The originating document has been archived. We cannot confirm the completeness, accuracy and currency of the content.
Scientific Name(s): Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal, (synonym Physalis somnifera L.). Family: Solanaceae (nightshade)
Common Name(s): Withania , aswaganda , winter cherry , Indian ginseng , ajagandha , kanaje Hindi , samm al ferakh , asgand (Hindi), amukkirag (Tamil), amangura (Kannada), asvagandha (Bengali), ashvagandha (Sanskrit), asundha (Gujarati), kuthmithi
Uses of Ashwagandha
Ashwagandha has been used as an adaptogen, diuretic, and sedative and is available in the United States as a dietary supplement. Trials supporting its clinical use are limited; however, many in vitro and animal experiments suggest effects on the immune and CNS systems, as well as in the pathogenesis of cancer and inflammatory conditions.
Dosing information is limited. W. somnifera root powder has generally been used at dosages of 450 mg to 2 g in combination with other preparations.
Contraindications have not been identified.
Abortifacient properties have been reported for ashwagandha. Avoid use.
None well documented.
Ashwagandha Adverse Reactions
Limited clinical trials are available and case reports are lacking.
Acute toxicity of W. somnifera is modest; at reasonable doses, ashwagandha is nontoxic.
W. somnifera is an erect, greyish, slightly hairy evergreen shrub that grows to about 1.5 m in height and has fairly long tuberous roots. It is widely cultivated in India and throughout the Middle East and is found in eastern Africa. The small and greenish-yellow flowers can be single or in clusters. The fruit is smooth, round, and fleshy, with many seeds; it is orange-red when ripe and enclosed in a membranous covering. 1
The root of W. somnifera is used to make the Ayurvedic tonic ashwagandha , which has been translated to “smells like a horse.” 2 Ashwagandha has been used as an adaptogen, diuretic, and sedative and is available in the United States as a dietary supplement. Other parts of the plant (eg, seeds, leaves) have been used as a pain reliever, to kill lice, and in making soap. The fresh berries have been used as an emetic. 2 , 3
The principal bioactive compounds of W. somnifera are withanolides, which are triterpene lactones. More than 40 withanolides and approximately 12 alkaloids and several sitoindosides have been isolated and identified from W. somnifera . The withanolides are structurally related to the ginsenosides of Panax ginseng, hence the common name “Indian ginseng.” 3 , 4 Chemical constituents for the roots, fruits, seeds, and stem include withanone; withaferin A; withanolides A, D, an G; and sitoindosides IX, X, VII, and VIII. High performance liquid chromatography techniques to quantify constituents have also been established. 2 , 3 , 4
Additional compounds, especially withanolides, have been described and evaluated, with variations dependent upon cultivation and varieties. 5 , 6 , 7 Large amounts of iron are also found in the plant. 4
Ashwagandha Uses and PharmacologyClinical data
Well-designed clinical studies in which W. somnifera or its extracts are used as a single agent are lacking.Anti-inflammatory effects
In vitro and animal experiments suggest W. somnifera may possess anti-inflammatory properties. Cultures of cartilage from patients with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis have been used to demonstrate W. somnifera 's protective effects on chondroplasts. 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 Related effects on cytokines and transcription factors, and suppression of nitric oxide have also been demonstrated. 12 In experiments in rats with induced inflammation, decreased inflammation (paw volume), pain, and disability were noted, as well as an antipyretic effect after administration of W. somnifera root powder. The ulcerogenic effect of W. somnifera was lower than that of indomethacin. 4 , 13 , 14 , 15 , 16 A small clinical study evaluating a combination therapy that included ashwagandha demonstrated decreased pain and disability in arthritis, while no changes were observed in the erythrocyte sedimentation rate. 3 , 4Cancer
