Skip to Content

Glutathione

Common Name(s): Gamma-L-Glutamyl-L-cysteinylglycine, Glutathione, GSH

Medically reviewed by Drugs.com. Last updated on Sep 1, 2018.

Clinical Overview

Use

Glutathione supplementation has been evaluated in clinical trials in various formulations (eg, oral, intravenous [IV], topical, intranasal, nebulized) for its effects on HIV, Parkinson disease, Alzheimer disease, autism, cystic fibrosis, and cardiovascular diseases, among other conditions. N-acetylcysteine, as the precursor to glutathione, has demonstrated efficacy in raising glutathione levels and is frequently chosen for this purpose.

Dosing

Glutathione has been evaluated in clinical trials in various formulations, including oral, IV, topical, intranasal, and nebulized. The oral formulation has shown mixed results, with some data suggesting it does not increase RBC glutathione and other data showing efficacy. Liposomal formulations of glutathione may confer better effects, but further research is needed. N-acetylcysteine, as the precursor to glutathione, has demonstrated efficacy in raising glutathione levels. Cystic fibrosis: In a clinical trial of children with cystic fibrosis, oral reduced glutathione 65 mg/kg/day (divided into 3 doses per day at mealtimes) was administered for 6 months. Parkinson disease: A small clinical study used IV glutathione at a dosage of 1,400 mg 3 times per week for 4 weeks.

Contraindications

Contraindications have not been identified.

Pregnancy/Lactation

Information regarding safety and efficacy in pregnancy and lactation is lacking.

Interactions

Acetaminophen in high doses is known to deplete glutathione, especially in the liver.

Adverse Reactions

Increased flatulence and loose stools, flushing, and weight gain were reported in one study. A case report shows reversible, severe hepatic injury related to use of IV glutathione, and inhaled glutathione may exacerbate asthma.

Toxicology

Glutathione has received "generally recognized as safe" (GRAS) status from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in food products.

Source

Glutathione is a tripeptide that can be synthesized in all cells of the body from its constituent amino acids L-cysteine, L-glutamic acid, and glycine. It is found in lower concentrations in plasma and extracellular fluid, except in bile where concentrations are higher. Lower levels are found in the brain; this is considered a protective mechanism because glutathione precursor molecules may be toxic in high concentrations.Rae 2017, Smeyne 2013 The synthesis of glutathione varies according to tissue type, and levels are affected by pregnancy, exercise, and nutritional status, with diurnal variation also reported.Ballatori 2009, Forman 2009, Wu 2004

Whey protein is used as a dietary supplement for cysteine, which is one of the substrates for glutathione synthesis.Bumrungpert 2018

History

The substance known today as glutathione was discovered in 1888 under a microscope by the French researcher J. de Rey-Pailhade. In the early 1920s, its structures and metabolism were described by the English biochemist Frederick Gowland Hopkins, who renamed it "glutathione." However, Hopkins erroneously classified it as a dipeptide of glutamic acid and cysteine. Hunter and Eagles reported the error in 1927, stating that glutathione was a tripeptide; Hopkins accepted this designation in 1929.Bains 2015

Glutathione has been suggested to possess antimelanogenic properties; in the Philippines, glutathione is claimed to produce "magical skin whitening."Sonthalia 2018

Chemistry

Glutathione is a low-molecular-weight tripeptide formed by the sequential, catalyzed addition of cysteine to glutamate, followed by the addition of glycine. Importantly, glutathione is a thiol, bearing the characteristic sulfhydryl group (glutathione disulfide is its oxidized form) and serving to maintain the redox status of the cell and protect against endogenous and exogenous toxins. In healthy cells, the ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione is greater than 1:100, whereas in cells under oxidative stress, this ratio decreases to 1:10. Glutathione is produced in the cytosol and is actively pumped into the cellular mitochondria where glutathione appears to regulate apoptosis, while in the nucleus it plays a role in regulating cell division.Bains 2015, Ballatori 2009, Forman 2009, Martin 2009, Peter 2015, Pizzorno 2014, Wu 2004 Glutathione has a molecular mass of 307.3232 g/mol, a melting point of 195°C (383°F), and is water soluble.Bains 2015

