Mometasone and Formoterol
(moe MET a sone & for MOH te rol)
- Eformoterol and Mometasone
- Formoterol and Mometasone
- Formoterol and Mometasone Furoate
- Formoterol Fumarate Dihydrate and Mometasone
- Mometasone and Eformoterol
Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for generics); consult specific product labeling.
Aerosol, for oral inhalation:
Dulera: Mometasone furoate 100 mcg and formoterol fumarate dihydrate 5 mcg per inhalation (8.8 g, 13 g)
Dulera: Mometasone furoate 200 mcg and formoterol fumarate dihydrate 5 mcg per inhalation (8.8 g, 13 g)
Brand Names: U.S.
- Beta2 Agonist, Long-Acting
- Beta2-Adrenergic Agonist, Long-Acting
- Corticosteroid, Inhalant (Oral)
Formoterol relaxes bronchial smooth muscle by selective action on beta2 receptors with little effect on heart rate. Formoterol has a long-acting effect.
Mometasone is a corticosteroid which controls the rate of protein synthesis, depresses the migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes/fibroblasts, and reverses capillary permeability and lysosomal stabilization at the cellular level to prevent or control inflammation.
Use: Labeled Indications
Asthma: Treatment of asthma in patients 12 years and older.
Limitations of use: Mometasone/formoterol is not indicated for the relief of acute bronchospasm.
Hypersensitivity to mometasone, formoterol, or any component of the formulation; status asthmaticus or other acute episodes of asthma.
Canadian labeling: Additional contraindications (not in US labeling): Cardiac tachyarrhythmias; untreated systemic fungal, bacterial, viral or parasitic infections, active tuberculous infection of the respiratory tract, or ocular herpes simplex.
Documentation of allergenic cross-reactivity for corticosteroids and/or sympathomimetics are limited. However, because of similarities in chemical structure and/or pharmacologic actions, the possibility of cross-sensitivity cannot be ruled out with certainty.
Asthma: Oral inhalation:
Previous therapy included inhaled medium-dose corticosteroids: Mometasone 100 mcg/formoterol 5 mcg: Two inhalations twice daily. Consider the higher dose combination for patients not adequately controlled on the lower combination following 2 weeks of therapy. Maximum dose: Mometasone 400 mcg/formoterol 20 mcg (4 inhalations)/day.
Previous therapy included inhaled high-dose corticosteroids: Mometasone 200 mcg/formoterol 5 mcg: Two inhalations twice daily. Maximum dose: Mometasone 800 mcg/formoterol 20 mcg (4 inhalations)/day.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (stable) (off-label use): Oral inhalation: Mometasone 200 mcg/formoterol 10 mcg to mometasone 400 mcg/formoterol 10 mcg twice daily (Doherty 2012; GOLD 2014).
Refer to adult dosing.
Asthma: Oral inhalation: Children ≥12 years and Adolescents: Refer to adult dosing.
Dosing: Renal Impairment
There are no dosage adjustments provided in the manufacturer’s labeling (has not been studied).
Dosing: Hepatic Impairment
There are no dosage adjustments provided in the manufacturer’s labeling (has not been studied) However, mometasone exposure is increased with hepatic impairment.
Prior to first use, inhaler must be primed by releasing 4 test sprays into the air; shake well before each spray. Inhaler must be reprimed if not used for >5 days. Shake well before each use. Discard inhaler after the labeled number of inhalations have been used. Use canister only with provided actuator; do not use with canisters or actuators from other products. The canister should not be removed from the actuator because the correct amount of medication may not be discharged; the dose counter may not function properly; reinsertion may cause the dose counter to count down by 1 and discharge a puff.
Delivery of dose: Instruct patient to place mouthpiece gently between teeth, closing lips around inhaler. Instruct patient to inhale deeply and hold breath for up to 10 seconds or as long as you comfortably can. Remove mouthpiece from mouth prior to exhalation. Patient should not breathe out through the mouthpiece. Wait ≥30 seconds prior to the second inhalation dose. After use of the inhaler, patient should rinse mouth/oropharynx with water and spit out rinse solution. Do not wash inhaler with water; clean mouthpiece using a dry wipe every 7 days.