Despite more than 30 years of research into a potential role for W. somnifera extracts in the treatment of cancer, clinical trials are lacking. In vitro and animal experiments have been conducted using whole plant extract, ethanol root extracts, aqueous and methanolic leaf extracts, individual withanolides, and withaferin A. Human cancer cell line investigations include HL-60 leukemic and myeloid leukemia cell lines, and bladder, breast, prostate, colon, kidney, gastric, and lung cancer cell lines. Mechanisms of action described include antiproliferative effects, apoptosis, radio-sensitization, mitotic arrest, antiangiogenesis, and enhancement of cell defense mechanisms. 4 , 17 , 18 , 19 , 20 , 21 , 22 , 23 , 24 , 25 , 26 , 27 , 28 , 29 Limited studies suggest withanone, withaferin A, and withanolide A have protective effects on glioma cell lines, as well as human fibroblasts, and thereby slow senescence. 30 , 31
Experiments in mice have demonstrated decreased lung adenoma tumor incidence with whole plant extract and complete regression of mouse sarcoma tumor with ethanol root extract, as well as radio-sensitizing of carcinomas and increased apoptosis of human breast cancer cells by withaferin A, a steroidal lactone of W. somnifera . 4 , 24
In vitro studies and experiments in animals suggest CNS effects, including modulation of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase activity, inhibition of calcium ion influx, blockade of gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors, modulation of 5-HT 1 and 5-HT 2 receptors, antioxidant activity, and regeneration of neurites, 4 , 6 , 11 with some researchers suggesting potential applications in Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases. 3 , 5 , 6
Withania extract protected against pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures in a mouse anticonvulsant model when administered over a 9-week period. 34 The same research group found the extract active in a rat status epilepticus model. 35 A depressant effect on the CNS was indicated by potentiation of pentobarbital effects on the righting reflex in mice, 36 and a mild tranquilizing/relaxant effect in monkeys, cats, dogs, rats, and mice by a total alkaloid extract from the plant roots. 4
A further study of the extract found that it inhibited the development of tolerance to morphine in mice, while suppressing withdrawal symptoms precipitated by naloxone. 37 A withanolide-containing fraction reversed morphine-induced reduction in intestinal motility and confirmed the previous finding of inhibition of development of tolerance to morphine. 38 A role in the management of drug addiction has been suggested. 11
An experiment supported the traditional Ayurvedic medicinal claim that the plant's use could be attributed to effects on learning and memory. Ibotenic acid-induced lesions in intact rat brain that led to cognitive deficit, as measured by performance in a learning task, were reversed by treatment with a withanolide mixture. 39 Limited trials in elderly populations using traditional combination therapies showed mixed results. One study of 2 g of root extract twice daily (in combination) administered over 6 months made no difference in sleep onset times or duration. 40 In another study, increased balance was determined in elderly patients with long-term progressive degenerative ataxia. 41Immune system effects
Withanolides inhibit murine spleen cell proliferation, 42 and an extract of W. somnifera reversed ochratoxin's suppressive effect on murine macrophage chemotaxis. 43 Withanolide glycosides activated murine macrophages and phagocytosis, and increased lysosomal enzymatic activity secreted by the macrophages, while also displaying antistress activity and positive effects on learning and memory in rats. 44 Alpha-2 macroglobulin synthesis stimulated by inflammation was reduced by W. somnifera extract. 45 Similarly, the extract prevented myelosuppression caused by cyclophosphamide, azathioprine, or prednisolone in mice. 46 In a clinical study, ashwagandha 6 mL root extract administered twice daily for 4 days resulted in increases in CD4 expression, as well as activation of natural killer cells. 47 Additional effects on cytokines and the complement system, lymphocyte proliferation, and humoral and cell-mediated responses have been discussed. 48Other uses
Animal experiments have been conducted to describe adaptogenic properties (increased swimming endurance and reduced stress response) of W. somnifera . Clinical trials are lacking. 49 , 50 , 51 , 52 , 53 , 54 , 55 , 56 , 57
Effects on aging have been promoted, based on claims regarding increased hemoglobin, red blood cell count, hair quality, and melanin levels in a non-peer-reviewed study conducted among healthy men. Serum cholesterol was also reduced and seated-stature improved in this study. 30
Dosing information is limited.
