the effect of 80 mL aqueous G. pentaphyllum extract daily over 6 months in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and found improvements in both insulin resistance and fatty liver scores. No other clinical studies were identified in a Cochrane systematic review on herbal medicines for fatty liver disease conducted 7 years later. 45, 68
Results from animal experiments and in vitro studies are equivocal with some,11, 40, 46, 47 but not all,48 suggesting improved lipid profiles.
Similarly, limited clinical studies have produced conflicting data.43, 45, 49, 50, 69 Further quality trials are warranted. The influence of genetic polymorphisms on the metabolic response to consumption of G. pentaphyllum Makino tea was investigated in a small randomized interventional study in 66 hypercholesterolemic participants. Gene variants in 2 genes linked to dyslipidemia, apolipoprotein E (APOE) and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), were assessed. Although data from the 48 patients who completed the study revealed no significant interaction between tea consumption and APOE or CETP genotypes, G. pentaphyllum demonstrated beneficial effects on total cholesterol and fasting blood glucose in CETP B2 carriers compared to non-B2 carriers (P=0.045 and P=0.026, respectively) and on FBG in APOE non-E4 genotypes versus those with the E4 allele (P=0.042).67
Immune response (adaptogen)
In vitro studies suggest G. pentaphyllum extracts have an inhibitory effect on the interleukin response to allergens.13
Studies in mice and rats have demonstrated moderation of the anti-inflammatory response by the immune system. Airway hyperresponsiveness was reduced in mice,51, 52 while thymus and spleen response to electric shock stress was muted in mice pretreated with oral extract for 14 days.53 A protective effect against the adverse effects of cadmium on T-cell functioning has also been demonstrated in rats.54
In an older study, cancer patients given jiaogulan granules after chemotherapy showed improved immune function by several end points.55 However, clinical data regarding the use of jiaogulan for immune effects is lacking.
A dose of 3 to 9 g/day dried G. pentaphyllum leaves is recommended in traditional medicine.69 (Park, 2014)
A 20 mg tablet containing 85% gypenosides 2 to 3 times a day is referred to in some texts as a preventive dose, and 60 mg taken 2 to 3 times a day as a treatment dose.6 However, published studies to justify this dosing are lacking.
Diabetes type 2
A small (N = 24) clinical trial evaluated the effect of jiaogulan tea (aqueous extract) 6 g/day taken in divided doses twice a day 30 minutes before meals.43
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
Aqueous G. pentaphyllum extract 80 mL daily over 6 months was used in a clinical study.45
225 mg twice daily for 12 weeks was used in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study conducted in obese patients.69
Pregnancy / Lactation
Information regarding safety and efficacy in pregnancy and lactation is lacking. Although reports specifically on jiaogulan are lacking, caution is warranted as a few isolated ginsenosides have demonstrated embryotoxicity.
Case reports are lacking. Older studies in animals suggested both pro- and antiaggregation action on platelets.26, 27
Severe nausea and increased bowel movements have been reported;62 however, a clinical trial using jiaogulan tea 6 g/day reported no adverse effects.43
Chronic toxicity of jiaogulan was investigated in Wistar rats over 6 months. Doses from 6 mg to 750 mg/kg/day of the extract of the aerial plant parts were orally administered. No differences from controls were found for hematological indices, biochemistry, or histological studies.63 The median lethal oral dose (LD50) has been reported as 49 g/kg in rats, and intraperitoneal LD50 from 1 to 2 g/kg intraperitoneally in mice.64, 65, 66
1. Zhang ZH, Liu H, Zhao LH, Han XZ. Clonal propagation of Gynostemma pentaphyllum
(Thunb.) Makino in test tubes [in Chinese]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
. 1989;14(6):335–336, 382.
2. Liu X, Tang F. Tissue culture and plantlet regeneration of Gynostemma pentaphyllum
[in Chinese]. Zhong Yao Cai
3. Wu M, Jiang R. Pharmacognosy of Gynostemma pentaphyllum
and Cayratia japonica
[in Chinese]. Zhong Yao Cai
4. Ding S, Zhu Z, Li Y. Pharmacognostical study of Gynostemma
(Cucurbitaceae) in China [in Chinese]. Yao Xue Xue Bao
5. Liu J, Blumert M. Jiaogulan: China's Immortality Herb.
Badger, CA: Torchlight Publishing; 1999.
6. Duke JA. Handbook of Medicinal Herbs
. 2nd ed. CRC Press; 2002:425-426.
