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Scientific Name(s): Cinnamomum cassia Blume, Cinnamomum loureirii Nees, Cinnamomum verum J.S. Presl, Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees, Cinnamomum burmannii
Common Name(s): Ceylon cinnamon, Chinese cassia, Chinese cinnamon, Cinnamomon, Cinnamon, Saigon cinnamon

Medically reviewed by Last updated on Nov 30, 2022.

Clinical Overview


Cinnamon is used as a spice and aromatic. Traditionally, the bark or oil has been used to combat microorganisms, diarrhea, and other GI disorders, and dysmenorrhea, although there is limited data to support these uses. Evidence is lacking to support the use of cinnamon in the management of diabetes. Research has focused on anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activity.


Ground cinnamon is generally given at dosages of 1 to 3 g/day (range, 120 mg/day to 6 g/day) in studies of diabetes without reported adverse reactions.


Contraindicated in people who are allergic to cinnamon or Peru balsam. Further contraindications have not yet been identified.


Data are insufficient for adequate risk-to-benefit analysis. Cinnamon is generally recognized as safe when used in food.


None well documented. Additive effects may occur if taken with other hepatotoxic drugs.

Adverse Reactions

Heavy exposure may cause skin irritation and allergic reactions.


Information is lacking.

Scientific Family


Cinnamon plants have oval-lanceolate, rough-textured leaves approximately 7 to 20 cm in length. The spice is derived from the brown bark, which forms quills with longitudinal striations. Cinnamon bark is available in ground form as a spice. The plant is native to Sri Lanka, southeastern India, Indonesia, South America, and the West Indies.1, 2, 3, 4, 5


Reports of cinnamon use date back to 2000 BC, when texts note the importation of cinnamon from China to Egypt. Cinnamon is also mentioned in the Bible, most often for its aromatic qualities.5 Cinnamon is primarily used as a spice, taste enhancer, or aromatic. Historically, cinnamon has been used to treat GI upset and dysmenorrhea disorders of microcirculation, among other broad-ranging uses.3, 6, 7, 8 The essential oil derived from the plant has been used for its activity against various microorganisms and fungi.3


The primary constituents of the essential oil are 65% to 80% cinnamaldehyde and lesser percentages of other phenols and terpenes, including eugenol, trans-cinnamic acid, hydroxycinnamaldehyde, o-methoxycinnamaldehyde, cinnamyl alcohol and its acetate, limonene, alpha-terpineol, tannins, mucilage, oligomeric procyanidins, and trace amounts of coumarin.3, 4

C. verum differs in composition from C. cassia in eugenol and coumarin content. Coumarin is only found in cassia (0.45%).5 Varying sources of material and extraction techniques alter the chemical composition of the extracts, and may impact the intended medicinal and experimental effects.6, 9

Uses and Pharmacology

Allergic rhinitis

Clinical data

In 60 healthy adults who presented with acute symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis, 7-day use of a polyphenol-rich cinnamon bark extract nasal spray significantly improved the total Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life score as well as multiple subdomains compared to placebo. The cinnamon nasal spray improved the total score by 54% compared to 15.6% seen with placebo (P<0.001). Respective improvements in subdomain scores included activity limitation (41.8% vs 8%; P<0.01), sleep (46% vs 3.6%, P=0.01), nose symptoms (47.7% vs 7%; P<0.001), eye symptoms (50.9% vs 8.8%; P<0.001), non-nose/eye symptoms (50.5% improvement vs 3.3% worsening; P<0.001), and practical problems (44.8% vs 8.4%; P<0.001). Each of these changes as well as the emotional function subdomain improvement was considered to be clinically significant. Additionally, changes in daytime nasal (P<0.001), daytime eye (P<0.05), night-time (P<0.05), and total diary symptoms (P<0.001) were significantly better with cinnamon than placebo. Scores for 12 of the 14 individual symptoms achieved the minimum clinically important difference; only the "tears" and the "difficulty going to sleep" scores were not considered clinically significant for cinnamon compared to placebo. Additionally, work productivity (P=0.017) and regular daily activities (P=0.001) were significantly improved in the cinnamon group. All laboratory parameters remained within normal range; although, a significant decrease in total white blood cell and neutrophil counts were observed in the cinnamon group (P<0.01 each).(82)


