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Atazanavir and Cobicistat

Medically reviewed by Drugs.com. Last updated on Jun 22, 2020.

Pronunciation

(at a za NA veer & koe BIK i stat)

Index Terms

  • Atazanavir Sulfate/Cobicistat
  • Cobicistat and Atazanavir

Dosage Forms

Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for generics); consult specific product labeling.

Tablet, Oral:

Evotaz: Atazanavir 300 mg and cobicistat 150 mg

Brand Names: U.S.

  • Evotaz

Pharmacologic Category

  • Antiretroviral, Protease Inhibitor (Anti-HIV)
  • Cytochrome P-450 Inhibitor

Pharmacology

Atazanavir binds to the site of HIV-1 protease activity and inhibits cleavage of viral Gag-Pol polyprotein precursors into individual functional proteins required for infectious HIV. This results in the formation of immature, noninfectious viral particles.

Cobicistat is a mechanism-based inhibitor of cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A). Inhibition of CYP3A-mediated metabolism by cobicistat and increases the systemic exposure of CYP3A substrates (eg, atazanavir).

Special Populations: Children

In pediatric patients age 12 to 17 years, when administered together, both atazanavir and cobicistat exposure were higher than in adults; differences were not clinically significant (Tybost prescribing information 2019).

Use: Labeled Indications

HIV-1 infection, treatment: Treatment of HIV-1 infection in adults and pediatric patients weighing ≥35 kg in combination with other antiretroviral agents.

Limitations of use: Use in treatment-experienced patients should be guided by the number of baseline primary protease inhibitor resistance substitutions

Contraindications

Hypersensitivity (previously demonstrated and clinically significant [eg, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, erythema multiforme, or toxic skin eruptions]) to atazanavir, cobicistat, or any component of the formulation; coadministration with drugs that are highly dependent on CYP3A or UGT1A1 for clearance (and for which elevated plasma concentrations of the interacting drugs are associated with serious and/or life-threatening events) or coadministration with drugs that strongly induce CYP3A and may lead to lower exposure and loss of efficacy of atazanavir or cobicistat; coadministered drugs that are contraindicated include (but are not limited to) alfuzosin, carbamazepine, cisapride, colchicine (in patients with renal and/or hepatic impairment), dronedarone, drospirenone/ethinyl estradiol, elbasvir/grazoprevir, ergot derivatives (dihydroergotamine, ergotamine, methylergonovine), glecaprevir/pibrentasvir, indinavir, irinotecan, lomitapide, lovastatin, lurasidone, midazolam (oral), nevirapine, phenobarbital, phenytoin, pimozide, ranolazine, rifampin, sildenafil (when used for pulmonary artery hypertension), simvastatin, St. John's wort, or triazolam.

Canadian labeling: Additional contraindications (not in US labeling): Concurrent use with quinidine, ritonavir or products containing ritonavir, salmeterol

Dosing: Adult

Note: Dosage modifications are not possible with atazanavir/cobicistat combination tablet.

HIV-1 infection, treatment (treatment naive or treatment experienced): Oral: One tablet (atazanavir 300 mg/cobicistat 150 mg) once daily. Note: Administer with other antiretroviral agents. Do not use atazanavir/cobicistat plus abacavir and lamivudine in patients with a pre-antiretroviral therapy HIV RNA ≥100,000 copies/mL (HHS [adult] 2019).

Dosage adjustment for concomitant therapy: Significant drug interactions exist, requiring dose/frequency adjustment or avoidance. Consult drug interactions database for more information.

Dosing: Geriatric

Refer to adult dosing. Use with caution.

Dosing: Pediatric

HIV-1 infection, treatment:

Note: Product is a fixed-dose combination; use not recommended in other weight groups. Gene mutation and antiretroviral (ARV) resistance patterns should be evaluated (refer to https://www.iasusa.org/ for more information) when necessary. Use of atazanavir and cobicistat in treatment-experienced patients should be guided by the number of baseline primary protease inhibitor resistance substitutions. In clinical trials, the youngest patients were 12 years of age.