Uses and Pharmacology

Glutathione is a tripeptide that can be synthesized in all cells of the body. Glutathione is involved in many biological processes such as free radical neutralization, detoxification, transport and storage of cysteine, maintenance of cellular redox, ascorbic acid and vitamin E regeneration, transport of mercury out of cells and brain, and serving as a coenzyme.Peter 2015, Pizzorno 2014, Smeyne 2013 Glutathione is also involved in iron metabolism, including sensing and regulation of iron levels, iron trafficking, and synthesis of iron cofactors.Berndt 2017 It is believed to help maintain the integrity of the blood-brain barrier.Rae 2017 Glutathione is important for supporting functions of both the innate and adaptive immune systems, including T-lymphocyte proliferation, phagocytic activity of polymorphonuclear neutrophils, dendritic cell function, and antigen presentation by antigen-presenting cells.Ghezzi 2011 Additionally, some bacteria synthesize glutathione in response to oxidative stress.Morris 2014

Diseases associated with inborn errors in glutathione metabolism are rare but provide insight into the role of glutathione in the body. A study of community-based elderly patients found that increased glutathione levels were associated with higher levels of self-rated health, fewer illnesses, and reduced cholesterol, body mass index, and blood pressure.Julius 1994 Depletion of glutathione has been linked to neuroinflammation; neurodegeneration; infection; cancer; and diseases such as Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, HIV, cystic fibrosis, periodontitis, diabetes, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder, among others. However, while levels of glutathione are often reported to be low in neurodegenerative diseases, causality has not been directly attributed to glutathione. Depletion of glutathione is also a part of the aging process.Bains 2015, Berndt 2017, Morris 2013, Pizzorno 2014, Pouvreau 2018

Cancer

An early marker of apoptosis progression is the depletion of intracellular glutathione.Kizhakkayil 2012

Animal and in vitro data

In vitro studies and animal experiments have shown that glutathione protects against DNA damage and demonstrates a protective role against carcinogens through inactivation. However, some cancers are associated with a higher expression of glutathione S-transferase activity and a higher glutathione level, making the cancer cells more chemoresistant.Ballatori 2009, Miko Enomoto 2005, Traverso 2013 In an in vitro study, supplementation of glutathione to human leukemic cells led to resistance against doxorubicin treatment.Thayyullathil 2011

Clinical data

Based on animal and in vitro data, use of supplemental glutathione may be contraindicated in cancer. Strategies to deplete glutathione levels during chemotherapy have been suggested, but potentially major disadvantages to this approach exist due to effects of low glutathione levels on noncancerous tissues.Balendiran 2004, Ballatori 2009 A glutathione analog prodrug, ezatiostat hydrochloride, has been studied in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome.Miko Enomoto 2005, Raza 2009 In one study, reduced glutathione, in combination with anthocyanins, was superior to placebo and standard skin care as a protective agent against skin irradiation injury in patients undergoing whole breast external-beam irradiation.Miko Enomoto 2005

Cardiovascular effects

Impaired oxidative status is associated with certain aspects of cardiovascular disease, particularly atherosclerosis, and a role for glutathione in cardiovascular disease has been described.Ballatori 2009

Animal and in vitro data

Atherosclerotic mice given liposomal glutathione achieved improved oxidative status and decreased macrophage cholesterol mass.Ballatori 2009 Another study in mice found that oral reduced glutathione 5 g/kg combined with training enhanced resistance to ischemia-reperfusion–induced damage and increased myocardial glutathione levels and antioxidant defense capacity.Ramires 2001

Clinical data

In a small study evaluating the effects of glutathione infusion in patients with peripheral obstructive arterial disease, improvements in pain-free walking distance measurement were observed, but there was no significant benefit for other hemodynamic measures.Arosio 2002 In a small (N=21) clinical trial of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), IV glutathione protected against contrast medium–induced oxidative stress to a greater extent than oral N-acetylcysteine.Saitoh 2011

In another study of patients with CAD, glutathione levels were inversely related to glucose levels.Karolczak 2017

CNS effects

CNS dysfunction is apparent in all cases of inborn errors of glutathione metabolism. In patients with neurodegenerative diseases, levels of glutathione are often reported to be low; however, causality has not been directly attributed to glutathione.Ballatori 2009, Martin 2009, Peter 2015, Pocernich 2012

Animal and in vitro data

Animal studies in mice, rats, gerbils, and guinea pigs and in vitro studies using postmortem brain tissue form the basis for most of the available data on glutathione in CNS disorders. Evidence exists regarding a potential neuromodulator or neurotransmitter role for glutathione.Ballatori 2009, Hauser 2009, Martin 2009