7. Gynostemma pentaphyllum
(thunb.) makino (vitis pentaphylla
thunb.). In: Azimova S, Glushenkova A, eds. Lipids, Lipophilic Components and Essential Oils from Plant Sources
. Springer London; 2012:311-312.
8. Xie Z, Liu W, Huang H, et al. Chemical composition of five commercial Gynostemma pentaphyllum
samples and their radical scavenging, antiproliferative, and anti-inflammatory properties [published online ahead of print October 12, 2010]. J Agric Food Chem
9. Kim JH, Han YN. Dammarane-type saponins from Gynostemma pentaphyllum
10. Shi L, Cao JQ, Shi SM, Zhao YQ. Triterpenoid saponins from Gynostemma pentaphyllum
. J Asian Nat Prod Res
11. Nguyen PH, Gauhar R, Hwang SL, et al. New dammarane-type glucosides as potential activators of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) from Gynostemma pentaphyllum
. Bioorg Med Chem
12. Li N, Wu CF, Xu XY, Liu ZY, Li X, Zhao YQ. Triterpenes possessing an unprecedented skeleton isolated from hydrolyzate of total saponins from Gynostemma pentaphyllum
. Eur J Med Chem
13. Hung TM, Thu CV, Cuong TD, et al. Dammarane-type glycosides from Gynostemma pentaphyllum
and their effects on IL-4-induced eotaxin expression in human bronchial epithelial cells. J Nat Prod
14. Hu Y, Ip FC, Fu G, Pang H, Ye W, Ip NY. Dammarane saponins from Gynostemma pentaphyllum
15. Kao TH, Huang SC, Inbaraj BS, Chen BH. Determination of flavonoids and saponins in Gynostemma pentaphyllum
(thunb.) makino by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Anal Chim Acta
16. Huang SC, Hung CF, Wu WB, Chen BH. Determination of chlorophylls and their derivatives in Gynostemma pentaphyllum
makino by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Pharm Biomed Anal
17. Hsu HY, Yang JS, Lu KW, et al. An experimental study on the antileukemia effects of gypenosides in vitro and in vivo. Integr Cancer Ther
18. Tsai YC, Lin CL, Chen BH. Preparative chromatography of flavonoids and saponins in Gynostemma pentaphyllum
and their antiproliferation effect on hepatoma cell. Phytomedicine
19. Zhu H, Liu Z, Tang L, et al. Reversal of P-gp and MRP1-mediated multidrug resistance by H6, a gypenoside aglycon from Gynostemma pentaphyllum
, in vincristine-resistant human oral cancer (KB/VCR) cells. Eur J Pharmacol
20. Schild L, Chen BH, Makarov P, Kattengell K, Heinitz K, Keilhoff G. Selective induction of apoptosis in glioma tumour cells by a Gynostemma pentaphyllum
21. Lu KW, Chen JC, Lai TY, et al. Gypenosides inhibits migration and invasion of human oral cancer SAS cells through the inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-2 -9 and urokinase-plasminogen by ERK1/2 and NF-kappa B signaling pathways. Hum Exp Toxicol
22. Lu HF, Chen YS, Yang JS, et al. Gypenosides induced G0/G1 arrest via inhibition of cyclin E and induction of apoptosis via activation of caspases-3 and -9 in human lung cancer A-549 cells. In Vivo
23. Lu KW, Tsai ML, Chen JC, et al. Gypenosides inhibited invasion and migration of human tongue cancer SCC4 cells through down-regulation of NFkappaB and matrix metalloproteinase-9. Anticancer Res
24. Chen JC, Lu KW, Tsai ML, et al. Gypenosides induced G0/G1 arrest via CHk2 and apoptosis through endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitochondria-dependent pathways in human tongue cancer SCC-4 cells. Oral Oncol
25. Cheng TC, Lu JF, Wang JS, Lin LJ, Kuo HI, Chen BH. Antiproliferation effect and apoptosis mechanism of prostate cancer cell PC-3 by flavonoids and saponins prepared from Gynostemma pentaphyllum
. J Agric Food Chem
26. Takagi J, Imada T, Kikuchi T, Saito Y, Inada Y. A new platelet aggregation factor from Gynostemma pentaphyllum
Makino. Chem Pharm Bull
27. Wu J, Qiu P, Liu J, Mu Q, Xin D. Effects of gypenosides on platelet aggregation release and cAMP level in rabbits [in Chinese]. Chin J Pharmacol Toxicol
28. Li Y, Ping Li, Meng F, Zhang G, Wang Z. Effects of total gypenosides on heart function and blood pressure of rabbits [in Chinese]. Acta Acad Med Shandong
29. Chen L, Qiu S, Li Q, He Y. Comparison between the effects of gypenosides and ginsenosides on cardiac function and hemodynamics in dogs [in Chinese]. Chin J Pharmacol Toxicol
30. Wang Z, Qiu P. Protective effect of gypenoside on acute incomplete cerebral ischemia in rabbits [in Chinese]. Chin J Pharmacol Toxicol