Children and Adolescents weighing ≥35 kg: Oral: Evotaz (atazanavir 300 mg/cobicistat 150 mg per tablet): One tablet once daily.

Dosage adjustment for concomitant therapy: Significant drug interactions exist, requiring dose/frequency adjustment or avoidance. Consult drug interactions database for more information.

Administration

Administer with food.

Storage

Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions are permitted between 15°C and 30°C (59°F and 86°F).

Drug Interactions

Abacavir: Protease Inhibitors may decrease the serum concentration of Abacavir. Monitor therapy

Abametapir: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Avoid combination

Abemaciclib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Abemaciclib. Management: In patients taking abemaciclib at a dose of 200 mg or 150 mg twice daily, reduce the dose to 100 mg twice daily when combined with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. In patients taking abemaciclib 100 mg twice daily, decrease the dose to 50 mg twice daily. Consider therapy modification

Acalabrutinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Acalabrutinib. Avoid combination

Ado-Trastuzumab Emtansine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Ado-Trastuzumab Emtansine. Specifically, strong CYP3A4 inhibitors may increase concentrations of the cytotoxic DM1 component. Management: Avoid concomitant use of ado-trastuzumab emtansine and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors when possible. Consider alternatives that do not inhibit CYP3A4 or consider administering after CYP3A4 inhibitor discontinuation. Monitor for toxicities if combined. Consider therapy modification

Alfentanil: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Alfentanil. Management: If use of alfentanil and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors is necessary, consider dosage reduction of alfentanil until stable drug effects are achieved. Frequently monitor patients for respiratory depression and sedation when these agents are combined. Consider therapy modification

Alfuzosin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Alfuzosin. Avoid combination

Alitretinoin (Systemic): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Alitretinoin (Systemic). Management: Consider reducing the alitretinoin dose to 10 mg when used together with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Monitor for increased alitretinoin effects/toxicities if combined with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Consider therapy modification

Almotriptan: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Almotriptan. Management: Limit initial almotriptan dose to 6.25 mg and maximum dose to 12.5 mg in any 24-period when used with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Avoid concurrent use in patients with impaired hepatic or renal function. Consider therapy modification

Alosetron: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Alosetron. Monitor therapy

Alpelisib: BCRP/ABCG2 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Alpelisib. Management: Avoid coadministration of BCRP/ABCG2 inhibitors and alpelisib due to the potential for increased alpelisib concentrations and toxicities. If coadministration cannot be avoided, closely monitor for increased alpelisib adverse reactions. Consider therapy modification

ALPRAZolam: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of ALPRAZolam. Management: Consider using an alternative agent that is less likely to interact. If combined, monitor for increased therapeutic/toxic effects of alprazolam if combined with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Consider therapy modification

Amiodarone: Atazanavir may increase the serum concentration of Amiodarone. Monitor therapy

Amiodarone: Cobicistat may increase the serum concentration of Amiodarone. Monitor therapy

AmLODIPine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of AmLODIPine. Monitor therapy

Antacids: May decrease the absorption of Atazanavir. Management: Administer antacids 1 to 2 hours before or 2 hours after atazanavir to minimize the risk of a clinically significant interaction. Consider therapy modification

Antidiabetic Agents: Hyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents. Monitor therapy

Apixaban: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Apixaban. Monitor therapy

Aprepitant: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Aprepitant. Avoid combination

ARIPiprazole: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of ARIPiprazole. Management: Aripiprazole dose reductions are required for indications other than major depressive disorder. Dose reductions vary based on formulation, CYP2D6 genotype, and use of CYP2D6 inhibitors. See full interaction monograph for details. Consider therapy modification

ARIPiprazole Lauroxil: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of ARIPiprazole Lauroxil. Management: Decrease aripiprazole lauroxil dose to next lower strength if used with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors for over 14 days. No dose adjustment needed if using the lowest dose (441 mg). Max dose is 441 mg in CYP2D6 PMs or if also taking strong CYP2D6 inhibitors. Consider therapy modification

Astemizole: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Astemizole. Management: Drugs listed as exceptions to this monograph are discussed in further detail in separate drug interaction monographs. Avoid combination