Store at 20°C to 25°C (68°F to 77°F); excursions are permitted between 15°C and 30°C (59°F and 86°F); temperatures above 49°C (120°F) may cause bursting. Contents under pressure; do not puncture, incinerate, or store near heat or open flame. Discard inhaler after the labeled number of inhalations have been used (the dose counter will read “0”). The 120-actuation inhaler may be stored in any position; store the 60-actuation inhaler with the mouthpiece down or in a horizontal position after priming.
Aldesleukin: Corticosteroids may diminish the antineoplastic effect of Aldesleukin. Avoid combination
Amphotericin B: Corticosteroids (Orally Inhaled) may enhance the hypokalemic effect of Amphotericin B. Monitor therapy
AtoMOXetine: May enhance the tachycardic effect of Beta2-Agonists. Monitor therapy
AtoMOXetine: May enhance the hypertensive effect of Sympathomimetics. AtoMOXetine may enhance the tachycardic effect of Sympathomimetics. Monitor therapy
Atosiban: Beta2-Agonists may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Atosiban. Specifically, there may be an increased risk for pulmonary edema and/or dyspnea. Monitor therapy
Beta-Blockers (Beta1 Selective): May diminish the bronchodilatory effect of Beta2-Agonists. Of particular concern with nonselective beta-blockers or higher doses of the beta1 selective beta-blockers. Monitor therapy
Beta-Blockers (Nonselective): May diminish the bronchodilatory effect of Beta2-Agonists. Avoid combination
Betahistine: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Beta2-Agonists. Monitor therapy
Caffeine and Caffeine Containing Products: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Formoterol. Caffeine and Caffeine Containing Products may enhance the hypokalemic effect of Formoterol. Monitor therapy
Cannabinoid-Containing Products: May enhance the tachycardic effect of Sympathomimetics. Exceptions: Cannabidiol. Monitor therapy
Ceritinib: Corticosteroids may enhance the hyperglycemic effect of Ceritinib. Monitor therapy
Cocaine: May enhance the hypertensive effect of Sympathomimetics. Management: Consider alternatives to use of this combination when possible. Monitor closely for substantially increased blood pressure or heart rate and for any evidence of myocardial ischemia with concurrent use. Consider therapy modification
Corticorelin: Corticosteroids may diminish the therapeutic effect of Corticorelin. Specifically, the plasma ACTH response to corticorelin may be blunted by recent or current corticosteroid therapy. Monitor therapy
CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong): May increase the serum concentration of Corticosteroids (Orally Inhaled). Management: Orally inhaled fluticasone propionate with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor is not recommended. Monitor therapy
Deferasirox: Corticosteroids may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Deferasirox. Specifically, the risk for GI ulceration/irritation or GI bleeding may be increased. Monitor therapy
Doxofylline: Sympathomimetics may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Doxofylline. Monitor therapy
Highest Risk QTc-Prolonging Agents: QTc-Prolonging Agents (Indeterminate Risk and Risk Modifying) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Highest Risk QTc-Prolonging Agents. Management: Avoid such combinations when possible. Use should be accompanied by close monitoring for evidence of QT prolongation or other alterations of cardiac rhythm. Consider therapy modification
Hyaluronidase: Corticosteroids may diminish the therapeutic effect of Hyaluronidase. Management: Patients receiving corticosteroids (particularly at larger doses) may not experience the desired clinical response to standard doses of hyaluronidase. Larger doses of hyaluronidase may be required. Consider therapy modification
Inhalational Anesthetics: May enhance the arrhythmogenic effect of Formoterol. Monitor therapy
Iobenguane I 123: Sympathomimetics may diminish the therapeutic effect of Iobenguane I 123. Avoid combination
Linezolid: May enhance the hypertensive effect of Sympathomimetics. Management: Reduce initial doses of sympathomimetic agents, and closely monitor for enhanced pressor response, in patients receiving linezolid. Specific dose adjustment recommendations are not presently available. Consider therapy modification
Long-Acting Beta2-Agonists: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Long-Acting Beta2-Agonists. Avoid combination
Loop Diuretics: Beta2-Agonists may enhance the hypokalemic effect of Loop Diuretics. Monitor therapy
Loop Diuretics: Corticosteroids (Orally Inhaled) may enhance the hypokalemic effect of Loop Diuretics. Monitor therapy
Loxapine: Agents to Treat Airway Disease may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Loxapine. More specifically, the use of Agents to Treat Airway Disease is likely a marker of patients who are likely at a greater risk for experiencing significant bronchospasm from use of inhaled loxapine. Management: This is specific to the Adasuve brand of loxapine, which is an inhaled formulation. This does not apply to non-inhaled formulations of loxapine. Avoid combination