31. Ge M, Ma S, Tao L, Guan S. The effect of gypenosides on cardiac function and expression of cytoskeletal genes of myocardium in diabetic cardiomyopathy rats. Am J Chin Med
32. Wang P, Niu L, Guo XD, et al. Gypenosides protects dopaminergic neurons in primary culture against MPP(+)-induced oxidative injury. Brain Res Bull
33. Schild L, Cotte T, Keilhoff G, Brodemann R. Preconditioning of brain slices against hypoxia induced injury by a Gynostemma pentaphyllum
extract—stimulation of anti-oxidative enzyme expression. Phytomedicine
34. Schild L, Roth A, Keilhoff G, Gardemann A, Brodemann R. Protection of hippocampal slices against hypoxia/hypoglycemia injury by a Gynostemma pentaphyllum
35. Zhang XS, Bi XL, Wan-Xiao, et al. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitory effect by dammarane-type triterpenes from hydrolyzate of total Gynostemma pentaphyllum
saponins. Bioorg Med Chem Lett
36. Wang P, Niu L, Gao L, et al. Neuroprotective effect of gypenosides against oxidative injury in the substantia nigra of a mouse model of Parkinson's disease. J Int Med Res
37. Choi HS, Park MS, Kim SH, Hwang BY, Lee CK, Lee MK. Neuroprotective effects of herbal ethanol extracts from Gynostemma pentaphyllum
in the 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rat model of Parkinson's disease. Molecules
38. Xu F, Sun X, Zhou H. Anti-aging actions of Gynostemma pentaphyllum
and its compound formula [in Chinese]. Chin Tradit Pat Med
39. Hong SW, Yang JH, Joh EH, Kim HJ, Kim DH. Gypenoside TN-2 ameliorates scopolamine-induced learning deficit in mice. J Ethnopharmacol
40. Gauhar R, Hwang SL, Jeong SS, et al. Heat-processed Gynostemma pentaphyllum
extract improves obesity in ob/ob mice by activating AMP-activated protein kinase. Biotechnol Lett
41. Qin R, Zhang J, Li C, et al. Protective effects of gypenosides against fatty liver disease induced by high fat and cholesterol diet and alcohol in rats. Arch Pharm Res
42. Yeo J, Kang YJ, Jeon SM, et al. Potential hypoglycemic effect of an ethanol extract of Gynostemma pentaphyllum
in C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice. J Med Food
43. Huyen VT, Phan DV, Thang P, Hoa NK, Ostenson CG. Antidiabetic effect of Gynostemma pentaphyllum
tea in randomly assigned type 2 diabetic patients. Horm Metab Res
44. Huyen VT, Phan DV, Thang P, Ky PT, Hoa NK, Ostenson CG. Antidiabetic effects of add-on Gynostemma pentaphyllum
extract therapy with sulfonylureas in type 2 diabetic patients. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
45. Chou SC, Chen KW, Hwang JS, et al. The add-on effects of Gynostemma pentaphyllum
on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Altern Ther Health Med
46. la Cour B, Mølgaard P, Yi Z. Traditional Chinese medicine in treatment of hyperlipidaemia. J Ethnopharmacol
47. Geng W, Yang Y, Liang J, Li Y, He Q. Effects of Gynostemma pentaphyllum
extract on T-lymphocyte and lipid metabolism in rats [in Chinese]. Guangxi Med J
48. Dai H, Meng Q, Zhu H. Effects of the total saponin of Gynostemma pentaphyllum
on lipoproteins [in Chinese]. Zhong Cao Yao
49. Hu X, Ye C, Li X, et al. Antilipemic effect Gynostemma pentaphyllum
in patients [in Chinese]. Fu Jian Yi Yao Za Zhi
50. Zhou H, Xie X, Sun M. Treatment of hyperlipidemia with Gynostemma pentaphyllum
Jiaogulan. Hunan Med J
51. Huang WC, Kuo ML, Li ML, Yang RC, Liou CJ, Shen JJ. Gynostemma pentaphyllum
decreases allergic reactions in a murine asthmatic model. Am J Chin Med
52. Liou CJ, Huang WC, Kuo ML, Yang RC, Shen JJ. Long-term oral administration of Gynostemma pentaphyllum
extract attenuates airway inflammation and Th2 cell activities in ovalbumin-sensitized mice. Food Chem Toxicol
53. Im SA, Choi HS, Choi SO, et al. Restoration of electric footshock-induced immunosuppression in mice by Gynostemma pentaphyllum
54. Suntararuks S, Yoopan N, Rangkadilok N, Worasuttayangkurn L, Nookabkaew S, Satayavivad J. Immunomodulatory effects of cadmium and Gynostemma pentaphyllum
herbal tea on rat splenocyte proliferation. J Agric Food Chem
55. Wang J, Cao B, Ying X, Zhou Z. Immunologic effects of jiaogulan granule in 19 cancer patients [in Chinese]. Zhejiang Zhong Yi Za Zhi
