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Hyssop

Scientific Name(s): Hyssopus officinalis L.
Common Name(s): Ezov, Hyssop, Hyssopus

Clinical Overview

Use

Toxic effects of hyssop essential oil limit therapeutic applications. Although no clinical evidence supports use, animal research indicates the potential for use of hyssop extract in diabetes and for its antimicrobial and CNS effects.

Dosing

No clinical evidence is available to determine hyssop dosing recommendations.

Contraindications

Contraindications have not been identified.

Pregnancy/Lactation

Avoid use. Documented adverse effects.

Interactions

None well documented.

Adverse Reactions

Information is limited; however, case reports of seizures exist.

Toxicology

Convulsant toxic effects of the essential oil have been established in rodents.

Botany

Hyssop is a perennial plant native to the Mediterranean that has been imported to and naturalized in the United States and Canada. It grows along roadsides and is sometimes found as a garden herb, growing to about 0.6 m in height. Its thin pointed leaves extend onto a central herbaceous stem that is sessile in form. The small blue tubular flowers grow from the upper leaf axils and bloom from July to October. The fruit contains 4 nutlets, each having one seed, and the plant has an aromatic camphor-like scent.1, 2, 3

A number of other common plants found in North America go by a variation of the name "hyssop." These include giant hyssop (Agastache spp.), hedge hyssop (Gratiola officinalis L.), and water hyssop (Bacopa spp.); none of these plants are members of the genus Hyssopus, nor are they all members of the family Laminaceae.1

History

In ancient times, the hyssop plant was used as an insecticide, insect repellent, and pediculicide,3 and also in religious rituals; however, there is little evidence that mentions of "hyssop" in the Bible actually refer to H. officinalis.4, 5 The plant has been used in herbal medicine for the treatment of sore throats, colds, hoarseness, and as an expectorant.2, 3 Some herbalists also believe that hyssop has beneficial effects in asthma, urinary tract inflammation, lack of appetite, gas, and colic. Extracts of the plant have been used in perfumes and soaps, and to flavor liqueurs, sauces, puddings, and candies.2, 3

Chemistry

As a member of the mint family, hyssop contains a number of fragrant, volatile components. The plant contains up to 2% of a volatile oil,2 primarily composed of pinocamphone, isopinocamphone, alpha- and beta-pinene, camphene, and alpha-terpinene.6

Other constituents of the plant include glycosides (hyssopin as well as the flavonoid glycosides, hesperidin, and diosmine), tannin 5% to 8%, oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, beta-sitosterol, marrubiin, and resins. Crude hyssop also contains rosmarinic acid 0.5% and total hydroxycinnamic derivatives 2.2%.2, 6 Flavonoids with antioxidant activity have been identified.7

Uses and Pharmacology

Antimicrobial

Animal data

Antibacterial and antiviral activity has been described for leaf extracts and the essential oil of hyssop. In vitro studies showed antibacterial activity against several human pathogens6; however, the preservative effect of hyssop added to ground beef was limited.8

In vitro antiviral activity has been investigated against herpes simplex viruses 1 and 29, 10 and HIV,11 with some studies suggesting the effect is limited to the viral envelope10 and hence ineffective against nonenveloped viruses such as human norovirus.12

Clinical data

Research reveals no clinical data regarding the use of hyssop oil for antimicrobial effects.

Asthma

Animal data

Asthmatic mice treated with hyssop extract (0.04 g per 10 g) had decreased airway remodeling and fewer symptoms of cough, shortness of breath, anxiety, and cyanosis.13 A decrease in symptoms and changes in various disease marker proteins were similar to the group treated with dexamethasone. The same research group used the same treatments to examine immune effects and noted that hyssop-treated asthmatic mice had significant reductions in mucus secretion and reductions in immunoglobulin E (IgE) and IgG similar to the improvements seen in the dexamethasone group.14

Clinical data

Research reveals no clinical data regarding the use of hyssop oil for antiasthmatic effects.

CNS

Animal data

Inhalation of hyssop essential oil was sedative in agitated (caffeine-stimulated) mice.15 Commercial preparations of hyssop essential oils produced convulsions in rats at 0.13 g/kg and death at 1.25 g/kg.16

Clinical data

Research reveals no clinical data regarding the use of hyssop for CNS effects, and case reports of seizures due to consumption of hyssop essential oil exist (see Toxicology).

Diabetes

Animal data

Limited experiments suggest an extract of the dried leaves of hyssop contains glucopyranosides that appear to have alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity capable of reducing postprandial hyperglycemia.17, 18

Clinical data

Research reveals no clinical data regarding the use of hyssop for diabetes.

Dosing

No clinical evidence is available to determine hyssop dosing recommendations.

Pregnancy / Lactation

Avoid use. Hyssop has emmenagogue and abortifacient effects.19, 20

Interactions

Reports are lacking.

Adverse Reactions

Hyssop oil was nonirritating to the skin in animal and human studies.2 Older case reports of seizures related to consumption of hyssop and sage oils exist.14, 21

Research reveals little or no information regarding adverse reactions with hyssop use.