MAO Inhibitors: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Beta2-Agonists. Monitor therapy
MiFEPRIStone: May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QTc-Prolonging Agents (Indeterminate Risk and Risk Modifying). Management: Though the drugs listed here have uncertain QT-prolonging effects, they all have some possible association with QT prolongation and should generally be avoided when possible. Consider therapy modification
Moderate Risk QTc-Prolonging Agents: QTc-Prolonging Agents (Indeterminate Risk and Risk Modifying) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Moderate Risk QTc-Prolonging Agents. Monitor therapy
Sympathomimetics: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Sympathomimetics. Monitor therapy
Tedizolid: May enhance the hypertensive effect of Sympathomimetics. Tedizolid may enhance the tachycardic effect of Sympathomimetics. Monitor therapy
Theophylline Derivatives: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Formoterol. Theophylline Derivatives may enhance the hypokalemic effect of Formoterol. Monitor therapy
Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics: Beta2-Agonists may enhance the hypokalemic effect of Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics. Monitor therapy
Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics: Corticosteroids (Orally Inhaled) may enhance the hypokalemic effect of Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics. Monitor therapy
Tricyclic Antidepressants: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Beta2-Agonists. Monitor therapy
Also see individual agents.
1% to 10%:
Central nervous system: Headache (≤5%)
Respiratory: Nasopharyngitis (5%), voice disorder (4% to 5%), sinusitis (2% to 3%)
<1% (Limited to important or life-threatening): Anaphylactoid reaction, anaphylaxis, angina pectoris, angioedema, atrial fibrillation, cardiac arrhythmia, exacerbation of asthma, hyperglycemia, hypertension, hypokalemia, hypotension (including severe), increased blood pressure, hypersensitivity reaction, oral candidiasis, prolonged Q-T interval on ECG, tachyarrhythmia, ventricular premature contractions
Concerns related to adverse effects:
• Adrenal suppression: May cause hypercorticism or suppression of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, particularly in younger children or in patients receiving high doses for prolonged periods. HPA axis suppression may lead to adrenal crisis. Withdrawal and discontinuation of a corticosteroid should be done slowly and carefully. Particular care is required when patients are transferred from systemic corticosteroids to inhaled products due to possible adrenal insufficiency or withdrawal from steroids, including an increase in allergic symptoms. Adult patients receiving ≥20 mg per day of prednisone (or equivalent) may be most susceptible. Fatalities have occurred due to adrenal insufficiency in asthmatic patients during and after transfer from systemic corticosteroids to aerosol steroids; aerosol steroids do not provide the systemic steroid needed to treat patients having trauma, surgery, or infections. Do not use this product to transfer patients from oral corticosteroid therapy.
• Asthma-related deaths: [US Boxed Warning]: Long-acting beta2-agonists (LABAs), such as formoterol, increase the risk of asthma-related deaths; mometasone/formoterol should only be used in patients not adequately controlled on a long-term asthma control medication (ie, inhaled corticosteroid) or whose disease severity requires initiation of two maintenance therapies. In a large, randomized, placebo-controlled US clinical trial (SMART 2006), salmeterol was associated with an increase in asthma-related deaths (when added to usual asthma therapy); risk is considered a class effect among all LABAs. Data are not available to determine if the addition of an inhaled corticosteroid lessens this increased risk of death associated with LABA use; however, current guidelines recommend the use of an inhaled corticosteroid before adding a LABA (GINA 2015; NIH/NHLBI 2007). Assess patients at regular intervals once asthma control is maintained on combination therapy to determine if step-down therapy is appropriate (without loss of asthma control), and the patient can be maintained on an inhaled corticosteroid only. LABAs are not appropriate in patients whose asthma is adequately controlled on low- or medium-dose inhaled corticosteroids. In a more recent multicenter, randomized, double-blinded trial, the use of salmeterol and an inhaled corticosteroid (ie, fluticasone) combined in a single inhaler in a large number of children, adolescent, and adult patients with persistent asthma (non-life threatening and stable) did not increase the risk of serious asthma-related events compared with fluticasone alone; in addition, patients receiving fluticasone/salmeterol had fewer severe asthma exacerbations compared with patients receiving fluticasone alone (Peters 2016; Stempel 2016a; Stempel 2016b).
