Skip to Content

Captopril Side Effects

Not all side effects for captopril may be reported. You should always consult a doctor or healthcare professional for medical advice. Side effects can be reported to the FDA here.

For the Consumer

Applies to captopril: oral liquid, oral tablet

In addition to its needed effects, some unwanted effects may be caused by captopril. In the event that any of these side effects do occur, they may require medical attention.

You should check with your doctor immediately if any of these side effects occur when taking captopril:

Less common
  • Chest pain
  • cloudy urine
  • fast, pounding, or irregular heartbeat or pulse
  • Arm, back, or jaw pain
  • bloody urine
  • chest discomfort
  • chest tightness or heaviness
  • decreased blood pressure
  • decreased or increased frequency or amount of urine
  • dilated neck veins
  • increased thirst
  • irregular breathing
  • large, hive-like swelling on face, eyelids, lips, tongue, throat, hands, legs, feet, or sex organs
  • loss of appetite
  • low blood pressure
  • lower back or side pain
  • nausea
  • paleness or cold feeling in fingertips and toes
  • sweating
  • swelling of face, fingers, feet, or lower legs
  • tingling or pain in fingers or toes when exposed to cold
  • troubled breathing or wheezing
  • unusual tiredness or weakness
  • vomiting
  • weight gain
Incidence not known
  • Bleeding gums
  • bloody, black, or tarry stools
  • blurred vision
  • chills
  • confusion
  • cough
  • dizziness, faintness, or lightheadedness when getting up from a lying or sitting position suddenly
  • high fever
  • painful or difficult urination
  • pale skin
  • pinpoint red spots on skin
  • sore throat
  • sores, ulcers, or white spots on lips or in mouth
  • swollen glands
  • unusual bleeding or bruising

Some of the side effects that can occur with captopril may not need medical attention. As your body adjusts to the medicine during treatment these side effects may go away. Your health care professional may also be able to tell you about ways to reduce or prevent some of these side effects. If any of the following side effects continue, are bothersome or if you have any questions about them, check with your health care professional:

Less common
  • Change in taste
  • feeling of warmth
  • itching skin
  • loss of taste
  • rash
  • redness of the face, neck, arms, and occasionally, upper chest

For Healthcare Professionals

Applies to captopril: compounding powder, oral tablet


The incidence of adverse drug events (ADEs) associated with captopril is related to dose and to preexisting renal disease. Postmarketing surveillance reveals that the incidence of withdrawal from captopril due to ADEs ranges from 5% to 9%. ADEs appear to be more likely in the elderly, in females, and in patients who receive dosages greater than 150 mg per day.[Ref]


Cardiovascular side effects have included hypotension (1% to 25%), dizziness (1% to 5%), myocardial infarction (less than 1%), palpitations (less than 1%), angina pectoris (less than 1%), and angioedema (less than 0.1%).[Ref]

Hypotension and presyncopal symptoms are more common in patients with congestive heart failure, hyponatremia, or in patients who are on diuretics. "First dose" hypotension may be minimized by a reduction in diuretic therapy, by starting with a low dose of captopril, and by slowly advancing captopril doses in small increments. Intolerance to a small "test dose" of captopril does not necessarily contraindicate further use of the drug.[Ref]


Respiratory side effects have included a dry, persistent cough in up to 4% of patients. Asthma has been reported rarely. At least two case of interstitial pulmonary infiltrates have been reported.[Ref]

A 79-year-old man with hypertension, heart failure, and atrial fibrillation developed a dry cough and wheezing after starting captopril. Pulmonary function tests revealed findings consistent with mixed obstructive and restrictive lung disease; histamine challenge was markedly positive. There was no history of tobacco use or a family history of asthma. The cough and wheezing persisted after captopril was discontinued. The authors believe that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors may uncover an asthmatic tendency in patients with preexisting bronchial hyperreactivity.

A retrospective study has revealed a significantly higher incidence of discontinuation of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor therapy due to cough among black patients compared with non-black patients (9.6% vs. 2.4%).[Ref]


The neutropenia and agranulocytosis associated with captopril typically occur within 3 to 12 weeks after starting therapy, and are usually reversible within 3 weeks after stopping the drug. While most cases are described in patients who are receiving high doses of captopril (600 mg per day), agranulocytosis has been described in patients who were receiving as little as 12.5 to 100 mg per day. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) has been reported in one case to be of benefit in treating captopril-induced agranulocytosis.