Toxicology

In rats, commercial preparations of hyssop essential oils produced convulsions at 0.13 g/kg and death at 1.25 g/kg, and case reports of seizures in adults and children exist.16, 21 The neurotoxicity of hyssop appears to be related to 2 terpene ketones, pinocamphone and isopinocamphone; although, other monoterpenes with similar chemical structures, such as camphor, thujone, and cineole, are known to have epileptogenic properties.14, 21

A study using hyssop in combination with other herbs in the feed of horses showed no differences in hematologic or biochemical parameters compared with placebo feed.22

References

1. Hyssopus officinalis L. USDA, NRCS. The PLANTS Database (http://plants.usda.gov/java/, 2016). National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.
2. Khan IA, Abourashed EA. Leung's Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics. 3rd ed. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley; 2009.
3. Duke J, Bogenschutz-Godwin M, duCellier J, Duke P. Handbook of Medicinal Herbs. 2nd ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 2002.
4. Harrison R. The Biblical problem of hyssop. The Evangelical Quarterly. 1954;26(4):218-224.
5. Luca LM, Norum KR. Scurvy and cloudberries: a chapter in the history of nutritional sciences. J Nutr. 2011;141(12):2101-2105.22013203
6. De Martino L, De Feo V, Nazzaro F. Chemical composition and in vitro antimicrobial and mutagenic activities of seven Lamiaceae essential oils. Molecules. 2009;14(10):4213-4230.19924059
7. Fathiazad F, Mazandarani M, Hamedeyazdan S. Phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activity of Hyssopus officinalis L. from Iran. Adv Pharm Bull. 2011;1(2):63-67.24312758
8. Michalczyk M, Macura R, Tesarowicz I, Banaś J. Effect of adding essential oils of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) and hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.) on the shelf life of ground beef. Meat Sci. 2012;90(3):842-850.22153611
9. Schnitzler P, Koch C, Reichling J. Susceptibility of drug-resistant clinical herpes simplex virus type 1 strains to essential oils of ginger, thyme, hyssop, and sandalwood. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007;51(5):1859-1862.17353250
10. Koch C, Reichling J, Schneele J, Schnitzler P. Inhibitory effect of essential oils against herpes simplex virus type 2. Phytomedicine. 2008;15(1-2):71-78.17976968
11. Kreis W, Kaplan MH, Freeman J, Sun DK, Sarin PS. Inhibition of HIV replication by Hyssop officinalis extracts. Antiviral Res. 1990;14(6):323-337.1708226
12. Kovač K, Diez-Valcarce M, Raspor P, Hernández M, Rodríguez-Lázaro D. Natural plant essential oils do not inactivate non-enveloped enteric viruses. Food Environ Virol. 2012;4(4):209-212.23412892
13. Ma X, Ma X, Ma Z, et al. The effects of Uygur herb Hyssopus officinalis L. on the process of airway remodeling in asthmatic mice. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2014;2014:710870.25383084
14. Ma X, Ma X, Ma Z, et al. Effect of Hyssopus officinalis L. on inhibiting airway inflammation and immune regulation on a chronic asthmatic mouse model. Exp Therapeu Med. 2014;8(5):1371-1374.25289025
15. Lim WC, Seo JM, Lee CI, Pyo HB, Lee BC. Stimulative and sedative effects of essential oils upon inhalation in mice. Arch Pharm Res. 2005;28(7):770-774.16114490
16. Millet Y, Jouglard J, Steinmetz MD, Tognetti P, Joanny P, Arditti J. Toxicity of some essential plant oils. Clinical and experimental study. Clin Toxicol. 1981;18(12):1485-1498.7333081
17. Matsuura H, Miyazaki H, Asakawa C, Amano M, Yoshihara T, Mizutani J. Isolation of alpha-glusosidase inhibitors from hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis). Phytochemistry. 2004;65(1):91-97.14697274
18. Miyazaki H, Matsuura H, Yanagiya C, Mizutani J, Tsuji M, Ishihara C. Inhibitory effects of hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis) extracts on intestinal alpha-glucosidase activity and postprandial hyperglycemia. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2003;49(5):346-349.14703310
19. Ernst E. Herbal medicinal products during pregnancy: are they safe? BJOG. 2002;109(3):227-235.11950176
20. Quattrocchi U. CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2012. 13:978-1-4822-5064-0.
21. Burkhard PR, Burkhardt K, Haenggeli CA, Landis T. Plant-induced seizures: reappearance of an old problem. J Neurol. 1999;246(8):667-670.10460442
22. Pearson W, Charch A, Brewer D, Clarke AF. Pilot study investigating the ability of an herbal composite to alleviate clinical signs of respiratory dysfunction in horses with recurrent airway obstruction. Can J Vet Res. 2007;71(2):145-151.17479778

Disclaimer

This information relates to an herbal, vitamin, mineral or other dietary supplement. This product has not been reviewed by the FDA to determine whether it is safe or effective and is not subject to the quality standards and safety information collection standards that are applicable to most prescription drugs. This information should not be used to decide whether or not to take this product. This information does not endorse this product as safe, effective, or approved for treating any patient or health condition. This is only a brief summary of general information about this product. It does NOT include all information about the possible uses, directions, warnings, precautions, interactions, adverse effects, or risks that may apply to this product. This information is not specific medical advice and does not replace information you receive from your health care provider. You should talk with your health care provider for complete information about the risks and benefits of using this product.

This product may adversely interact with certain health and medical conditions, other prescription and over-the-counter drugs, foods, or other dietary supplements. This product may be unsafe when used before surgery or other medical procedures. It is important to fully inform your doctor about the herbal, vitamins, mineral or any other supplements you are taking before any kind of surgery or medical procedure. With the exception of certain products that are generally recognized as safe in normal quantities, including use of folic acid and prenatal vitamins during pregnancy, this product has not been sufficiently studied to determine whether it is safe to use during pregnancy or nursing or by persons younger than 2 years of age.

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