In a study in which a polyherbal mixture was used for arthritis, W. somnifera 450 mg root powder was administered 4 times per day. 60
In a sleep study with elderly subjects, Withania 2 g root powder was administered with other ingredients twice daily for up to 3 months. 40
In elderly patients with long-term progressive degenerative ataxia, ashwagandha 500 mg tablets were administered 3 times a day for 1 month (in combination). 41
Abortifacient properties have been reported for ashwagandha. Avoid use. 61
In animal experiments, no fetal abnormalities were found in mice fed Withania root extract for 4 weeks. The progeny of experiment animals had a higher birth weight than those of controls. 3 Because of the plant's antiangiogenic and cytotoxic properties, Withania should be avoided during pregnancy.
Case reports are lacking. 3 Animal studies report potentiation of phenobarbital-induced sleep, 3 while interactions with some digoxin immunoassays have been demonstrated and are thought to be caused by similarity in chemical structure. 62 , 63
Limited clinical trials are available and case reports are lacking.
Subacute intraperitoneal toxicity studies at 100 mg/kg/day for 30 days led to decreased spleen, thymus, and adrenal weights, but no mortality or hematological changes were noted. 64
A longer-term study (180 days) in rats at an oral dose of 100 mg/kg found no lethality, but did discover unfavorable increases in catecholamine content of the heart and decreases in the adrenal glands. 17 At higher dosages (200 mg/kg/day), increases in lung and liver weight were observed. 3 , 4
In mice fed the extract of the entire plant as 25% of the total diet, microscopic lesions in the lung and liver were apparent, and vascular and tubular congestion were described. 3
Bibliography1. Withania somnifera (L.) USDA, NRCS. 2007. The PLANTS Database ( http://plants.usda.gov , 8 April 2010). National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.
2. Ganzera M, Choudhary MI, Khan IA. Quantitative HPLC analysis of withanolides in Withania somnifera . Fitoterapia . 2003;74(1-2):68-76.
3. Kulkarni SK, Dhir A. Withania somnifera : an Indian ginseng. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry . 2008;32(5):1093-1105.
4. Mishra LC, Singh BB, Dagenais S. Scientific basis for the therapeutic use of Withania somnifera (ashwagandha): a review. Altern Med Rev . 2000;5(4):334-346.
5. Zhao J, Nakamura N, Hattori M, Kuboyama T, Tohda C, Komatsu K. Withanolide derivatives from the roots of Withania somnifera and their neurite outgrowth activities. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) . 2002;50(6):760-765.
6. Choudhary MI, Nawaz SA, ul-Haq Z, et al. Withanolides, a new class of natural cholinesterase inhibitors with calcium antagonistic properties. Biochem Biophys Res Commun . 2005;334(1):276-287.
7. Xu YM, Marron MT, Seddon E, et al. 2,3-Dihydrowithaferin A-3beta-O-sulfate, a new potential prodrug of withaferin A from aeroponically grown Withania somnifera . Bioorg Med Chem . 2009;17(6):2210-2214.
8. Sumantran VN, Chandwaskar R, Joshi AK, et al. The relationship between chondroprotective and antiinflammatory effects of Withania somnifera root and glucosamine sulphate on human osteoarthritic cartilage in vitro. Phytother Res . 2008;22(10):1342-1348.
9. Sumantran VN, Kulkarni A, Boddul S, et al. Chondroprotective potential of root extracts of Withania somnifera in osteoarthritis. J Biosci . 2007;32(2):299-307.
10. Singh RH, Narsimhamurthy K, Singh G. Neuronutrient impact of Ayurvedic Rasayana therapy in brain aging. Biogerontology . 2008;9(6):369-374.
