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C. Diff (Clostridioides Difficile) Infection

Medically reviewed by Last updated on Jul 4, 2022.

Clostridioides difficile, Clostridium difficile, or C. diff, is a bacterium that causes diarrhea, irritation, and swelling of the colon. Antibiotic use is the most common cause of CDI. The bowel movement of a person with a CDI contains C. diff. Infected people who do not wash their hands properly after having a bowel movement can spread C. diff. The bacteria can live a long time on surfaces you touch, such as the tops of tables.


Call your local emergency number (911 in the US) if:

  • You have a fever and stomach cramps that get worse, or do not go away.
  • Your abdomen is hard or feels swollen.
  • You have black or bright red bowel movements.
  • You vomit blood.
  • You are short of breath, or feel like you are going to faint.
  • You have any of the following signs of dehydration:
    • Dizziness or weakness, or extreme sleepiness
    • Dry mouth, cracked lips, or you feel very thirsty
    • Fast heartbeat or rapid breathing
    • Very little urine or no urine
    • Sunken eyes

Call your doctor if:

  • You have a fever.
  • Your signs and symptoms get worse.
  • Your signs and symptoms do not go away, or they come back, even after treatment.
  • You cannot eat or drink.
  • You have questions or concerns about your condition or care.


  • Antibiotics may be given to keep the C. diff bacteria from growing.
  • Take your medicine as directed. Contact your healthcare provider if you think your medicine is not helping or if you have side effects. Tell him or her if you are allergic to any medicine. Keep a list of the medicines, vitamins, and herbs you take. Include the amounts, and when and why you take them. Bring the list or the pill bottles to follow-up visits. Carry your medicine list with you in case of an emergency.

What you can do to manage or prevent a CDI:

  • Wash your hands often. Wash your hands several times each day. Wash after you use the bathroom, change a child's diaper, and before you prepare or eat food. Use soap and water every time. Rub your soapy hands together, lacing your fingers. Wash the front and back of your hands, and in between your fingers. Use the fingers of one hand to scrub under the fingernails of the other hand. Wash for at least 20 seconds. Rinse with warm, running water for several seconds. Then dry your hands with a clean towel or paper towel. Use hand sanitizer that contains alcohol if soap and water are not available. Do not touch your eyes, nose, or mouth without washing your hands first.
  • Clean surfaces often. Clean doorknobs, countertops, cell phones, and other surfaces that are touched often. Use a disinfecting wipe, a single-use sponge, or a cloth you can wash and reuse. Use disinfecting cleaners if you do not have wipes. You can create a disinfecting cleaner by mixing 1 part bleach with 10 parts water.
  • Prevent the spread of C. diff. Do not share any items with other people. Use as many disposable items as you can, such as paper plates. Do this until your diarrhea has stopped.
  • Ask about probiotics. Probiotics are also called good bacteria. They can help protect you from harmful bacteria. If you develop more than one CDI, probiotics may help prevent more infections. Ask your healthcare provider if probiotics are right for you. You may be able to eat yogurt or other foods high in probiotics. Your provider may instead recommend a pill or liquid form.
  • Drink more liquids to prevent dehydration. You may also drink an oral rehydration solution (ORS). An ORS has the right amounts of water, salts, and sugar needed to replace body fluids. Ask your healthcare provider where to buy ORS and how much to drink.

What you need to know about correct antibiotic use:

  • Take your antibiotic as directed. Do not skip a dose of your antibiotic. Do not stop taking your antibiotic, even if you feel better. Finish the entire dose of your antibiotic unless your healthcare provider tells you to stop.
  • Get rid of any antibiotics you did not use. Ask your healthcare provider or pharmacist how to get rid of antibiotics. Do not share your antibiotic with another person. Do not take an antibiotic from another illness without talking to your healthcare provider.
  • Prevent infections caused by bacteria. This will help prevent your need for an antibiotic. Ask about vaccines that you need. Wash your hands frequently to prevent the spread of infection.
  • Ask your healthcare provider how to manage your symptoms without antibiotics. Your healthcare provider can recommend other treatments based on your illness. An example includes over-the-counter medicines such as acetaminophen or NSAIDs.

Follow up with your doctor in 1 to 2 days:

You may need to have an antibiotic changed if it caused your CDI. Write down your questions so you remember to ask them during your visits.

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The above information is an educational aid only. It is not intended as medical advice for individual conditions or treatments. Talk to your doctor, nurse or pharmacist before following any medical regimen to see if it is safe and effective for you.

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