(pye loe KAR peen)
- Pilocarpine HCl
- Pilocarpine Hydrochloride
Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for generics); consult specific product labeling.
Tablet, Oral, as hydrochloride:
Salagen: 5 mg
Salagen: 7.5 mg [contains fd&c blue #2 aluminum lake]
Generic: 5 mg, 7.5 mg
Brand Names: U.S.
- Cholinergic Agonist
Onset of Action
20 minutes; Maximum effect: 1 hour
Duration of Action
3 to 5 hours
0.76 to 1.35 hours; Mild to moderate hepatic impairment: 2.1 hours
Special Populations: Hepatic Function Impairment
In patients with mild to moderate hepatic function impairment, pilocarpine Cl is decreased, resulting in an increase in the pilocarpine Cmax and half-life.
Special Populations: Gender
Elderly women had Cmax and AUC approximately twice that of elderly and younger men.
Use: Labeled Indications
Symptomatic treatment of xerostomia caused by salivary gland hypofunction resulting from radiotherapy for cancer of the head and neck or Sjögren's syndrome
Hypersensitivity to pilocarpine or any component of the formulation; uncontrolled asthma; angle-closure glaucoma, severe hepatic impairment
Following head and neck cancer: 5 mg 3 times/day, titration up to 10 mg 3 times/day may be considered for patients who have not responded adequately; do not exceed 2 tablets/dose
Sjögren's syndrome: 5 mg 4 times/day
Refer to adult dosing.
Dosing: Renal Impairment
No dosage adjustment necessary.
Dosing: Hepatic Impairment
Mild impairment (Child-Pugh score 5-6): No dosage adjustment necessary.
Moderate impairment (Child-Pugh score 7-9): 5 mg twice daily regardless of indication; adjust dose based on response and tolerability
Severe impairment (Child-Pugh score >10): Not recommended.
Avoid administering with high-fat meal.
Avoid taking with a high-fat meal.
Store at controlled room temperature of 15°C to 30°C (59°F to 86°F).
Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Cholinergic Agonists. Monitor therapy
Beta-Blockers: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Cholinergic Agonists. Of particular concern are the potential for cardiac conduction abnormalities and bronchoconstriction. Management: Administer these agents in combination with caution, and monitor for conduction disturbances. Avoid methacholine with any beta blocker due to the potential for additive bronchoconstriction. Monitor therapy
Cimetropium: Cholinergic Agonists may diminish the anticholinergic effect of Cimetropium. Monitor therapy
Cardiovascular: Flushing (8% to 13%)
Central nervous system: Chills (3% to 15%), dizziness (5% to 12%), headache (11%)
Gastrointestinal: Nausea (6% to 15%)
Genitourinary: Urinary frequency (9% to 12%)
Neuromuscular & skeletal: Weakness (2% to 12%)
Respiratory: Rhinitis (5% to 14%)
Miscellaneous: Diaphoresis (29% to 68%)
1% to 10%:
Cardiovascular: Edema (<1% to 5%), facial edema, hypertension (3%), palpitation, tachycardia
Central nervous system: Pain (4%), fever, somnolence
Dermatologic: Pruritus, rash
Gastrointestinal: Diarrhea (4% to 7%), dyspepsia (7%), vomiting (3% to 4%), constipation, flatulence, glossitis, salivation increased, stomatitis, taste perversion
Genitourinary: Vaginitis, urinary incontinence
Neuromuscular & skeletal: Myalgias, tremor
Ocular: Lacrimation (6%), amblyopia (4%), abnormal vision, blurred vision, conjunctivitis
Respiratory: Cough increased, dysphagia, epistaxis, sinusitis
Miscellaneous: Allergic reaction, voice alteration
<1% (Limited to important or life-threatening): Abnormal dreams, alopecia, angina pectoris, anorexia, anxiety, arrhythmia, body odor, bone disorder, cholelithiasis, colitis, confusion, dry eyes, dry mouth, ECG abnormality, myasthenia, photosensitivity reaction, nervousness, pancreatitis, paresthesia, salivary gland enlargement, sputum increased, taste loss, tongue disorder, urinary impairment, urinary urgency, yawning
• Cardiovascular disease: Use with caution in patients with cardiovascular disease; may have difficulty compensating for transient changes in hemodynamics or rhythm induced by pilocarpine.
• Cholelithiasis: Use caution with cholelithiasis or biliary tract disease.
• Hepatic impairment: Adjust dose with moderate hepatic impairment; contraindicated in severe impairment.
• Nephrolithiasis: Use caution in patients with a history of nephrolithiasis.
• Respiratory disorders: Use caution with controlled asthma, chronic bronchitis, or COPD; may increase airway resistance, bronchial smooth muscle tone, and bronchial secretions.
Intraocular pressure, funduscopic exam, visual field testing
Pregnancy Risk Factor
Adverse events were observed in some animal reproduction studies.
• Discuss specific use of drug and side effects with patient as it relates to treatment. (HCAHPS: During this hospital stay, were you given any medicine that you had not taken before? Before giving you any new medicine, how often did hospital staff tell you what the medicine was for? How often did hospital staff describe possible side effects in a way you could understand?)
• Patient may experience flushing, sweating a lot, nausea, or polyuria. Have patient report immediately to prescriber severe dizziness, passing out, shortness of breath, excessive weight gain, swelling of arms or legs, tachycardia, arrhythmia, severe nausea, severe vomiting, vision changes, eye pain, severe eye irritation, severe headache, or severe loss of strength and energy (HCAHPS).
• Educate patient about signs of a significant reaction (eg, wheezing; chest tightness; fever; itching; bad cough; blue skin color; seizures; or swelling of face, lips, tongue, or throat). Note: This is not a comprehensive list of all side effects. Patient should consult prescriber for additional questions.
Intended Use and Disclaimer: Should not be printed and given to patients. This information is intended to serve as a concise initial reference for health care professionals to use when discussing medications with a patient. You must ultimately rely on your own discretion, experience, and judgment in diagnosing, treating, and advising patients.
More about pilocarpine
- Other brands: Salagen