Hematologic side effects may be more likely in patients with renal dysfunction.[Ref]

Hematologic side effects have included neutropenia, agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia, hemolytic anemia, eosinophilia, and thrombocytopenia.[Ref]


Hypersensitivity side effects have been reported rarely. Intestinal angioedema and angioedema of the face, extremities, lips, tongue, glottis and/or pharynx have been reported rarely in patients receiving ACE inhibitors. Rarely, obstructive laryngeal and glossal angioedema have been reported. Hepatitis, allergic vasculitis, and mild to severe skin rashes have been reported.[Ref]

Patients with intestinal angioedema generally present with abdominal pain (with or without nausea or vomiting) and in some cases there was no prior history of facial angioedema, and C-1 esterase levels were normal. These symptoms resolve after stopping the ACE inhibitor.[Ref]


Hepatic side effects have been reported rarely. Cholestatic changes, cholestatic-hepatocellular changes, and hepatic necrosis have been reported. Jaundice has also been reported.[Ref]

A review of 19 cases of captopril-associated hepatic injury revealed the most common dosage of captopril that was given to affected patients was 450 mg per day, the mean age of affected patients was 61 years, and the most common interval between starting the drug and the onset of symptoms was 14 weeks. Jaundice was the most common presenting symptom, and approximately one third of the patients had concomitant fever, rash, or eosinophilia. Because of these associated findings, the suspected mechanism of injury is hypersensitivity.[Ref]


A 70-year-old, heterosexual, HIV-negative man with hypertension developed Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) during captopril therapy. The lesions completely resolved within three months after discontinuation of captopril. In another case, a 70-year-old woman with seropositive rheumatoid arthritis and hypertension developed KS within eight months after starting captopril therapy. A full work-up, including HIV antibody testing, was negative. The lesions did not resolve, but became flat, brown, and non-indurated within 15 days after captopril was stopped.

A 47-year-old male was given captopril for hypertension and developed an erythematous eruption on both cheeks within a few hours following the first dose. Positive reactions were obtained during patch testing for captopril at a later time.[Ref]

Dermatologic side effects have included psoriasiform rashes, pemphigus-like lesions, angioedema of the face and mucous membranes, pityriasis-like eruptions, alopecia, exfoliative dermatitis, photosensitivity, bullous or lichenoid eruptions, and erythematous eruptions. Rarely, worsened Kaposi's sarcoma lesions, oncolysis, pemphigus vulgaris, and Henoch-Schonlein Purpura have been reported. A case of toxic epidermal necrolysis has also been reported.[Ref]

Nervous system

Nervous system side effects have included dysgeusia (0.3% to 4.0%) and headache (up to 4%). Cases of Guillain-Barre neuropathy and parkinsonism have been reported.[Ref]

A 57-year-old man with hypertension and moderate alcohol use developed a sensorimotor loss associated with a cerebral spinal fluid pleocytosis three months after starting captopril therapy. A complete work-up was otherwise unremarkable. The patient eventually required mechanical ventilation, at which time captopril was discontinued. The syndrome resolved completely over the next six weeks. Nerve conduction velocity and electromyography findings were consistent with a demyelinating neuropathy of the Guillain-Barre type.

A 75-year-old man with hypertension and heart failure developed a shuffling gait, resting tremors, mask face, and cogwheel rigidity several days after beginning captopril therapy. A full work-up was unremarkable. The parkinsonian symptoms resolved after captopril was discontinued.[Ref]


Renal side effects have included renal insufficiency (less than 3%) and proteinuria (1%). Allergic nephritis, membranous glomerulonephritis, and nephrotic syndrome have been reported rarely.[Ref]

Risk factors for the development of captopril-induced renal insufficiency are hypovolemia, hypotension, hyponatremia, concomitant use of other potentially nephrotoxic medications, and renal artery stenosis.

Proteinuria associated with captopril therapy is more likely in patients with renal insufficiency.

Captopril-induced hypotension may cause decreased renal blood flow and glomerular filtration in some patients. In addition, captopril may cause an interstitial nephritis (usually associated with rash, eosinophilia, fever, and azotemia), or a membranous glomerulopathy. The histological findings of membranous glomerulonephritis in some patients who have proteinuria suggest the possibility of an immune-complex glomerulopathy. These findings are similar to other cases of drug-induced glomerulopathy.[Ref]


Gastrointestinal side effects have been reported rarely. Nausea has been reported in up to 4% of patients. At least two cases of oral ulceration have been reported. Esophagitis, scalded mouth syndrome, and pancreatitis have been reported rarely. Cases of sialadenitis have also been reported.[Ref]