Asunaprevir: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Asunaprevir. Avoid combination

Asunaprevir: OATP1B1/1B3 (SLCO1B1/1B3) Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Asunaprevir. Avoid combination

AtorvaSTATin: Cobicistat may increase the serum concentration of AtorvaSTATin. Management: Avoid the combined use of atorvastatin with atazanavir/cobicistat. Atorvastatin dose should not exceed 20 mg daily when combined with other cobicistat-containing regimens. Consider therapy modification

Avanafil: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Avanafil. Avoid combination

Avapritinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Avapritinib. Avoid combination

Axitinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Axitinib. Management: Avoid concurrent use of axitinib with any strong CYP3A inhibitor whenever possible. If a strong CYP3A inhibitor must be used with axitinib, a 50% axitinib dose reduction is recommended. Consider therapy modification

Barnidipine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Barnidipine. Avoid combination

Bedaquiline: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Bedaquiline. Management: Limit duration of concurrent use of bedaquiline with CYP3A4 inhibitors to no more than 14 days, unless the benefit of continued use outweighs the possible risks. Monitor for toxic effects of bedaquiline. Exceptions discussed in separate monographs. Consider therapy modification

Belinostat: Atazanavir may increase the serum concentration of Belinostat. Avoid combination

Benperidol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Benperidol. Monitor therapy

Benzhydrocodone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Benzhydrocodone. Specifically, the concentration of hydrocodone may be increased. Monitor therapy

Betamethasone (Ophthalmic): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Betamethasone (Ophthalmic). Monitor therapy

Betamethasone (Systemic): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Betamethasone (Systemic). Monitor therapy

Betrixaban: Cobicistat may increase the serum concentration of Betrixaban. Monitor therapy

Bictegravir: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Bictegravir. Monitor therapy

Blonanserin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Blonanserin. Avoid combination

Bortezomib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Bortezomib. Monitor therapy

Bosentan: May decrease the serum concentration of Atazanavir. Atazanavir may increase the serum concentration of Bosentan. Management: Concurrent use of unboosted atazanavir (without ritonavir or cobicistat) and bosentan is not recommended. Bosentan dose adjustments and increased monitoring are recommended when used together with boosted atazanavir. See interaction monograph for details. Consider therapy modification

Bosentan: Cobicistat may increase the serum concentration of Bosentan. Management: Dose adjustment of bosentan and increased monitoring for bosentan toxicities is necessary when these agents are combined. See full drug interaction monograph for details. Consider therapy modification

Bosutinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Bosutinib. Avoid combination

Brentuximab Vedotin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Brentuximab Vedotin. Specifically, concentrations of the active monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE) component may be increased. Monitor therapy

Brexpiprazole: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Brexpiprazole. Management: Reduce brexpiprazole dose 50% with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors; reduce to 25% of usual if used with both a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor and a CYP2D6 inhibitor in patients not being treated for MDD, or strong CYP3A4 inhibitor used in a CYP2D6 poor metabolizer. Consider therapy modification

Brigatinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Brigatinib. Management: Avoid concurrent use of brigatinib with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors when possible. If combination cannot be avoided, reduce the brigatinib dose by approximately 50%, rounding to the nearest tablet strength (ie, from 180 mg to 90 mg, or from 90 mg to 60 mg). Consider therapy modification

Bromperidol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Bromperidol. Monitor therapy

Budesonide (Nasal): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Budesonide (Nasal). Monitor therapy

Budesonide (Oral Inhalation): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Budesonide (Oral Inhalation). Monitor therapy

Budesonide (Systemic): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Budesonide (Systemic). Management: Avoid the concomitant use of CYP3A4 inhibitors and oral budesonide. If patients receive both budesonide and a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, they should be closely monitored for signs and symptoms of corticosteroid excess. Consider therapy modification

Budesonide (Topical): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Budesonide (Topical). Avoid combination

Buprenorphine: May decrease the serum concentration of Atazanavir. Atazanavir may increase the serum concentration of Buprenorphine. Management: Avoid this combination in patients un-boosted atazanavir due to possible decreased atazanavir concentrations. This combination is not contraindicated in patients also receiving ritonavir, but monitoring for buprenorphine toxicity is recommended. Avoid combination