Clinical data

Alzheimer disease

In general, antioxidants are considered to be important in the prevention of Alzheimer disease based on evidence suggesting an association between increasing signs of oxidative stress and progression of the disease. The main endogenous antioxidant glutathione has been shown to decline in Alzheimer disease. However, there is debate regarding an association between cognitive status and declining glutathione levels.Ballatori 2009, Martin 2009, Peter 2015, Pocernich 2012 Clinical trials with glutathione supplementation are lacking, primarily because of the poor uptake of supplemental glutathione via the blood-brain barrier.Peter 2015 Limited studies focusing on N-acetylcysteine as a precursor to glutathione reported improvement in cognition; further study is needed to evaluate effects on disease progression.Pocernich 2012

Autism

A role for glutathione in autism has been suggested,Ghanizadeh 2012 with the potential for glutathione to serve as a biomarker for diagnostic evaluation.Khemakhem 2017 A case report describes an 8-year-old boy with autism who experienced improvements in social impairment and aggressive behaviors after receiving N-acetylcysteine 800 mg/day, divided 3 times daily, for at least 30 days.Ghanizadeh 2012 In an 8-week, open-label trial, plasma sulfate, cysteine, and taurine levels improved in patients with autism spectrum disorder receiving either oral or transdermal glutathione. However, reduced glutathione plasma levels improved in the oral group only.Kern 2011

Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy

The American Society of Clinical Oncology clinical practice guidelines for prevention and management of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) in survivors of adult cancers (2014) advise against the use of glutathione for the prevention of CIPN in patients undergoing treatment with paclitaxel/carboplatin-based chemotherapy (intermediate-quality evidence; moderate recommendation). Additionally, no recommendations could be made regarding the use of glutathione for the prevention of cisplatin- or oxaliplatin-associated CIPN (low-quality evidence; inconclusive recommendation strength).Hershman 2014

Parkinson disease

Decreased levels of glutathione in the substantia nigra of patients with Parkinson disease have been described, and some researchers consider glutathione depletion to be a precursor to and potential marker of the disease.Ballatori 2009, Martin 2009, Smeyne 2013 A case report describes improvements in mental function and speech quality in a patient receiving supplemental IV glutathione 1,400 mg 2 to 3 times weekly in addition to a standard treatment regimen for Parkinson disease. Symptom improvement was not noted until after 3 weeks of treatment. The patient described these improvements as being maintained for 24 hours, with a decline to baseline function within 36 hours of receiving the injections.Otto 2017 In another small study of patients with Parkinson disease (N=21) randomized to receive IV glutathione 1,400 mg or placebo administered 3 times weekly for 4 weeks, the possibility of a mild symptomatic effect was suggested based on improvement in Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) scores with glutathione.Hauser 2009 In a phase 2b study, intranasal glutathione improved UPDRS scores; however, an improvement was also seen with placebo, and it was determined intranasal glutathione was not superior to placebo.Mischley 2017

Schizophrenia

Dysregulation of glutathione and decreased oxidative status have been associated with schizophrenia, as well as with bipolar and major depressive disorders. Additionally, reductions in plasma glutathione levels have been noted in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.Nucifora 2017 However, clinical studies have focused on the role of supplemental N-acetylcysteine and reported increased levels of glutathione in the blood. Although improved outcomes have been reported, at this stage studies are too limited in scope and size to recommend a place in therapy.Berk 2008, Lavoie 2008

Cystic fibrosis

A decrease in blood glutathione has been observed in cystic fibrosis. Extracellular fluid in normal lungs usually contains a substantial amount of glutathione covering the air spaces where gaseous exchange occurs; in cystic fibrosis, it is depleted. Additionally, the airways in patients with cystic fibrosis have increased activity of gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), an enzyme that degrades glutathione, rendering exogenously administered glutathione inactive.Corti 2017 Glutathione may play a role in regulating the viscosity of mucus, inflammation, and immune response.Ballatori 2009, Forman 2009, Laube 2015

Animal and in vitro data

Studies have been conducted in mice; however, the role of glutathione in cystic fibrosis is complex, and animal studies are limited.Ballatori 2009

Clinical data

Data are conflicting regarding the usefulness of glutathione supplementation in patients with cystic fibrosis.Ciofu 2014