Scalded mouth syndrome is characterized by a burning sensation of the tongue, throat, lips or palate (similar to drinking coffee which is too hot).[Ref]


Endocrine side effects have been reported rarely. A case of gynecomastia has been reported.[Ref]

A 72-year-old man with hypertension developed painful gynecomastia while taking captopril 75 mg per day. The patient had no history of alcohol abuse, liver disease, diabetes mellitus, and was on no other medications. A complete endocrinologic work-up was unremarkable. The gynecomastia resolved upon substitution with nifedipine. Rechallenge with enalapril resulted in recurrent gynecomastia.[Ref]


A 53-year-old man with diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and heart failure developed arthralgias, fever, and malaise associated with bilateral pleural effusions, elevated liver function tests, a pericardial rub, and elevated C-reactive protein. After other causes of systemic lupus erythematosus were ruled out, captopril was stopped, and these signs and symptoms resolved.

In a study of 78 patients who were treated with captopril for 11 months, 13 developed a positive antinuclear antibody titer. Only one of the 13, however, developed a serum sickness-like illness.[Ref]

Immunologic side effects have rarely included lymphadenopathy, systemic lupus erythematosus, and Henoch-Schonlein Purpura. Serum sickness-like illness has been reported.[Ref]


Psychiatric side effects have rarely included mania.[Ref]


Metabolic side effects have included hyperkalemia and, less commonly, hyponatremia. Hypoglycemia has been reported rarely.[Ref]


1. Palmer AJ, Beevers DG, Bulpitt CJ, et al "Mortality associated with captopril and enalapril: a report from the DHSS Hypertension Care Computing Project." J Hypertens 8 (1990): 521-4

2. Testa MA, Anderson RB, Nackley JF, Hollenberg NK "Quality of life and antihypertensive therapy in men. A comparison of captopril with enalapril. The Quality-of-Life Hypertension Study Group." N Engl J Med 328 (1993): 907-13

3. Black J, Hunt TL, Godley PJ "Initiation of captopril therapy: the first-dose effect." J Clin Pharmacol 26 (1986): 539-40

4. Baker KM, Johns DW, Ayers CR, Carey RM "Ischemic cardiovascular complications concurrent with administration of captopril: a clinical note." Hypertension 2 (1980): 73-4

5. Waeber B, Gavras I, Brunner HR, Gavras H "Safety and efficacy of chronic therapy with captopril in hypertensive patients: an update." J Clin Pharmacol 21 (1981): 508-16

6. Schoenberger JA, Testa M, Ross AD, et al "Efficacy, safety, and quality-of-life assessment of captopril antihypertensive therapy in clinical practice." Arch Intern Med 150 (1990): 301-6

7. Chalmers D, Whitehead A, Lawson DH "Postmarketing surveillance of captopril for hypertension." Br J Clin Pharmacol 34 (1992): 215-23

8. Alderman CP "Adverse effects of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors." Ann Pharmacother 30 (1996): 55-61

9. Liu LS, Wang W, Pan XW, Chen ZM, Collins R, Peto R, Tao SC, Liu LS, Chen HZ, Gong LS, Chen SX, Cui JJ, Fang C, Wu "Oral captopril versus placebo among 13,634 patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction: interim report from the chinese cardiac study (CCS-1)." Lancet 345 (1995): 686-7

10. Edwards IR, Coulter DM, Beasley DM, MacIntosh D "Captopril: 4 years of post marketing surveillance of all patients in New Zealand." Br J Clin Pharmacol 23 (1987): 529-36

11. Flather M, Pipilis A, Collins R, Budaj A, Hargreaves A, Kolettis T, Jacob A, Millane T, Fitzgerald L, Cedro K, Cybulski J, Dancy "Randomized controlled trial of oral captopril, of oral isosorbide mononitrate and of intravenous magnesium sulphate started early in acute myocardial infarction - safety and haemodynamic effects." Eur Heart J 15 (1994): 608-19

12. Schnaper HW "Comparison of the efficacy and safety of quinapril vs. captopril in treatment of moderate to severe hypertension." Angiology 40 (1989): 389-95

13. Zatuchni J "Captopril pericarditis ." JAMA 251 (1984): 343-4

14. Antonios TFT, Macgregor GA "Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors in hypertension: potential problems." J Hypertens 13 Suppl (1995): s11-6

15. Davis JB "Chest pain after captopril ." Br Med J 296 (1988): 214

16. Young BA "ACE inhibitor first dose effect." Med J Aust 158 (1993): 577

17. Chu TJ, Chow N "Adverse effects of ACE inhibitors." Ann Intern Med 118 (1993): 314;

18. Brogden RN, Todd PA, Sorkin EM "Captopril: an update of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and therapeutic use in hypertension and congestive heart failure." Drugs 36 (1988): 540-600