Clinical data

The first known clinical trial conducted in humans evaluated pain and healing associated with episiotomies in 144 postpartum women. The trial was randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled conducted in Iran and found that 2% (w/w) cinnamon applied to the perineum twice daily for 10 days significantly improved intensity of pain compared with placebo. Also, compared with baseline, reduction of pain intensity was significantly better with cinnamon at the 4- and 8-hour, as well as the 10-day follow up (16%, 26%, 76%, respectively) versus placebo (2%, 4%, 43%), which yielded P values of 0.003, 0.002, and < 0.01, respectively. Wound healing scores were also significantly improved with supplemental cinnamon compared with placebo.(59) Pain severity was also significantly reduced with cinnamon supplementation (3 g/day) in young adult women (mean age, 22 years) with primary dysmenorrhea in another double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial (n=80). Although a significant reduction in mean intensity of dysmenorrhea occurred in both the intervention and placebo groups, the benefit of cinnamon (−2.5 points) was significantly greater than that seen with placebo (−0.9 points, P<0.001) overall as well as after the first (P=0.001) and second cycle (P=0.002).(73)

Anti-inflammatory effect

Experimental data

A few laboratory experiments suggest anti-inflammatory action of certain chemical components in cinnamon. Cinnamaldehyde inhibits nitric oxide production implicated in the inflammatory disease process and also demonstrated inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 catalyzed prostaglandin E2 biosynthesis.(28, 29, 30)

Clinical data

A systematic review of data from randomized controlled trials that investigated oral spice supplementation for rheumatoid arthritis identified 6 studies overall that met inclusion criteria. The one study that assessed cinnamon was double-blinded and administered cinnamon 1 g twice daily (2 teaspoonsful) or placebo for 8 weeks in 36 adults with active disease currently treated with conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs. Compared to placebo, cinnamon significantly improved 5 of 6 outcome measures (P<0.001 for all), including disease activity score, swollen and tender joint counts, pain, and C-reactive protein.(56)

Antimicrobial activity

Experimental data

A laboratory study using H. pylori isolates from hospital patients was able to demonstrate inhibition of all isolates by a methylene chloride cinnamon extract.(33) In vitro experimentation was conducted in H. pylori-infected gastric epithelial cells with 24 medicinal plants indigenous to Pakistan to evaluate their effect on secretion of interleukin (IL)-8 and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in order to assess anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective effects. Although no significant direct cytotoxic effects on the gastric cells or bactericidal effects on H. pylori were found, cinnamon extract was observed to have high and strong inhibitory activity on IL-8 at 50 and 100 mcg/mL, respectively, in H. pylori-infected gastric cells. Cinnamon had the strongest effect on IL-8 secretion of all 24 plants tested with effects up to 3.12 mcg/mL and almost complete inhibition at 50 and 100 mcg/mL, comparable to the positive control (curcumin 40 mcM).(67)

Cinnamon extracts have been shown to exert in vitro activity against some common human pathogens(1) as well as fungicidal activity against plant pathogens.(34, 35) In vitro inhibition of bacterial endotoxin has been demonstrated by an unidentified component in cinnamon bark.(36) The essential oils of cinnamon halted mycelial growth and aflatoxin synthesis in Aspergillus parasiticus at a concentration of only 0.1%.(37)

Clinical data

Conflicting evidence exists for the action of cinnamon on Helicobacter pylori. In a small clinical study no effect on H. pylori was observed at dosages of extract 80 mg/day, but the study may have been underpowered.(5, 31, 32)

Antioxidant effect

Cinnamon extracts appear to exhibit antioxidant action, with an ethanol extract showing more effectiveness than an aqueous extract.(23) The relative antioxidant action of cinnamon has been evaluated against other herbs and spices, and against alpha-tocopherol.(5, 23, 24, 25, 26)