Given the complex medical histories and drug regimens that cystic fibrosis patients receive, it is difficult to discern the full impact of glutathione in patients with chronic infection without assessment of a very large population sample and long-term study period.Ciofu 2014

Clinical data suggest that GGT activity correlates with neutrophilic inflammation in the setting of cystic fibrosis, and differentiation in the level of activity in patients may be important for determining if glutathione should be administered. Patients with decreased GGT activity and reduced inflammation may benefit from inhaled glutathione therapy, whereas those with increased GGT activity and active inflammation may experience worsening of the disease with glutathione therapy.Corti 2017 A study found that urinary glutathione sulfonamide levels were elevated in children with cystic fibrosis who had pulmonary infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa compared to those without infections. Urinary glutathione sulfonamide was also associated with markers of neutrophilic inflammation, suggesting urinary glutathione sulfonamide measurements could possibly serve as a noninvasive biomarker in patients with cystic fibrosis.Dickerhof 2017

Inhaled

A few studies have examined the use of inhaled buffered glutathione in cystic fibrosis,Laube 2015 with positive findings. However, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial found that 6 months of therapy with inhaled glutathione twice daily did not improve lung function in patients with cystic fibrosis.Griese 2013 In another study, inhaled glutathione given for 12 months did not improve forced expiratory volume in the first second of expiration (FEV1) in adult or pediatric patients. However, in patients with moderate lung disease, improvements in FEV1 were noted after 3, 6, and 9 months of therapy.Calabrese 2015

Oral

In a study of children with cystic fibrosis receiving 6 months of oral reduced glutathione 65 mg/kg/day, glutathione administration was associated with improvements in measures of growth status (ie, height and weight) and gut inflammation (ie, fecal calprotectin).Visca 2015 Oral N-acetylcysteine is used as a mucolytic agent in cystic fibrosis and appears to increase systemic glutathione levels, whereas inhaled N-acetylcysteine does not.Ballatori 2009, Tirouvanziam 2006

Dermatological effects

Glutathione has been suggested to possess antimelanogenic properties, which may be attributable to inhibition of tyrosinase, impacting melanogenesis and free radical scavenging.Sonthalia 2018

Clinical data

A review article discusses 4 studies evaluating oral (2 studies), topical (1 study),Watanabe 2014 and IV (1 study) formulations of glutathione for skin-whitening or skin improvement effects. Both topical and oral formulations produced positive results for skin lightening in patients with hyperpigmentation, as measured by the melanin index, and the formulations were considered to be well tolerated. The study evaluating the IV formulation found improvements in skin lightening; however, all glutathione-treated patients experienced adverse effects, including liver dysfunction in 32% of patients and 1 case of anaphylactic shock.Sonthalia 2018

HIV

Low glutathione levels are associated with HIV, and reduced glutathione levels decrease natural killer cell cytotoxicity.Allen 2015, Morris 2013 Reduced levels of enzymes involved in glutathione synthesis have been observed in the red blood cells of patients with HIV.Morris 2014 Limited studies have evaluated N-acetylcysteine and glycine as precursors to glutathione.Ballatori 2009, Sekhar 2015

Clinical data

Supplementation of HIV-infected patients with liposomal glutathione for 13 weeks improved Tн1 cytokine, interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta), IL-12, interferon-gamma, and tumor necrosis factor alpha levels. Additionally, it was noted that low glutathione levels increased susceptibility to Mycobacterium tuberculosis.Ly 2015 Specifically, glutathione has been shown to be useful in controlling M. tuberculosis infections by exerting direct antimycobacterial effects, enhancing the functions of natural killer cells and T-lymphocyte cells, exerting antioxidant effects, serving as a carrier molecule for nitric oxide, and reducing levels of proinflammatory mediators.Morris 2013 Additionally, supplementing older HIV-infected individuals with glycine and cysteine for 14 days was associated with improved glutathione synthesis, fasted and fed mitochondrial fuel oxidation, insulin sensitivity, body composition, anthropometry, forearm muscle strength, and lipid profiles.Nguyen 2014

Male infertility

Clinical data

The effects of glutathione on male infertility have been evaluated, and positive effects have generally been observed. An intramuscular formulation of glutathione 600 mg given every other day for 2 months improved sperm motility and morphology in men with varicocele or male germ-free genital tract inflammation.Lenzi 1993, Majzoub 2017

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

Clinical data

An open-label pilot study (N=34) evaluated effects of oral glutathione 300 mg/day for 4 months in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.Honda 2017 Serum ALT levels were significantly decreased from baseline, as were levels of triglycerides and ferritin. Researchers also noted that diabetic status and age were correlated with ALT response.