19. Fuchs W "Comparison of the safety and efficacy of delapril with captopril in outpatients with congestive heart failure." Am J Cardiol 75 (1995): f29-36

20. Cazzola M, Matera MG, Liccardi G, Deprisco F, Damato G, Rossi F "Theophylline in the inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor-induced cough." Respiration 60 (1993): 212-5

21. Lacourciere Y, Lefebvre J, Nakhle G, Faison EP, Snavely DB, Nelson EB "Association between cough and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors versus angiotensin II antagonists: the design of a prospective, controlled study." J Hypertens 12 (1994): s49-53

22. Luque CA, Ortiz MV "Treatment of ACE inhibitor-induced cough." Pharmacotherapy 19 (1999): 804-10

23. Woo KS, Nicholls MG "High prevalence of persistent cough with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors in chinese." Br J Clin Pharmacol 40 (1995): 141-4

24. Andrejak M, Andrejak MT, Osterman G "Enalapril, captopril, and cough ." Arch Intern Med 148 (1988): 249

25. Wood R "Bronchospasm and cough as adverse reactions to the ACE inhibitors captopril, enalapril and lisinopril. a controlled retrospective cohort study." Br J Clin Pharmacol 39 (1995): 265-70

26. Verme-Gibboney C "Oral angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors." Am J Health Syst Pharm 54 (1997): 2689-703

27. Mitchell A, Gillies A, Carney S, Smith AJ "Cough and captopril ." Arch Intern Med 146 (1986): 1017

28. Semple PF "Putative mechanisms of cough after treatment with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors." J Hypertens 13 Suppl (1995): s17-21

29. Allen TL, Gora-Harper ML "Cromolyn sodium for ACE inhibitor-induced cough." Ann Pharmacother 31 (1997): 773-5

30. Slesnick TC, Mott AR, Fraser CD Jr, Chang AC "Captopril-induced pulmonary infiltrates with eosinophilia in an infant with congenital heart disease." Pediatr Cardiol 26 (2005): 690-3

31. "Product Information. Capoten (captopril)." Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ.

32. Popa V "Captopril-related (and -induced?) asthma." Am Rev Respir Dis 136 (1987): 999-1000

33. Visser LE, Stricker BHC, Vandervelden J, Paes AHP, Bakker A "Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor associated cough: a population-based case-control study." J Clin Epidemiol 48 (1995): 851-7

34. Elliott WJ "Higher incidence of discontinuation of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors due to cough in black subjects." Clin Pharmacol Ther 60 (1996): 582-8

35. Lipworth BJ, McMurray JJ, Clark RA, Struthers AD "Development of persistent late onset asthma following treatment with captopril." Eur Respir J 2 (1989): 586-8

36. Fletcher AE, Palmer AJ, Bulpitt CJ "Cough with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors: how much of a problem?" J Hypertens 12 (1994): s43-7

37. Shindo K, Matsuya F, Ura T, et al "Captopril-associated granulocytopenia in hypertension after renal transplantation." Clin Nephrol 22 (1984): 314-6

38. Grosbois B, Milton D, Beneton C, Jacomy D "Thrombocytopenia induced by angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors." Br Med J 298 (1989): 189-90

39. Pascual J, Medina S, Teruel JL, et al "Captopril-induced lichenoid eruption in an uremic patient." Nephron 56 (1990): 110-2

40. Gavras I, Graff LG, Rose BD, et al "Fatal pancytopenia associated with the use of captopril." Ann Intern Med 94 (1981): 58-9

41. Hirakata H, Onoyama K, Iseki K, et al "Worsening of anemia induced by long-term use of captopril in hemodialysis patients." Am J Nephrol 4 (1984): 355-60

42. Devlin RG, Fleiss PM "Captopril in human blood and breast milk." J Clin Pharmacol 21 (1981): 110-3

43. Elijovisch F, Krakoff LR "Captopril associated granulocytopenia in hypertension after renal transplantation." Lancet 1 (1980): 927-8

44. Israeli A, Or R, Leitersdorf E "Captopril-associated transient aplastic anemia." Acta Haematol 73 (1985): 106-7

45. Elijovisch F, Krakoff LR "Captopril associated granulocytopenia in hypertension after renal transplantation ." Lancet 1 (1980): 927-8