11. Lu L, Liu Y, Zhu W, et al. Traditional medicine in the treatment of drug addiction. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse . 2009;35(1):1-11.
12. Kaileh M, Vanden Berghe W, Heyerick A, et al. Withaferin a strongly elicits IkappaB kinase beta hyperphosphorylation concomitant with potent inhibition of its kinase activity. J Biol Chem . 2007;282(7):4253-4264.
13. Rasool M, Varalakshmi P. Suppressive effect of Withania somnifera root powder on experimental gouty arthritis: An in vivo and in vitro study. Chem Biol Interact . 2006;164(3):174-180.
14. Khanna D, Sethi G, Ahn KS, et al. Natural products as a gold mine for arthritis treatment. Curr Opin Pharmacol . 2007;7(3):344-351.
15. Al-Hindawi MK, Al-Deen IH, Nabi MH, Ismail MA. Anti-inflammatory activity of some Iraqi plants using intact rats. J Ethnopharmacol . 1989;26(2):163-168.
16. Agarwal R, Diwanay S, Patki P, Patwardhan B. Studies on immunomodulatory activity of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) extracts in experimental immune inflammation. J Ethnopharmacol . 1999;67(1):27-35.
17. Senthil V, Ramadevi S, Venkatakrishnan V, et al Withanolide induces apoptosis in HL-60 leukemia cells via mitochondria mediated cytochrome c release and caspase activation. Chem Biol Interact . 2007;167(1):19-30.
18. Al-Fatimi M, Friedrich U, Jenett-Siems K. Cytotoxicity of plants used in traditional medicine in Yemen. Fitoterapia . 2005;76(3-4):355-358.
19. Kaur K, Rani G, Widodo N, et al. Evaluation of the anti-proliferative and anti-oxidative activities of leaf extract from in vivo and in vitro raised Ashwagandha. Food Chem Toxicol . 2004;42(12):2015-2020.
20. Niture SK, Rao US, Srivenugopal KS. Chemopreventative strategies targeting the MGMT repair protein: augmented expression in human lymphocytes and tumor cells by ethanolic and aqueous extracts of several Indian medicinal plants. Int J Oncol . 2006;29(5):1269-1278.
21. Mathur R, Gupta SK, Singh N, Mathur S, Kochupillai V, Velpandian T. Evaluation of the effect of Withania somnifera root extracts on cell cycle and angiogenesis. J Ethnopharmacol . 2006;105(3):336-341.
22. Ichikawa H, Takada Y, Shishodia S, Jayaprakasam B, Nair MG, Aggarwal BB. Withanolides potentiate apoptosis, inhibit invasion, and abolish osteoclastogenesis through suppression of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation and NF-kappaB-regulated gene expression. Mol Cancer Ther . 2006;5(6):1434-1445.
23. Stan SD, Hahm ER, Warin R, Singh SV. Withaferin A causes FOXO3a- and Bim-dependent apoptosis and inhibits growth of human breast cancer cells in vivo. Cancer Res . 2008;68(18):7661-7669.
24. Stan SD, Zeng Y, Singh SV. Ayurvedic medicine constituent withaferin a causes G2 and M phase cell cycle arrest in human breast cancer cells. Nutr Cancer . 2008;60(suppl 1):51-60.
25. Mulabagal V, Subbaraju GV, Rao CV, et al. Withanolide sulfoxide from Aswagandha roots inhibits nuclear transcription factor-kappa-B, cyclooxygenase and tumor cell proliferation. Phytother Res . 2009;23(7):987-992.
26. Malik F, Kumar A, Bhushan S, et al. Reactive oxygen species generation and mitochondrial dysfunction in the apoptotic cell death of human myeloid leukemia HL-60 cells by a dietary compound withaferin A with concomitant protection by N-acetyl cysteine. Apoptosis . 2007;12(11):2115-2133.