Ophthalmic effects

Because glutathione levels are usually high in the lens, cornea, aqueous humor, and retina, declining levels are associated with age-related cataracts, glaucoma, and macular degeneration. As a patient ages, glutathione levels decline in the lens nucleus, rendering the lens prone to damage from oxidative stress. As a result, proteins aggregate, and the development of cataracts can ensue.Nye-Wood 2017 In rat glaucoma models, decreased glutathione levels are apparent. One study found that patients with either primary-open angle or normal tension glaucoma had lower reduced glutathione levels compared with age-matched controls.Gherghel 2013

Supplementation

Clinical data

In one study evaluating the long-term effectiveness of glutathione supplementation with 250 mg or 1,000 mg orally daily for 6 months, both dosages were associated with an increase in glutathione levels in erythrocytes, plasma, lymphocytes, and buccal cells. The levels returned to baseline following a 1-month washout period.Richie 2015

Dosing

Glutathione has been evaluated in clinical trials in various formulations, including oral, IV, topical, intranasal, and nebulized. The oral formulation has shown mixed results, with some data suggesting it does not increase RBC glutathione and other data showing efficacy.Allen 2011, Pizzorno 2014 Liposomal formulations of glutathione may confer better effects, but further research is needed. N-acetylcysteine, as the precursor to glutathione, has demonstrated efficacy in raising glutathione levels and is frequently chosen for this purpose.Pizzorno 2014

Cystic fibrosis

In a clinical trial of children with cystic fibrosis, oral reduced glutathione 65 mg/kg/day (divided into 3 doses per day at mealtimes) was administered for 6 months.Visca 2015

Parkinson disease

A small clinical study used IV glutathione at a dosage of 1,400 mg 3 times per week for 4 weeks.Hauser 2009

Supplementation

In one study evaluating the long-term effectiveness of glutathione supplementation, 250 mg or 1,000 mg of glutathione was administered orally daily for 6 months.Richie 2015

Pregnancy / Lactation

Information regarding safety and efficacy in pregnancy and lactation is lacking.

Interactions

Information regarding drug interactions is lacking; however, glutathione is likely to interact with chemotherapeutic agents, and concomitant use is theoretically contraindicated.Balendiran 2004, Ballatori 2009 Acetaminophen in high doses is known to deplete glutathione, especially in the liver.Perricone 2009

Adverse Reactions

No serious adverse events were noted in a clinical study of healthy volunteers using oral glutathione 500 mg twice a day for 4 weeks. Increased flatulence and loose stools, flushing, and weight gain were reported.Allen 2011

IV glutathione 1,400 mg given 3 times per week for 4 weeks was well tolerated in a small (N=21) clinical studyHauser 2009; however, a case report shows reversible, severe hepatic injury related to IV glutathione 1,200 mg given daily, for a cumulative dose of 36,000 mg in 1 month.Naito 2010

Nebulized glutathione caused bronchial hyperreactivity, cough, and breathlessness in patients with mild asthma, possibly due to sulfite formationReynaert 2011 or lack of buffering.Ballatori 2009

Toxicology

Risks of supplemental antioxidant use have been described.Bast 2002 Glutathione has received GRAS status from the FDA for use in food products.FDA 2018