Antiparasitic effects

In vitro data

Activity of C. zeylanicum bark essential oil and its constituents against Pediculus humanus capitis was identified by collecting a colony of P. humanus capitis from infected children and rearing them in Petri dishes. The cinnamon essential oil constituents of benzaldehyde, linalool, and salicylaldehyde exhibited more potent pediculicidal activity against adult lice than the positive controls of d-phenothrin and pyrethrum. Female adult lice were more susceptible to these constituents in a closed container versus open fumigation. Although cinnamon bark essential oil reduced egg hatching, no hatching was observed with benzaldehyde, benzyl cinnamate, cinnamaldehyde, and salicylaldehyde after 24 hours. Ovicidal action was lacking for phenothrin and pyrethrum.(Yang 2005)

Cardiovascular effects

Clinical data

A systematic review of randomized, controlled trials that evaluated the effect of cinnamon supplementation (Cinnamomum spp) on various fractions of blood lipids identified 13 trials (N=750) that met inclusion criteria. Studies were conducted in 10 countries, mostly in patients with diabetes, and published between 2003 and 2015; only 2 explicitly excluded patients on lipid-lowering medications. Meta-analyses found a significant improvement with cinnamon compared to controls on total cholesterol and triglycerides (weighted mean differences, −13.92 mg/dL and −23.91 mg/dL, respectively; P<0.01 each) but no significant effect was found for low-density lipoprotein or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Doses of cinnamon (any species or standardized extract) ranged from 1 to 6 g/day and were given for 2 to 4 months. A positive correlation was found with duration of supplementation but not dose.(70)

A meta-analysis of 3 placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials evaluating short-term use of cinnamon on blood pressure in prediabetic or type 2 diabetic patients identified a significant benefit with cinnamon administration. Cinnamon powder or extract (500 mg to 2.4 g/day) was administered for 12 weeks. Significant changes in blood pressure appeared to be more closely associated with patients’ baseline blood pressure rather than dose of cinnamon, such that patients with a higher baseline pressure benefited from a lower dose than patients with a lower baseline pressure.(57) In another meta-analysis of 9 clinical trials, the effect of cinnamon supplementation on blood pressure and associated risk factors (ie, weight, BMI, waist circumference) was assessed in type 2 diabetic patients. Cinnamon was supplemented at a range of 1 to 4.5 g/day for 2 or 3 months. Pooled data reflected a statistically significant benefit in both systolic (SMD, −0.53; 95% CI, −1.03 to −0.03; P=0.037) and diastolic blood pressure (SMD, −0.68; 95% CI, −1.30 to −0.07; P=0.03) overall, but not when assessed for the 2- or 3-month subgroups compared to controls. Heterogeneity was high. Neither body weight nor BMI was significantly changed with cinnamon compared to controls; however, waist circumference was improved in the 3-month subgroup (SMD, −0.389; 95% CI, −0.756 to −0.021; P=0.038).(78)

A systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis assessing antihypertensive effects of cinnamon identified 9 eligible randomized, controlled trials (N=641) published through mid 2019. The studies were conducted in 7 countries in adults with a diagnosis predominantly of type 2 diabetes but also those with pre-diabetes, metabolic syndrome, elevated glucose, and rheumatoid arthritis. Daily dosages ranged from 500 mg to 10 g given for 8 to 16 weeks. Study results were equivocal regarding the effect of cinnamon on either systolic or diastolic blood pressure. Pooled data from all 9 studies identified a significant reduction effect for cinnamon on both systolic (WMD, −6.23 mm Hg; P=0.006) and diastolic blood pressure (WMD, −3.93 mm Hg; P=0.001); however, heterogeneity was significant for each analysis. Subgroup analyses revealed the effects of cinnamon supplementation to be significant especifically for lower doses (2 g/day or less) given for longer durations (12 weeks or more) in patients with baseline systolic and diastolic blood pressures of at least 135 mm Hg and less than 85 mm Hg, respectively.(77)

A subgroup analysis of the CINNAMON trial confirmed that 1,000 mg/day Cinnulin PF (40 g/day cinnamon powder equivalent) does not negatively affect QT or QTc intervals, PR, QRS, or heart rate in patients with prediabetes at 3 or 6 months.(74)

Diabetes/Metabolic syndrome

Animal data

In an experiment in which rats with induced diabetes were fed cinnamon via drinking water, no effect on blood glucose levels was shown. The researchers noted a significant decrease in platelet counts and a slight increase in hemoglobin in the rats.(10)