• Bronchospasm: Rarely, paradoxical bronchospasm may occur with use of inhaled bronchodilating agents; this should be distinguished from inadequate response.
• Hypersensitivity reactions: Immediate hypersensitivity reactions (allergic dermatitis, angioedema, bronchospasm, flushing, rash, urticaria) have been reported.
• Immunosuppression: Prolonged use of corticosteroids may increase the incidence of secondary infection, mask acute infection (including fungal infections), prolong or exacerbate viral infections, or limit response to vaccines. Avoid use if possible in patients with ocular herpes; active or quiescent tuberculosis infections of the respiratory tract; or untreated viral, fungal, or bacterial or parasitic systemic infections. Exposure to chickenpox or measles should be avoided; if the patient is exposed to chickenpox, prophylaxis with varicella zoster immune globulin or pooled intravenous immunoglobulin, may be indicated; if chickenpox develops, treatment with antiviral agents may be considered. If exposure to measles, prophylaxis with pooled intramuscular immunoglobulin may be indicated.
• Kaposi sarcoma: Prolonged treatment with corticosteroids has been associated with the development of Kaposi sarcoma (case reports); if noted, discontinuation of therapy should be considered (Goedert 2002).
• Oral candidiasis: Local oropharyngeal Candida infections have been reported; if this occurs, treat appropriately while continuing mometasone/formoterol therapy. Patients should be instructed to rinse mouth after each use.
• Psychiatric disturbances: Corticosteroid use may cause psychiatric disturbances, including depression, euphoria, insomnia, mood swings, and personality changes. Preexisting psychiatric conditions may be exacerbated by corticosteroid use.
• Serious effects/fatalities: Do not exceed recommended dose; serious adverse events, including fatalities, have been associated with excessive use of inhaled sympathomimetics.
• Vasculitis: Rare cases of vasculitis (Churg-Strauss syndrome) or other systemic eosinophilic conditions can occur; often associated with decrease and/or withdrawal of oral corticosteroid therapy following initiation of inhaled corticosteroid.
• Asthma: Supplemental steroids (oral or parenteral) may be needed during stress or severe asthma attacks. Not to be used in status asthmaticus or for the relief of acute bronchospasm.
• Bone density: Use with caution in patients with major risk factors for decreased bone mineral count such as prolonged immobilization, family history of osteoporosis, postmenopausal status, tobacco use, advanced age, poor nutrition, or chronic use of drugs that can reduce bone mass (eg, anticonvulsants or oral corticosteroids); high doses and/or long-term use of inhaled corticosteroids have been associated with decreases in bone mineral density.
• Cardiovascular disease: Use with caution in patients with cardiovascular disease (arrhythmia, coronary insufficiency, or hypertension); beta agonists may cause elevation in blood pressure, heart rate and result in CNS stimulation/excitation. Beta2-agonists may also increase risk of arrhythmias and electrocardiogram (ECG) changes, such as flattening of the T wave, prolongation of the QTc interval, and ST segment depression. Use with caution following acute MI; corticosteroids have been associated with myocardial rupture.
• Diabetes: Use with caution in patients with diabetes mellitus; beta2-agonists may increase serum glucose and aggravate ketoacidosis; corticosteroids may alter glucose production/regulation leading to hyperglycemia.
• Gastrointestinal disease: Use corticosteroids with caution in patients with GI diseases (diverticulitis, peptic ulcer, ulcerative colitis) due to perforation risk.
• Hepatic impairment: Monitor patients with hepatic impairment; may lead to accumulation of mometasone.