46. Forslund T, Borgmastars H, Fyrquist F "Captopril-associated leucopenia confirmed by rechallenge in patient with renal failure ." Lancet 1 (1981): 166

47. Torello J, Duran JA, Abadin JA "Captopril-associated aplastic anemia ." Drug Intell Clin Pharm 24 (1990): 543-4

48. Strair RK, Mitch WE, Faller DV, Skorecki KL "Reversible captopril-associated bone marrow aplasia ." Can Med Assoc J 132 (1985): 320-2

49. Winfred RI, Nanda S, Horvath G, Elnicki M "Captopril-induced toxic epidermal necrolysis and agranulocytosis successfully treated with colony-stimulating factor." South Med J 92 (1999): 918-20

50. Beroniade V "Severe side-effects of captopril in advanced chronic kidney insufficiency." Proc Eur Dial Transplant Assoc 20 (1983): 530-7

51. Pillans PI, Koopowitz A "Captopril-associated agranulocytosis: a report of 3 cases." S Afr Med J 79 (1991): 399-400

52. Kim CR, Maley MB, Mohler ER "Captopril and aplastic anemia." Ann Intern Med 111 (1989): 187-8

53. el-Makri A, Larabi MS, Kechrid C, et al "Fatal bone-marrow suppression associated with captopril." Br Med J 283 (1981): 277-8

54. Onoyama K, Sanai T, Motomura K, Fujishima M "Worsening of anemia by angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and its prevention by antiestrogenic steroid in chronic hemodialysis patients." J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 13 (1989): s27-30

55. Vidt DG, Bravo EL, Fouad FM "Captopril." N Engl J Med 306 (1982): 214-9

56. Suarez M, Ho PW, Johnson ES, Perez G "Angioneurotic edema, agranulocytosis, and fatal septicemia following captopril therapy." Am J Med 81 (1986): 336-8

57. Luderer JR, Schoolwerth AC, Sinicrope R, et al "Acute renal failure, hemolytic anemia and skin rash associated with captopril therapy." Am J Med 71 (1981): 493-6

58. Gunkel AR, Thurner KH, Kanonier G, Sprinzl GM, Thumfart WF "Angioneurotic edema as a reaction to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors." Am J Otolaryngol 17 (1996): 87-91

59. Shionoiri H, Nomura S, Oda H, et al "Hepatitis associated with captopril and enalapril but not with delapril in a patient with congestive heart failure receiving chronic hemodialysis." Curr Ther Res Clin Exp 42 (1987): 1171-6

60. Ohman P, Aurell M, Asplund J, et al "A long-term follow-up of patients with essential hypertension treated with captopril." Acta Med Scand 216 (1984): 53-6

61. Seidman MD, Lewandowski CA, Sarpa JR, et al "Angioedema related to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors." Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 102 (1990): 727-31

62. Wood SM, Mann RD, Rawlins MD "Angio-oedema and urticaria associated with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors." Br Med J 294 (1987): 91-2

63. Jason DR "Fatal angioedema associated with captopril." J Forensic Sci 37 (1992): 1418-21

64. Schiller PI, Messmer SL, Haefeli WE, Schlienger RG, Bircher AJ "Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor-induced angioedema: Late onset, irregular course, and potential role of triggers." Allergy 52 (1997): 432-5

65. Jett GK "Captopril-induced angioedema ." Ann Emerg Med 13 (1984): 489-90

66. Solinger AM "Exfoliative dermatitis from captopril." Cutis 29 (1982): 473-4

67. Hedner T, Samuelsson O, Lunde H, et al "Angio-oedema in relation to treatment with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors." Br Med J 304 (1992): 941-6

68. Kidney JC, O'Halloran DJ, FitzGerald MX "Captopril and lymphocytic alveolitis." Br Med J 299 (1989): 981

69. Werber JL, Pincus RL "Oropharyngeal angioedema associated with the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors." Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 101 (1989): 96-8

70. Fitzgerald DA "Subepidermal bullous eruption induced by captopril." Clin Exp Dermatol 18 (1993): 196-7

71. Odonnell D "Fever associated with captopril." Med J Aust 159 (1993): 834-5

72. Laaban J, Marie JP, Wallach D, et al "Necrotising vasculitis associated with captopril therapy." Eur Heart J 8 (1987): 319

73. Pennell DJ, Nunan TO, O'Doherty MJ, Croft DN "Fatal Stevens-Johnson syndrome in a patient on captopril and allopurinol." Lancet 1 (1984): 463

74. Bellary SV, Isaacs PE, Scott AW "Captopril and the liver." Lancet 2 (1989): 514

75. Brown NJ, Snowden M, Griffin MR "Recurrent angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor-associated angioedema." JAMA 278 (1997): 232-3