Other researchers have isolated polyphenols from cinnamon that possess insulin-like activity and have demonstrated a dose-dependent increase in glucose utilization in animal muscle tissue.(8, 11, 12)

Clinical data

Data from several meta-analyses,(20, 55, 57, 71, 72) systematic reviews,(21, 22, 70) and clinical trials(13, 14, 17, 18, 19, 51, 52, 53, 54, 69, 75, 76) conducted in patients with metabolic syndrome, prediabetes, and diabetes mellitus (type 1 and type 2) report equivocal results regarding the ability of cinnamon supplementation to improve glucose metabolism and related parameters. Statistically significant results were often not clinically relevant. Overall, evidence is lacking to support the clinical use of cinnamon in the management of diabetes. Variables suggested to account for the differences in trial outcomes include differing concurrent therapies, degree of control of the condition, and differences of populations studied.(18, 20, 64)

Single bolus doses of cinnamon in healthy volunteers led to increased insulin sensitivity(15) and decreased postprandial blood glucose levels(16, 62) in 3 small studies. Similarly, a single-dose of 100 mL of cinnamon tea (6 g per 100 mL of Cinnamomum burmannii) was found to slightly decrease postprandial blood glucose levels and significantly lower postprandial maximum glucose in nondiabetic adults.(66)

A randomized clinical trial studying various dosages of cassia cinnamon powder (1, 3, or 6 g/day) over 40 days found a statistically and clinically significant improvement in blood glucose control among patients with type 2 diabetes. A reduction in cardiovascular risk factor biomarkers was also observed.(13) A second trial also found a significant reduction in fasting glucose levels at 3 g/day over 4 months, but no significant difference in the lipid profile.(14) Daily doses of 1 g added to usual care produced a significant reduction in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) compared with usual care in a 3-month study.(51) Significant improvements in HbA1c, fasting blood glucose, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure were seen in a study of 2 g/day compared with placebo in a 12-week study in type 2 diabetes mellitus.(52) Another small study looked at the effects of 1.2 g of cinnamon per day, and did not find a significant reduction in systolic blood pressure, and HbA1c actually increased.(53) A randomized, controlled trial evaluated cinnamon extract at daily doses of 120 and 360 mg in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients managed solely with gliclazide (a sulfonylurea) during the 3-month study. Both doses of cinnamon extract produced significant reductions in HbA1c, and the lower dose significantly reduced serum triglycerides.(54)

However, other clinical trials have been unable to replicate these positive findings in patients with type 1 or 2 diabetes at dosages of cinnamon 1 to 3 g/day.(17, 18, 19, 75) A meta-analysis of 5 trials(20) and systematic reviews(21, 22) have found no significant effect on HbA1c, fasting blood glucose, or lipid profiles. A Cochrane review pooled data from 10 studies (n = 577), including data from several of the studies mentioned above. This review concluded that cinnamon was no more effective than placebo, other treatments, or no treatment for reduction of blood glucose and HbA1c.(55)

Several metabolic parameters (ie, body mass index [BMI], waist circumference, waist:hip ratio, percent body fat), as well as blood pressure, were improved significantly with cinnamon compared to controls in treatment-naïve Asian Indians with newly diagnosed metabolic syndrome. Cinnamon was dosed at 3 g/day for 16 weeks in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design.(69)

A systematic review and meta-analysis of 5 high-quality randomized controlled trials (N=448) published between 2014 and 2019 found no significant difference between cinnamon supplementation and placebo in metabolic parameters (eg, BMI, body weight) in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. However, significant improvements in glucose homeostasis and lipid parameters were documented for fasting blood sugar (WMD, −5.32 mg/dL; 95% CI, −10.46 to −0.17), fasting insulin (WMD, −4.10 mcUnits/dL; 95% CI, −6.76 to −1.44), low-density lipoprotein (WMD, −14.33; 95% CI, −19.87 to −8.8), total cholesterol (WMD, −12.1 mg/dL; 95% CI, −18.21 to −5.98), triglycerides (WMD, −13.05; 95% CI, −24.11 to −1.99), and high-density lipooprotein (WMD, +3.20; 95% CI, 1.74 to 4.65). Dosing regimens were variable and ranged from 336 to 1,500 mg/day given for 6 to 24 weeks. High heterogeneity and small sample sizes limited the interpretation of these results.(79)