References

Allen J, Bradley RD. Effects of oral glutathione supplementation on systemic oxidative stress biomarkers in human volunteers. J Altern Complement Med. 2011;17(9):827-833.21875351
Allen M, Bailey C, Cahatol I, et al. Mechanisms of control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by NK cells: role of glutathione. Front Immunol. 2015;6:508.26500648
Arosio E, De Marchi S, Zannoni M, Prior M, Lechi A. Effect of glutathione infusion on leg arterial circulation, cutaneous microcirculation, and pain-free walking distance in patients with peripheral obstructive arterial disease: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Mayo Clin Proc. 2002;77(8):754-759.12173710
Bains VK, Bains R. The antioxidant master glutathione and periodontal health. Dent Res J (Isfahan). 2015;12(5):389-405.26604952
Balendiran GK, Dabur R, Fraser D. The role of glutathione in cancer. Cell Biochem Funct. 2004;22(6):343-352.15386533
Ballatori N, Krance SM, Notenboom S, Shi S, Tieu K, Hammond CL. Glutathione dysregulation and the etiology and progression of human diseases. Biol Chem. 2009;390(3):191-214.19166318
Bast A, Haenen GR. The toxicity of antioxidants and their metabolites. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2002;11(3-4):251-258.21782609
Berk M, Ng F, Dean O, Dodd S, Bush AI. Glutathione: a novel treatment target in psychiatry. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2008;29(7):346-351.18538422
Berndt C, Lillig CH. Glutathione, glutaredoxins, and iron. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2017;27(15):1235-1251.28537421
Bumrungpert A, Pavadhgul P, Nunthanawanich P, Sirikanchanarod A, Adulbhan A. Whey protein supplementation improves nutritional status, glutathione levels, and immune function in cancer patients: A randomized, double-blind controlled trial. J Med Food. 2018;21(6):612-616.2956571610.1089/jmf.2017.4080
Calabrese C, Tosco A, Abete P, et al. Randomized, single blind, controlled trial of inhaled glutathione vs placebo in patients with cystic fibrosis. J Cyst Fibros. 2015;14(2):203-210.25458463
Ciofu O, Lykkesfeldt J. Antioxidant supplementation for lung disease in cystic fibrosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;(8):CD007020.25102015
Corti A, Griese M, Hector A, Pompella A. Increasing sputum levels of gamma-glutamyltransferase may identify cystic fibrosis patients who do not benefit from inhaled glutathione. J Cyst Fibros. 2017;16(3):342-345.27988297
Dickerhof N, Turner R, Khalilova I, Fantino E, Sly PD, Kettle AJ; AREST CF. Oxidized glutathione and uric acid as biomarkers of early cystic fibrosis lung disease. J Cyst Fibros. 2017;16(2):214-221.27889352
Forman HJ, Zhang H, Rinna A. Glutathione: overview of its protective roles, measurement, and biosynthesis. Mol Aspects Med. 2009;30(1-2):1-12.18796312
Ghanizadeh A, Akhondzadeh S, Hormozi M, Makarem A, Abotorabi-Zarchi M, Firoozabadi A. Glutathione-related factors and oxidative stress in autism, a review. Curr Med Chem. 2012;19(23):4000-4005.22708999
Ghanizadeh A, Derakhshan N. N-acetylcysteine for treatment of autism, a case report. J Res Med Sci. 2012;17(10):985-987.23826003
Gherghel D, Mroczkowska S, Qin L. Reduction in blood glutathione levels occurs similarly in patients with primary-open angle or normal tension glaucoma. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013;54(5):3333-3339.23599328
Ghezzi P. Role of glutathione in immunity and inflammation in the lung. Int J Gen Med. 2011;4:105-113.21403800
GRAS Notices. GRN 293. Food and Drug Administration website. https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/fdcc/index.cfm?set=grasnotices&id=293. Updated July 18, 2018. Accessed July 23, 2018.
Griese M, Kappler M, Eismann C, et al; Glutathione Study Group. Inhalation treatment with glutathione in patients with cystic fibrosis. A randomized clinical trial. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2013;188(1):83-89.23631796
Hauser RA, Lyons KE, McClain T, Carter S, Perlmutter D. Randomized, double-blind, pilot evaluation of intravenous glutathione in Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord. 2009;24(7):979-983.19230029
Hershman DL, Lacchetti C, Dworkin RH, et al; American Society of Clinical Oncology. Prevention and management of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy in survivors of adult cancers: American Society of Clinical Oncology clinical practice guideline. J Clin Oncol. 2014;32(18):1941-1967.24733808
Honda Y, Kessoku T, Sumida Y, et al. Efficacy of glutathione for the treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: an open-label, single-arm, multicenter, pilot study. BMC Gastroenterol. 2017;17(1):96.28789631