76. Nissan A, Spira RM, Seror D, Ackerman Z "Captopril-associated 'pseudocholangitis': a case report and review of the literature." Arch Surg 131 (1996): 670-1

77. Rahmat J, Gelfand RL, Gelfand MC, et al "Captopril-associated cholestatic jaundice." Ann Intern Med 102 (1985): 56-8

78. Zimran A, Abraham AS, Hershko C "Reversible cholestatic jaundice and hyperamylasaemia associated with captopril treatment." Br Med J 287 (1983): 1676

79. Hagley MT, Hulisz DT, Burns CM "Hepatotoxicity associated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors." Ann Pharmacother 27 (1993): 228-31

80. Schattner A, Kozak N, Friedman J "Captopril-induced jaundice: report of 2 cases and a review of 13 additional reports in the literature." Am J Med Sci 322 (2001): 236-40

81. Tabibian N, Alpert L, Alpert E "Captopril-induced liver dysfunction." South Med J 80 (1987): 1173-5

82. Parker WA "Captopril-induced cholestatic jaundice." Drug Intell Clin Pharm 18 (1984): 234-5

83. Phillips WG, Vaughanjones S, Jenkins R, Breathnach SM "Captopril-induced lichenoid eruption." Clin Exp Dermatol 19 (1994): 317-20

84. Leaker B, Whitworth JA "Alopecia associated with captopril treatment ." Aust N Z J Med 14 (1984): 866

85. LluchBernal M, Novalbos A, Umpierrez A, Figueredo E, Bombin C, Sastre J "Cutaneous reaction to captopril with positive patch test and lack of cross-sensitivity to enalapril and benazepril." Contact Dermatitis 39 (1998): 316-7

86. Torok E, Biro V, Wagner M, et al "Effectiveness and safety of captopril (tensiomin) in patients with hypertension." Acta Physiol Hung 72 (1988): 51-65

87. Borders JV "Captopril and onycholysis ." Ann Intern Med 105 (1986): 305-6

88. Neumann J, Andrassy K, Waltersack I, Berg PA "Henoch-schoenlein purpura and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors." Nephron 67 (1994): 117

89. Alkurtass DA, Al-Jazairi AS "Possible captopril-induced toxic epidermal necrolysis." Ann Pharmacother 37 (2003): 380-3

90. Goodfield MJ, Millard LG "Severe cutaneous reactions to captopril." Br Med J 290 (1985): 1111

91. Clement MI "Captopril-induced eruptions ." Arch Dermatol 117 (1981): 525-6

92. Puppin D Jr, Rybojad M, de la Chapelle C, Morel P "Kaposi's sarcoma associated with captopril ." Lancet 336 (1990): 1251-2

93. Luderer JR, Lookingbill DP, Schneck DW, et al "Captopril-induced skin eruptions." J Clin Pharmacol 22 (1982): 151-9

94. Wolf R, Tamir A, Brenner S "Psoriasis related to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors." Dermatologica 181 (1990): 51-3

95. Friedman IS, Rudikoff D, Phelps RG, Sapadin AN "Captopril-triggered linear IgA bullous dermatosis." Int J Dermatol 37 (1998): 608-12

96. Parfrey PS, Clement M, Vandenburg MJ, Wright P "Captopril-induced pemphigus." Br Med J 281 (1980): 194

97. Larbre JP, Nicolas JF, Collet P, et al "Kaposi's sarcoma in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis possible responsibility of captopril in the development of lesions." J Rheumatol 18 (1991): 476-7

98. Wilkin JK, Hammond JJ, Kirkendall WM "The captopril-induced eruption: a possible mechanism, cutaneous kinin potentiation." Arch Dermatol 116 (1980): 902-5

99. Butt A, Burge SM "Pemphigus vulgaris induced by captopril." Br J Dermatol 132 (1995): 315-6

100. Atkinson AB, Brown JJ, Lever AF, et al "Neurological dysfunction in two patients receiving captopril and cimetidine ." Lancet 2 (1980): 36-7

101. Rapoport S, Zyman P "Captopril and central nervous system effects ." Ann Intern Med 98 (1983): 1023

102. Boyd I "Captopril-induced taste disturbance." Lancet 342 (1993): 304

103. Zazgornik J, Kaiser W, Biesenbach G "Captopril-induced dysgeusia." Lancet 341 (1993): 1542

104. Sandyk R "Parkinsonism induced by captopril ." Clin Neuropharmacol 8 (1985): 197-8

105. Chakraborty TK, Ruddell WS "Guillain-Barre neuropathy during treatment with captopril." Postgrad Med J 63 (1987): 221-2