The American Diabetes Association's updated guidelines on the standards of medical care in diabetes (2021) recommends an individualized medical nutrition therapy program as needed to achieve treatment goals for all people with type 1 or 2 diabetes, prediabetes, and gestational diabetes (level A). However, they generally recommend against the use of dietary supplementation with herbs or spices, including cinnamon, for glycemic control based on no clear evidence that it can improve outcomes in diabetics who do not already have underlying deficiencies (level C)..(64)

Liver disease

Clinical data

A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (N = 45) investigated the insulin sensitizer effects of cinnamon supplementation in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the most prevalent etiology of hepatic injury. NAFLD characteristics were significantly improved by the supplementation of 1,500 mg/day of cinnamon for 12 weeks compared with placebo; insulin resistance, insulin sensitivity, fasting blood sugar, total cholesterol, triglycerides, liver enzymes, and the inflammatory marker (C-reactive protein) were all significantly improved with cinnamon (P < 0.001 to P = 0.029).(60)


Clinical data

Postprandial working memory was not found to be significantly different after a single dose of 2 g of cinnamon in a small double-blind trial that randomized 48 elderly prediabetes patients (median age, 71 to 75 years) to receive a single dose of turmeric (1 g), cinnamon (2 g), both (1 and 2 g, respectively), or placebo prior to a white-bread breakfast. Of a total score of 3, postprandial working memory increased over the 6-hour observation period from 2.6 to 2.9 (P = 0.05) with turmeric users compared with non-turmeric users. These changes were not noted with cinnamon users and were independent of body fat, glycemia, insulin, or Alzheimer disease biomarkers.(63)


Clinical data

In an Iranian double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial that enrolled 50 adults with at least a 1-year history of migraine without aura, supplementation with Ceylon cinnamon 600 mg/day for 60 days significantly reduced mean frequency, severity, and duration of headache scores (P<0.001, P<0.001, and P=0.02, respectively) compared to controls. Additionally, 2 of 3 inflammatory markers (ie, IL-6, nitric oxide) were also significantly reduced more with cinnamon compared to baseline (P≤0.003) and to placebo (P≤0.005). The majority of patients were women (83%). Allergic reactions led to study discontinuation for 2 patients in the cinnamon group; otherwise, interventions were well tolerated.(80)

Polycystic ovary syndrome

Clinical data

A small randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial found supplementation with cinnamon 1,500 mg/day (4 capsules 3 times daily) for 6 months significantly improved menstrual cyclicity from baseline (P = 0.0076) in women with polycystic ovary syndrome, whereas no improvements were seen in the placebo group. No serious adverse events were reported.(61) In addition to this study, a 2017 systematic review and meta-analysis of nutritional supplements and herbal medicines for polycystic ovary syndrome identified a second randomized controlled trial that investigated Cinnamomum sp in this patient population. Women received 1,000 mg daily for 8 weeks or placebo. Primary data, however, were apparently not reported in this 2nd study so the between groups' outcomes could not be examined. Incongruencies throughout this systematic review between the reference numbers in the table of studies vs reference numbers in the text led to conflicting data for many of the meta-analyses and/or interventions summarized.(68)

Wound healing

Animal data

In an experiment to determine the wound healing action of an ethanol extract of cinnamon, researchers suggested the significant increase in wound healing was attributable to antioxidant activity.(27)

Clinical data

The first known clinical trial conducted in humans evaluated pain and healing associated with episiotomies in 144 postpartum women. The trial was randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled conducted in Iran and found that 2% (w/w) cinnamon applied to the perineum twice daily for 10 days significantly improved redness, edema, ecchymosis, discharge approximation wound healing scores from baseline (53%) compared with placebo (6%). Additionally, the overall healing scores were significantly lower in the cinnamon group versus placebo (P < 0.01). Compared with baseline, significantly more women experienced bloody or purulent discharges (4) in the placebo group than the cinnamon group (0) (P = 0.025). Pain intensity and reduction in pain were also significantly better with supplemental cinnamon.(59)