27. Oh JH, Lee TJ, Kim SH, et al. Induction of apoptosis by withaferin A in human leukemia U937 cells through down-regulation of Akt phosphorylation. Apoptosis . 2008;13(12):1494-1504.
28. Mohan R, Hammers HJ, Bargagna-Mohan P, et al. Withaferin A is a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis. Angiogenesis . 2004;7(2):115-122.
29. Srinivasan S, Ranga RS, Burikhanov R, Han SS, Chendil D. Par-4-dependent apoptosis by the dietary compound withaferin A in prostate cancer cells. Cancer Res . 2007;67(1):246-253.
30. Widodo N, Shah N, Priyandoko D, Ishii T, Kaul SC, Wadhwa R. Deceleration of senescence in normal human fibroblasts by withanone extracted from ashwagandha leaves. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci . 2009;64(10):1031-1038.
31. Shah N, Kataria H, Kaul SC, et al. Effect of the alcoholic extract of Ashwagandha leaves and its components on proliferation, migration, and differentiation of glioblastoma cells: combinational approach for enhanced differentiation. Cancer Sci . 2009;100(9):1740-1747.
32. Davis L, Kuttan G. Effect of Withania somnifera on cyclophosphamide-induced urotoxicity. Cancer Lett . 2000;148(1):9-17.
33. Davis L, Kuttan G. Suppressive effect of cyclophosphamide-induced toxicity by Withania somnifera extract in mice. J Ethnopharmacol . 1998;62(3):209-214.
34. Kulkarni SK, George B. Anticonvulsant action of Withania somnifera (Ashwaganda) root extract against pentylenetetrazol-induced kindling in mice. Phytother Res . 1996;10(5):447-449.
35. Kulkarni SK, George B, Mathur R. Protective effect of Withania somnifera root extract on electrographic activity in a lithium-pilocarpine model of status epilepticus. Phytother Res . 1998;12(6):451-453.
36. Ahumada F, Trincado MA, Arellano JA, Hancke J, Wikman G. Effect of certain adaptogenic plant extracts on drug-induced narcosis in female and male mice. Phytother Res . 1991;5(1):29-31.
37. Kulkarni S, Ninan I. Inhibition of morphine tolerance and dependence by Withania somnifera in mice. J Ethnopharmacol . 1997;57(3):213-217.
38. Ramarao P, Rao KT, Srivastava RS, Ghosal S. Effects of glycowithanolides from Withania somnifera on morphine-induced inhibition of intestinal motility and tolerance to analgesia in mice. Phytother Res . 1995;9(1):66-68.
39. Bhattacharya SK, Kumar S, Ghosal S. Effects of glycowithanolides from Withania somnifera on an animal model of Alzheimer's disease and perturbed central cholinergic markers of cognition in rats. Phytother Res . 1995;9(2):110-113.
40. Manjunath NK, Telles S. Influence of Yoga and Ayurveda on self-rated sleep in a geriatric population. Indian J Med Res . 2005;121(5):683-690.
41. Sriranjini SJ, Pal PK, Devidas KV, Ganpathy S. Improvement of balance in progressive degenerative cerebellar ataxias after Ayurvedic therapy: a preliminary report. Neurol India . 2009;57(2):166-171.
42. Bähr V, Hänsel R. Immunomodulating properties of 5,20-alpha(R)-dihydroxy-6-alpha-7-alpha-epoxy-1-oxo-(5-alpha)-witha-2,24-dieno lide and solasodine. Planta Med . 1982;44(1):32-33.
43. Dhuley JN. Effect of some Indian herbs on macrophage functions in ochratoxin A treated mice. J Ethnopharmacol . 1997;58(1):15-20.
44. Ghosal S, Lal J, Srivastava R, et al. Immunomodulatory and CNS effects of sitoindosides IX and X, two new glycowithanolides from Withania somnifera . Phytother Res . 1989;3(5):201-206.