BusPIRone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of BusPIRone. Management: Limit the buspirone dose to 2.5 mg daily and monitor patients for increased buspirone effects/toxicities if combined with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Consider therapy modification

Cabazitaxel: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Cabazitaxel. Management: Concurrent use of cabazitaxel with strong inhibitors of CYP3A4 should be avoided when possible. If such a combination must be used, consider a 25% reduction in the cabazitaxel dose. Consider therapy modification

Cabozantinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Cabozantinib. Management: Avoid use of a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor with cabozantinib if possible. If combined, decrease cabozantinib capsules (Cometriq) by 40 mg from previous dose or decrease cabozantinib tablets (Cabometyx) by 20 mg from previous dose. Consider therapy modification

Calcifediol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Calcifediol. Monitor therapy

Calcium Channel Blockers (Nondihydropyridine): Protease Inhibitors may decrease the metabolism of Calcium Channel Blockers (Nondihydropyridine). Increased serum concentrations of the calcium channel blocker may increase risk of AV nodal blockade. Management: Avoid concurrent use when possible. If used, monitor for CCB toxicity. The manufacturer of atazanavir recommends a 50% dose reduction for diltiazem be considered. Saquinavir, tipranavir, and darunavir/cobicistat use with bepridil is contraindicated. Consider therapy modification

Cannabidiol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Cannabidiol. Monitor therapy

Cannabis: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Cannabis. More specifically, tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol serum concentrations may be increased. Monitor therapy

Capmatinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Capmatinib. Monitor therapy

CarBAMazepine: May decrease the serum concentration of Cobicistat. Avoid combination

Cariprazine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Cariprazine. Management: Decrease cariprazine dose 50% (4.5 mg to 1.5 mg or 3 mg; 1.5 mg to 1.5 mg every other day) if starting a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. If on a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, start cariprazine at 1.5 mg day 1, 0 mg day 2, then 1.5 mg daily. May increase to 3 mg daily Consider therapy modification

Cat's Claw: May increase the serum concentration of Atazanavir. Monitor therapy

Ceritinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ceritinib. Management: If such combinations cannot be avoided, the ceritinib dose should be reduced by approximately one-third (to the nearest 150 mg). Resume the prior ceritinib dose after cessation of the strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Exceptions discussed in separate monographs. Consider therapy modification

Ciclesonide (Oral Inhalation): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Ciclesonide (Oral Inhalation). Monitor therapy

Cilostazol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Cilostazol. Management: Consider reducing the cilostazol dose to 50 mg twice daily in adult patients who are also receiving strong inhibitors of CYP3A4. Consider therapy modification

Cinacalcet: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Cinacalcet. Monitor therapy

Cisapride: Cobicistat may increase the serum concentration of Cisapride. Avoid combination

Cladribine: BCRP/ABCG2 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Cladribine. Management: Avoid concomitant use of BCRP inhibitors during the 4 to 5 day oral cladribine treatment cycles whenever possible. If combined, consider dose reduction of the BCRP inhibitor and separation in the timing of administration. Consider therapy modification

Clarithromycin: May increase the serum concentration of Cobicistat. Cobicistat may increase the serum concentration of Clarithromycin. Management: Consider alternative antibiotics. Reduce clarithromycin dose by 50% in patients receiving elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir with estimated creatinine clearance 50 to 60 mL/min. Closely monitor for clarithromycin toxicity. Consider therapy modification

Clarithromycin: Atazanavir may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Clarithromycin. Atazanavir may increase the serum concentration of Clarithromycin. Management: Decrease clarithromycin dose 50% and do not exceed 1,000 mg per day. Decrease clarithromycin dose 75% in patients with CrCL less than 30 mL/min. Use alternative antimicrobial therapy if treating infections other than Mycobacterium avium complex. Consider therapy modification

Clofazimine: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Monitor therapy

Clopidogrel: Cobicistat may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Clopidogrel. Monitor therapy