Other uses

Angiogenesis inhibition, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory effects have been demonstrated leading some researchers to suggest value in screening cinnamon for anticancer effects.(38, 39, 40) A stimulatory effect on human osteoblast cells has been demonstrated as well as some estrogenic activity.(41) A dose-dependent neuroprotective effect was demonstrated in rats with glutamate-induced neuronal cell death.(7)


Ground cinnamon typically has been given at dosages of 1 to 3 g/day (range, 120 mg/day to 6 g/day) in studies of diabetes, pre-diabetes, and metabolic syndrome13, 17, 18, 19, 69 and 80 mg/day in an ethanol extract in a study of activity against Helicobacter, without reported adverse reactions.30

Pregnancy / Lactation

Data are insufficient for adequate risk-benefit analysis. Cinnamon is generally recognized as safe when used as food. Avoid dosages above those found in food because safety and efficacy are not proven.42


None well documented. Cinnamon was reported to interfere with tetracycline dissolution rates in a laboratory experiment.(2) A theoretical potentiation of antidiabetic agents exists.(5, 22)

Cinnamon: Cinnamon may enhance the hepatotoxic effect of rosuvastatin. No action needed.(65)

Adverse Reactions

Cinnamon has been given Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) status by the FDA.5 At dosages of up to 6 g/day, no significant adverse reactions have been reported.13, 17, 18, 19 Human consumption of large quantities of cinnamon bark or moderate quantities of cinnamon oil has been shown to increase heart rate, intestinal motility, respiratory rate, and perspiration via a chemical stimulation of the vasomotor center. This state of accelerated body function is followed by a period of centralized sedation that includes sleepiness or depression.3 However, a subgroup analysis of the CINNAMON trial reported that 1,000 mg/day Cinnulin PF (40 g/day cinnamon powder equivalent) did not negatively affect QT or QTc intervals, PR, QRS, or heart rate in patients with prediabetes at 3 or 6 months.74

Contact dermatitis has been reported after single exposure and repeated use of cinnamon-containing preparations.43, 44, 45 An acute exacerbation of rosacea has been reported consequent to consumption of cinnamon oil pills.21

Oral mucosal lesions have been reported, commonly associated with cinnamon-flavored chewing gum and candies5, 46, 47 and exposure to cinnamon oil has been cited as a risk factor for oral cancers.48, 49, 50

A case of acute hepatitis with cholestatic feature was reported in a 73-year-old female within 1 week of her taking cinnamon supplementation while on a high-dose regimen of rosuvastatin (40 mg/day). The patient had a significant medical history including polypharmacy with several hepatically metabolized medications, alcohol and tobacco use, and multiple co-morbid diagnoses that included CAD, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, cholestectomy, and recurrent abdominal pain. The elevated liver enzymes and abdominal pain present upon admission slowly improved after discontinuing rosuvastatin and cinnamon, and did not recur with reintroduction of rosuvastatin. Because coumarin in cinnamon has been associated with acute liver damage, combined with the recent timing of new onset symptoms related to recent cinnamon supplementation, the authors suspected the higher dose of rosuvastatin plus cinnamon led to medication-induced acute hepatitis.65


Information is lacking. Teratogenicity in chick embryos has been reported in one study; in another, no evidence of teratogenicity in rats given a methanol extract of cinnamon was demonstrated.1 A case report describes vomiting, diarrhea, and loss of consciousness in a child who consumed 60 mL of cinnamon oil.5



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This product may adversely interact with certain health and medical conditions, other prescription and over-the-counter drugs, foods, or other dietary supplements. This product may be unsafe when used before surgery or other medical procedures. It is important to fully inform your doctor about the herbal, vitamins, mineral or any other supplements you are taking before any kind of surgery or medical procedure. With the exception of certain products that are generally recognized as safe in normal quantities, including use of folic acid and prenatal vitamins during pregnancy, this product has not been sufficiently studied to determine whether it is safe to use during pregnancy or nursing or by persons younger than 2 years of age.

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