45. Anbalagan K, Sadique J. Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha), a rejuvenating herbal drug which controls a-2 macroglobulin synthesis during inflammation. Int J Crude Drug Res . 1985;23(4):177-183.
46. Ziauddin M, Phansalkar N, Patki P, Diwanay S, Patwardhan B. Studies on the immunomodulatory effects of Ashwagandha. J Ethnopharmacol . 1996;50(2):69-76.
47. Mikolai J, Erlandsen A, Murison A, et al. In vivo effects of Ashwagandha ( Withania somnifera ) extract on the activation of lymphocytes. J Altern Complement Med . 2009;15(4):423-430.
48. Rasool M, Varalakshmi P. Immunomodulatory role of Withania somnifera root powder on experimental induced inflammation: An in vivo and in vitro study. Vascul Pharmacol . 2006;44(6):406-410.
49. Singh N, Nath R, Lata A, Singh SP, Kohli RP, Bhargava KP. Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha), a rejuvenating herbal drug which enhances survival during stress (an adaptogen). Int J Crude Drug Res . 1982;20(1):29-35.
50. Bhattacharya SK, Goel RK, Kaur R, Ghosal S. Anti-stress activity of sitoindosides VII and VIII, new acylsterylglucosides from Withania somnifera . Phytother Res . 1987;1(1):32-37.
51. Grandhi A, Mujumdar AM, Patwardhan B. A comparative pharmacological investigation of Ashwagandha and Ginseng. J Ethnopharmacol . 1994;44(3):131-135.
52. Dhuley JN. Effect of ashwagandha on lipid peroxidation in stress-induced animals. J Ethnopharmacol . 1998;60(2):173-178.
53. Archana R, Namasivayam A. Antistressor effect of Withania somnifera . J Ethnopharmacol . 1999;64(1):91-93.
54. Dhuley JN. Adaptogenic and cardioprotective action of ashwagandha in rats and frogs. J Ethnopharmacol . 2000;70(1):57-63.
55. Panda S, Kar A. Withania somnifera and Bauhinia purpurea in the regulation of circulating thyroid hormone concentrations in female mice. J Ethnopharmacol . 1999;67(2):233-239.
56. Singh A, Saxena E, Bhutani KK. Adrenocorticosterone alterations in male, albino mice treated with Trichopus zeylanicus , Withania somnifera , and Panax ginseng preparations. Phytother Res . 2000;14(2):122-125.
57. Bucci LR. Selected herbals and human exercise performance. Am J Clin Nutr . 2000;72(2 suppl):624S-636S.
58. Girish KS, Machiah KD, Ushanandini S, et al. Antimicrobial properties of a non-toxic glycoprotein (WSG) from Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha). J Basic Microbiol . 2006;46(5):365-374.
59. Machiah DK, Girish KS, Gowda TV. A glycoprotein from a folk medicinal plant, Withania somnifera , inhibits hyaluronidase activity of snake venoms. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol . 2006;143(2):158-161.
60. Kulkarni RR, Patki PS, Jog VP, Gandage SC, Patwardhan B. Treatment of osteoarthritis with a herbomineral formulation: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. J Ethnopharmacol . 1991;33(1-2):91-95.
61. Ernst E. Herbal medicinal products during pregnancy: are they safe? BJOG . 2002;109(3):227-235.
62. Dasgupta A. Herbal supplements and therapeutic drug monitoring: focus on digoxin immunoassays and interactions with St. John's wort. Ther Drug Monit . 2008;30(2):212-217.
63. Dasgupta A, Tso G, Wells A. Effect of Asian ginseng, Siberian ginseng, and Indian ayurvedic medicine Ashwagandha on serum digoxin measurement by Digoxin III, a new digoxin immunoassay. J Clin Lab Anal . 2008;22(4):295-301.
64. Sharada AC, Solmon FE, Devi PU. Toxicity of Withania somnifera root extract in rats and mice. Int J Pharmacognosy . 1993;31(3):205-212.
Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health