56. Srichana D, Taengtip R, Kondo S. Antimicrobial activity of Gynostemma pentaphyllum
extracts against fungi producing aflatoxin and fumonisin and bacteria causing diarrheal disease. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health
57. Muller C, Gardemann A, Keilhoff G, Peter D, Wiswedel I, Schild L. Prevention of free fatty acid-induced lipid accumulation, oxidative stress, and cell death in primary hepatocyte cultures by a Gynostemma pentaphyllum
58. Chi A, Tang L, Zhang J, Zhang K. Chemical composition of three polysaccharides from Gynostemma pentaphyllum
and their antioxidant activity in skeletal muscle of exercised mice. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab
59. Hu JH, Li QW, Zhang T, Jiang ZL. Effect of Gynostemma pentaphyllum
polysaccharide on boar spermatozoa quality following freezing-thawing. Cryobiology
60. Chen MH, Wang QF, Chen LG, et al. The inhibitory effect of Gynostemma pentaphyllum
on MCP-1 and type I procollagen expression in rat hepatic stellate cells. J Ethnopharmacol
61. Chen MH, Chen SH, Wang QF, et al. The molecular mechanism of gypenosides-induced G1 growth arrest of rat hepatic stellate cells. J Ethnopharmacol
62. Chen Z, Su H. Progress in the research on the pharmacology of Gynostemma pentaphyllum
[in Chinese]. Zhong Yao Cai
63. Attawish A, Chivapat S, Phadungpat S, et al. Chronic toxicity of Gynostemma pentaphyllum
64. Chen J, Xu H. Antistress action of Gynostemma pentaphyllum
[in Chinese]. Chin Tradit Pat Med
65. Li R, Zhou L, Liao Z, et al. Chemical and pharmacological studies on Gynostemma pentaphyllum
. J New Chin Med
66. Liu X, Gau J, Huang R. Pharmacological studies on the total saponin of Gynostemma pentaphyllum
from Guangxi. Chin Tradit Pat Med
67. Jeenduang N, Sangkaew B, Chantaracha P, et al. APOE and CETP TaqIB polymorphisms influence metabolic responses to Hibiscus sabdariffa L. and Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino tea consumption in hypercholesterolemic subjects. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr
68. Liu ZL, Xie LZ, Zhu J, Li GQ, Grant SJ, Liu JP. Herbal medicines for fatty liver diseases. Cochrane Database Syst Rev
. 2013 Aug 24;(8):CD009059.23975682
69. Park SH, Huh TL, Kim SY, et al. Antiobesity effect of Gynostemma pentaphyllum extract (actiponin): a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Obesity (Silver Spring)
This information relates to an herbal, vitamin, mineral or other dietary supplement. This product has not been reviewed by the FDA to determine whether it is safe or effective and is not subject to the quality standards and safety information collection standards that are applicable to most prescription drugs. This information should not be used to decide whether or not to take this product. This information does not endorse this product as safe, effective, or approved for treating any patient or health condition. This is only a brief summary of general information about this product. It does NOT include all information about the possible uses, directions, warnings, precautions, interactions, adverse effects, or risks that may apply to this product. This information is not specific medical advice and does not replace information you receive from your health care provider. You should talk with your health care provider for complete information about the risks and benefits of using this product.
This product may adversely interact with certain health and medical conditions, other prescription and over-the-counter drugs, foods, or other dietary supplements. This product may be unsafe when used before surgery or other medical procedures. It is important to fully inform your doctor about the herbal, vitamins, mineral or any other supplements you are taking before any kind of surgery or medical procedure. With the exception of certain products that are generally recognized as safe in normal quantities, including use of folic acid and prenatal vitamins during pregnancy, this product has not been sufficiently studied to determine whether it is safe to use during pregnancy or nursing or by persons younger than 2 years of age.
Copyright © 2018 Wolters Kluwer Health
Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.
More about jiaogulan
Related treatment guides