• Hypokalemia: Use with caution in patients with hypokalemia; beta2-agonists may decrease serum potassium (transient), possibly through intracellular shunting.
• Myasthenia gravis: Use with caution in patients with myasthenia gravis; exacerbation of symptoms has occurred, especially during initial treatment with corticosteroids.
• Ocular disease: Use with caution in patients with cataracts and/or glaucoma; increased intraocular pressure, open-angle glaucoma, and cataracts have occurred with prolonged use. Consider routine eye exams in chronic users.
• Pheochromocytoma: Use with caution in patients with pheochromocytoma; beta-agonists may stimulate the sympathetic nervous system.
• Seizure disorders: Use with caution in patients with seizure disorders; beta agonists may result in CNS stimulation/excitation.
• Thyroid disease: Changes in thyroid status may necessitate dosage adjustments; metabolic clearance of corticosteroids increases in hyperthyroid patients and decreases in hypothyroid ones.
Concurrent drug therapy issues:
• Drug-drug interactions: Potentially significant interactions may exist, requiring dose or frequency adjustment, additional monitoring, and/or selection of alternative therapy. Consult drug interactions database for more detailed information.
• Pediatric: [US Boxed Warning]: LABAs may increase the risk of asthma-related hospitalization in pediatric and adolescent patients. Orally-inhaled corticosteroids may cause a reduction in growth velocity in pediatric patients (~1 centimeter per year [range 0.3-1.8 cm per year] and related to dose and duration of exposure). To minimize the systemic effects of orally-inhaled corticosteroids, each patient should be titrated to the lowest effective dose. Growth should be routinely monitored in pediatric patients.
• Appropriate use: Do not use for acute bronchospasm. Short-acting beta2-agonist (eg, albuterol) should be used for acute symptoms and symptoms occurring between treatments. Do not initiate in patients with significantly worsening or acutely deteriorating asthma.
• Discontinuation of systemic corticosteroid therapy: Withdraw systemic corticosteroid therapy with gradual tapering of dose. Monitor lung function, beta-agonist use, asthma symptoms, and for signs and symptoms of adrenal insufficiency (fatigue, lassitude, weakness, nausea and vomiting, hypotension) during withdrawal.
FEV1, peak flow meter, and/or other pulmonary function tests; monitor growth in pediatric patients, symptom relief, monitor for increased use if short-acting beta2-adrenergic agonists (may be a sign of asthma deterioration); HPA axis suppression; bone mineral density; blood pressure, heart rate; CNS stimulation; serum glucose, serum potassium
Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with this combination. See individual agents.
• Discuss specific use of drug and side effects with patient as it relates to treatment. (HCAHPS: During this hospital stay, were you given any medicine that you had not taken before? Before giving you any new medicine, how often did hospital staff tell you what the medicine was for? How often did hospital staff describe possible side effects in a way you could understand?)
• Patient may experience pharyngitis, rhinitis, loss of strength and energy, joint pain, or muscle pain. Have patient report immediately to prescriber signs of low blood sugar (dizziness, loss of strength and energy, headache, fatigue, feeling weak, shaking, a fast heartbeat, confusion, hunger, or sweating), signs of infection, signs of high blood sugar (confusion, feeling sleepy, more thirst, hunger, passing urine more often, flushing, fast breathing, or breath that smells like fruit), loss of strength and energy, illogical thinking, signs of low potassium (muscle pain or weakness, muscle cramps, or an abnormal heartbeat), angina, tachycardia, severe anxiety, severe dizziness, passing out, severe headache, severe nausea, vomiting, red or white patches in mouth or throat, difficulty breathing, wheezing, or coughing (HCAHPS).
• Educate patient about signs of a significant reaction (eg, wheezing; chest tightness; fever; itching; bad cough; blue skin color; seizures; or swelling of face, lips, tongue, or throat). Note: This is not a comprehensive list of all side effects. Patient should consult prescriber for additional questions.
Intended Use and Disclaimer: Should not be printed and given to patients. This information is intended to serve as a concise initial reference for healthcare professionals to use when discussing medications with a patient. You must ultimately rely on your own discretion, experience and judgment in diagnosing, treating and advising patients.
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Other brands: Dulera