106. Chrysant SG, Dunn M, Marples D, DeMasters K "Severe reversible azotemia from captopril therapy: report of three cases and review of the literature." Arch Intern Med 143 (1983): 437-41

107. Walley T, Winstanley P, Roberts D, et al "Adverse effects of captopril in hospital outpatients with hypertension." Postgrad Med J 66 (1990): 106-9

108. Textor SC, Gephardt GN, Bravo EL, et al "Membranous glomerulopathy associated with captopril therapy." Am J Med 74 (1983): 705-12

109. Pierpont GL, Levine TB, Cohn JN "Azotemia in patients with congestive heart failure treated with captopril." Minn Med 66 (1983): 223-5

110. Hays R, Aquino A, Lee BB, et al "Captopril-induced acute renal failure in a kidney transplant recipient." Clin Nephrol 19 (1983): 320-1

111. Engelman K "Is there proof that captopril causes proteinuria?" Arch Intern Med 162 (2002): 842-3

112. Seedat YK "Nephrotic syndrome from captopril ." S Afr Med J 57 (1980): 390

113. Silas JH, Klenka Z, Solomon SA, Bone JM "Captopril induced reversible renal failure: a marker of renal artery stenosis affecting a solitary kidney." Br Med J 286 (1983): 1702-3

114. Wynckel A, Ebikili B, Melin JP, Randoux C, Lavaud S, Chanard J "Long-term follow-up of acute renal failure caused by angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors." Am J Hypertens 11 (1998): 1080-6

115. van Son WJ, van der Woude FJ, Tegzess AM, et al "Captopril-induced deterioration of graft function in patients with a transplant renal artery stenosis." Proc Eur Dial Transplant Assoc 20 (1983): 325-30

116. Cooke HM, Debesse A "Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor-induced renal dysfunction - recommendations for prevention." Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 32 (1994): 65-70

117. Packer M, Lee WH, Medina N, et al "Functional renal insufficiency during long-term therapy with captopril and enalapril in severe chronic heart failure." Ann Intern Med 106 (1987): 346-54

118. Hoorntje SJ, Kallenberg CG, Weening JJ, et al "Immune-complex glomerulopathy in patients treated with captopril." Lancet 1 (1980): 1212-5

119. Hoorntje SJ, Donker AJ, Prins EJ, Weening JJ "Membranous glomerulopathy in a patient on captopril." Acta Med Scand 208 (1980): 325-9

120. Fotino S, Sporn P "Nonoliguric acute renal failure after captopril therapy." Arch Intern Med 143 (1983): 1252-3

121. Rosendorff C, Milne FJ, Levy H, et al "Nephrotic syndrome during captopril therapy." S Afr Med J 58 (1980): 172-3

122. Case DB, Atlas SA, Mouradian JA, et al "Proteinuria during long-term captopril therapy." JAMA 244 (1980): 346-9

123. Steinman TI, Silva P "Acute renal failure, skin rash, and eosinophilia associated with captopril therapy." Am J Med 75 (1983): 154-6

124. Mujais SK, Fouad FM, Textor SC, et al "Transient renal dysfunction during initial inhibition of converting enzyme in congestive heart failure." Br Heart J 52 (1984): 63-71

125. Motwani JG, Fenwick MK, Morton JJ, Struthers AD "Determinants of the initial effects of captopril on blood pressure, glomerular filtration rate, and natriuresis in mild-to-moderate chronic congestive heart failure secondary to coronary artery disease." Am J Cardiol 73 (1994): 1191-6

126. Warren SE, O'Connor DT "Hyperkalemia resulting from captopril administration." JAMA 244 (1980): 2551-2

127. Onoyama K, Hirakata H, Iseki K, et al "Blood concentration and urinary excretion of captopril (SQ 14225) in patients with chronic renal failure." Hypertension 3 (1981): 456-9

128. Al Mahdy H, Boswell GV "Captopril-induced oesophagitis." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 34 (1988): 95

129. Gislon Da Silva RM "Captopril-induced bilateral parotid and submandibular sialadenitis." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 60 (2004): 449-53

130. Nicholls MG, Maslowski AH, Ikram H, Espiner EA "Ulceration of the tongue: a complication of captopril therapy." Ann Intern Med 94 (1981): 659