Julius M, Lang CA, Gleiberman L, Harburg E, DiFranceisco W, Schork A. Glutathione and morbidity in a community-based sample of elderly. J Clin Epidemiol. 1994;47(9):1021-1026.7730904
Karolczak K, Kubalczyk P, Głowacki R, Pietruszyński R, Watała C. An inverse relationship between plasma glutathione concentration and fasting glycemia in patients with coronary artery disease and concomitant type 2 diabetes: A pilot study. Adv Clin Exp Med. 2017;26(9):1359-1366.29442456
Kern JK, Geier DA, Adams JB, Garver CR, Audhya T, Geier MR. A clinical trial of glutathione supplementation in autism spectrum disorders. Med Sci Monit. 2011;17(12):CR677-CR682.22129897
Khemakhem AM, Frye RE, El-Ansary A, Al-Ayadhi L, Bacha AB. Novel biomarkers of metabolic dysfunction is autism spectrum disorder: potential for biological diagnostic markers. Metab Brain Dis. 2017;32(6):1983-1997.28831647
Kizhakkayil J, Thayyullathil F, Chathoth S, Hago A, Patel M, Galadari S. Glutathione regulates caspase-dependent ceramide production and curcumin-induced apoptosis in human leukemic cells. Free Radic Biol Med. 2012;52(9):1854-1864.22387197
Laube BL. Aerosolized medications for gene and peptide therapy. Respir Care. 2015;60(6):806-824.26070576
Lavoie S, Murray MM, Deppen P, et al. Glutathione precursor, N-acetyl-cysteine, improves mismatch negativity in schizophrenia patients. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2008;33(9):2187-2199.18004285
Lenzi A, Culasso F, Gandini L, Lombardo F, Dondero F. Placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over trial of glutathione therapy in male infertility. Hum Reprod. 1993;8(10):1657-1662.8300824
Ly J, Lagman M, Saing T, et al. Liposomal glutathione supplementation restores TH1 cytokine response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in HIV-infected individuals. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2015;35(11):875-887.26133750
Majzoub A, Agarwal A. Antioxidant therapy in idiopathic oligoasthenoteratozoospermia. Indian J Urol. 2017;33(3):207-214.28717270
Martin HL, Teismann P. Glutathione—a review on its role and significance in Parkinson's disease. FASEB J. 2009;23(10):3263-3272.19542204
Miko Enomoto T, Johnson T, Peterson N, Homer L, Walts D, Johnson N. Combination glutathione and anthocyanins as an alternative for skin care during external-beam radiation. Am J Surg. 2005;189(5):627-630.15862509
Mischley LK, Lau RC, Shankland EG, Wilbur TK, Padowski JM. Phase IIb study of intranasal glutathione in Parkinson's disease. J Parkinsons Dis. 2017;7(2):289-299.28436395
Morris D, Khurasany M, Nguyen T, et al. Glutathione and infection. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013;1830(5):3329-3349.23089304
Morris D, Ly J, Chi PT, et al. Glutathione synthesis is compromised in erythrocytes from individuals with HIV. Front Pharmacol. 2014;5:73.24782776
Naito Y, Matsuo K, Kokubo Y, Narita Y, Tomimoto H. Higher-dose glutathione therapy for Parkinson's disease in Japan: is it really safe? Mov Disord. 2010;25(7):962.20131395
Nguyen D, Hsu JW, Jahoor F, Sekhar RV. Effect of increasing glutathione with cysteine and glycine supplementation on mitochondrial fuel oxidation, insulin sensitivity, and body composition in older HIV-infected patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014;99(1):169-177.24081740
Nucifora LG, Tanaka T, Hayes LN, et al. Reduction of plasma glutathione in psychosis associated with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder in translational psychiatry. Transl Psychiatry. 2017;7(8):e1215.28892069
Nye-Wood MG, Spraggins JM, Caprioli RM, Schey KL, Donaldson PJ, Grey AC. Spatial distributions of glutathione and its endogenous conjugates in normal bovine lens and a model of lens aging. Exp Eye Res. 2017;154:70-78.27838309
Otto M, Magerus T, Langland JO. The use of intravenous glutathione for symptom management of Parkinson's disease: A case report [published online ahead of print November 4, 2017]. Altern Ther Health Med.29101773
Perricone C, De Carolis C, Perricone R. Glutathione: a key player in autoimmunity. Autoimmun Rev. 2009;8(8):697-701.19393193
Peter C, Braidy N, Zarka M, Welch J, Bridge W. Therapeutic approaches to modulating glutathione levels as a pharmacological strategy in Alzheimer's disease [published correction appears in Curr Alzheimer Res. 2016;13(10):1198]. Curr Alzheimer Res. 2015;12(4):298-313.25731620
Pizzorno J. Glutathione! Integr Med (Encinitas). 2014;13(1):8-12.26770075
Pocernich CB, Butterfield DA. Elevation of glutathione as a therapeutic strategy in Alzheimer disease. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1822(5):625-630.22015471
Pouvreau C, Dayre A, Butkowski EG, de Jong B, Jelinek HF. Inflammation and oxidative stress markers in diabetes and hypertension. J Inflamm Res. 2018;11:61-68.29497324
Rae CD, Williams SR. Glutathione in the human brain: review of its roles and measurement by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Anal Biochem. 2017;529:127-143.28034792
Ramires PR, Ji LL. Glutathione supplementation and training increases myocardial resistance to ischemia-reperfusion in vivo. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2001;281(2):H679-H688.11454572
Raza A, Galili N, Smith S, et al. Phase 1 multicenter dose-escalation study of ezatiostat hydrochloride (TLK199 tablets), a novel glutathione analog prodrug, in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome. Blood. 2009;113(26):6533-6540.19398716
Reynaert NL. Glutathione biochemistry in asthma. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011;1810(11):1045-1051.21281701
Richie JP Jr, Nichenametla S, Neidig W, et al. Randomized controlled trial of oral glutathione supplementation on body stores of glutathione. Eur J Nutr. 2015;54(2):251-263.24791752
Saitoh T, Satoh H, Nobuhara M, et al. Intravenous glutathione prevents renal oxidative stress after coronary angiography more effectively than oral N-acetylcysteine. Heart Vessels. 2011;26(5):465-472.21127883
Sekhar RV, Liu CW, Rice S. Increasing glutathione concentrations with cysteine and glycine supplementation lowers inflammation in HIV patients. AIDS. 2015;29(14):1899-1900.26372395
Smeyne M, Smeyne RJ. Glutathione metabolism and Parkinson's disease. Free Radic Biol Med. 2013;62:13-25.23665395
Sonthalia S, Jha AK, Lallas A, Jain G, Jakhar D. Glutathione for skin lightening: a regnant myth or evidence-based verity? Dermatol Pract Concept. 2018;8(1):15-21.29445569
Thayyullathil F, Chathoth S, Kizhakkayil J, et al. Glutathione selectively inhibits doxorubicin induced phosphorylation of p53Ser15, caspase dependent ceramide production and apoptosis in human leukemic cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;411(1):1-6.21669188
Tirouvanziam R, Conrad CK, Bottiglieri T, Herzenberg LA, Moss RB, Herzenberg LA. High-dose oral N-acetylcysteine, a glutathione prodrug, modulates inflammation in cystic fibrosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103(12):4628-4633.16537378
Traverso N, Ricciarelli R, Nitti M, et al. Role of glutathione in cancer progression and chemoresistance. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2013;2013:972913.23766865
Visca A, Bishop CT, Hilton S, Hudson VM. Oral reduced ʟ-glutathione improves growth in pediatric cystic fibrosis patients. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2015;60(6):802-810.25633497
Watanabe F, Hashizume E, Chan GP, Kamimura A. Skin-whitening and skin-condition-improving effects of topical oxidized glutathione: a double-blind and placebo-controlled clinical trial in healthy women. Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol. 2014;7:267-274.25378941
Wu G, Fang YZ, Yang S, Lupton JR, Turner ND. Glutathione metabolism and its implications for health. J Nutr. 2004;134(3):489-492.14988435

Disclaimer

This information relates to an herbal, vitamin, mineral or other dietary supplement. This product has not been reviewed by the FDA to determine whether it is safe or effective and is not subject to the quality standards and safety information collection standards that are applicable to most prescription drugs. This information should not be used to decide whether or not to take this product. This information does not endorse this product as safe, effective, or approved for treating any patient or health condition. This is only a brief summary of general information about this product. It does NOT include all information about the possible uses, directions, warnings, precautions, interactions, adverse effects, or risks that may apply to this product. This information is not specific medical advice and does not replace information you receive from your health care provider. You should talk with your health care provider for complete information about the risks and benefits of using this product.

This product may adversely interact with certain health and medical conditions, other prescription and over-the-counter drugs, foods, or other dietary supplements. This product may be unsafe when used before surgery or other medical procedures. It is important to fully inform your doctor about the herbal, vitamins, mineral or any other supplements you are taking before any kind of surgery or medical procedure. With the exception of certain products that are generally recognized as safe in normal quantities, including use of folic acid and prenatal vitamins during pregnancy, this product has not been sufficiently studied to determine whether it is safe to use during pregnancy or nursing or by persons younger than 2 years of age.

Further information

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.

Hide