131. Viraben R, Adoue D, Dupre A, Touron P "Erosions and ulcers of the mouth ." Arch Dermatol 118 (1982): 959

132. Brown RS, Krakow AM, Douglas T, Choksi SK "''Scalded mouth syndrome'' caused by angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors: Two case reports." Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 83 (1997): 665-7

133. Jeandidier N, Klewansky M, Pinget M "Captopril-induced acute pancreatitis." Diabetes Care 18 (1995): 410-1

134. Giuntoli F, Gabbani S, Natali A, et al "Captopril treatment in elderly hypertensive patients: efficacy and tolerability." J Hypertens Suppl 7 (1989): s57-8

135. Nakamura Y, Yoshimoto K, Saima S "Gynaecomastia induced by angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor." Br Med J 300 (1990): 541

136. Ferriere M, Lachkar H, Richard JL, Bringer J, Orsetti A, Mirouze J "Captopril and insulin sensitivity." Ann Intern Med 102 (1985): 134-5

137. Nishide T, Shirai K, Shinomiya M, et al "Serum lipid levels in hypertensive patients during captopril treatment." Clin Ther 11 (1989): 820-7

138. Nicholls MG, Espiner EA, Ikram H, Maslowski AH "Hyponatraemia in congestive heart failure during treatment with captopril." Br Med J 281 (1980): 909

139. Al-Mufti HI, Arieff AI "Captopril-induced hyponatremia with irreversible neurologic damage." Am J Med 79 (1985): 769-71

140. Herings RMC, Deboer A, Stricker BHC, Leufkens HGM, Porsius A "Hypoglycaemia associated with use of inhibitors of angiotensin converting enzyme." Lancet 345 (1995): 1195-8

141. Houston MC "Adverse effects of antihypertensive drug therapy on glucose intolerance." Cardiol Clin 4 (1986): 117-35

142. Atkinson AB, Brown JJ, Leckie B, Fraser R, Lever AF, Robertson JI "Captopril in a hyponatraemic hypertensive: need for caution in initiating therapy." Lancet 1 (1979): 557-8

143. Sasaki J, Arakawa K "Effect of captopril on high-density lipoprotein subfractions in patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension." Clin Ther 11 (1989): 129-34

144. Pratt MC, Lewisbarned NJ, Walker RJ "A comparison between enalapril and captopril on insulin sensitivity in normotensive healthy volunteers." Aust N Z J Med 23 (1993): 652-5

145. Huang HS, Reynertson RH, Boshell BR "Severe hyponatremia associated with captopril therapy." Ala J Med Sci 21 (1984): 142-4

146. Arauz-Pacheco C, Ramirez LC, Rios JM, Raskin P "Hypoglycemia induced by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes receiving sulfonylurea therapy." Am J Med 89 (1990): 811-3

147. Bertin P, Kamdem J, Bonnet C, Arnaud M, Treves R "Captopril-induced lupus." Clin Exp Rheumatol 11 (1993): 695

148. Aberg H, Morlin C, Frithz G "Captopril-associated lymphadenopathy." Br Med J 283 (1981): 1297-8

149. Sieber C, Grimm E, Follath F "Captopril and systemic lupus erythematosus syndrome." Br Med J 301 (1990): 669

150. Ratliff NB 3rd "Captopril induced lupus." J Rheumatol 29 (2002): 1807-8

151. Kallenberg CG, Hoorntje SJ, Smit AJ, et al "Antinuclear and antinative DNA antibodies during captopril treatment." Acta Med Scand 211 (1982): 297-300

152. Gajula RP, Berlin RM "Captopril-induced mania." Am J Psychiatry 150 (1993): 1429-30

153. Patten SB, Brager N, Sanders S "Manic symptoms associated with the use of captopril ." Can J Psychiatry 36 (1991): 314-5

Disclaimer: Every effort has been made to ensure that the information provided is accurate, up-to-date and complete, but no guarantee is made to that effect. In addition, the drug information contained herein may be time sensitive and should not be utilized as a reference resource beyond the date hereof. This material does not endorse drugs, diagnose patients, or recommend therapy. This information is a reference resource designed as supplement to, and not a substitute for, the expertise, skill , knowledge, and judgement of healthcare practitioners in patient care. The absence of a warning for a given drug or combination thereof in no way should be construed to indicate safety, effectiveness, or appropriateness for any given patient. does not assume any responsibility for any aspect of healthcare administered with the aid of materials provided. The information contained herein is not intended to cover all possible uses, directions, precautions, warnings, drug interactions, allergic reactions, or adverse effects. If you have questions about the substances you are taking, check with your doctor, nurse, or pharmacist.