CloZAPine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of CloZAPine. Management: Drugs listed as exceptions to this monograph are discussed in further detail in separate drug interaction monographs. Monitor therapy

Cobimetinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Cobimetinib. Avoid combination

Codeine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Codeine. Monitor therapy

Colchicine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Colchicine. Management: Colchicine is contraindicated in patients with impaired renal or hepatic function who are also receiving a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. In those with normal renal and hepatic function, reduce colchicine dose as directed. See interaction monograph for details. Consider therapy modification

Conivaptan: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Conivaptan. Avoid combination

Conivaptan: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Avoid combination

Copanlisib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Copanlisib. Management: If concomitant use of copanlisib and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors cannot be avoided, reduce the copanlisib dose to 45 mg. Monitor patients for increased copanlisib effects/toxicities. Consider therapy modification

Corticosteroids (Systemic): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Corticosteroids (Systemic). Exceptions: MethylPREDNISolone; PrednisoLONE (Systemic); PredniSONE. Monitor therapy

Crizotinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Crizotinib. Management: Avoid concomitant use of crizotinib and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors whenever possible. If combined use cannot be avoided, decrease the crizotinib dose to 250 mg daily. Exceptions are discussed in separate monographs. Consider therapy modification

Cyclophosphamide: Protease Inhibitors may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Cyclophosphamide. Specifically, the incidences of neutropenia, infection, and mucositis may be increased. Monitor therapy

CycloSPORINE (Systemic): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of CycloSPORINE (Systemic). Management: Monitor cyclosporine serum concentrations and clinical cyclosporine closely with concurrent use of any strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Cyclosporine dose reductions and/or prolongation of the dosing interval will likely be required. Consider therapy modification

CYP2D6 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors): Cobicistat may increase the serum concentration of CYP2D6 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Monitor therapy

CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate): May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Monitor therapy

CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong): May increase the metabolism of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Management: Consider an alternative for one of the interacting drugs. Some combinations may be specifically contraindicated. Consult appropriate manufacturer labeling. Consider therapy modification

CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate): May decrease the metabolism of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Monitor therapy

CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong): May decrease the metabolism of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Management: Consider avoiding this combination. Some combinations are specifically contraindicated by manufacturers; others may have recommended dose adjustments. If combined, monitor for increased substrate effects. Consider therapy modification

CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may decrease the metabolism of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Management: Consider avoiding this combination. Some combinations are specifically contraindicated by manufacturers; others may have recommended dose adjustments. If combined, monitor for increased substrate effects. Exceptions: Alitretinoin (Systemic); AmLODIPine; Benzhydrocodone; Bromperidol; Buprenorphine; Gefitinib; HYDROcodone; Mirtazapine; Oliceridine; Praziquantel; Ripretinib; Telithromycin; VinBLAStine; Vinorelbine. Consider therapy modification

Dabigatran Etexilate: Cobicistat may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Dabigatran Etexilate. Monitor therapy

Dabrafenib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Dabrafenib. Avoid combination

Daclatasvir: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Daclatasvir. Management: Decrease the daclatasvir dose to 30 mg once daily if combined with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. No dose adjustment is needed when daclatasvir is used with darunavir/cobicistat. Consider therapy modification

Dapoxetine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Dapoxetine. Avoid combination

Dapsone (Systemic): May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Atazanavir. Specifically, the risk of hyperbilirubinemia may be increased. Monitor therapy

Darifenacin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Darifenacin. Management: Limit the darifenacin dose to no more than 7.5 mg daily if combined with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Monitor patients for increased darifenacin toxicities (eg, dry mouth, constipation, headache, CNS effects) when these agents are combined. Consider therapy modification

Dasatinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Dasatinib. Management: This combination should be avoided if possible. If combined, decrease dasatinib dose from 140 mg to 40 mg, 100 mg to 20 mg, or 70 mg to 20 mg. For patients taking 60 mg or 40 mg daily, stop dasatinib until the CYP3A4 inhibitor is discontinued. Consider therapy modification

Deferasirox: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Monitor therapy

Deflazacort: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Deflazacort. Management: Administer one third of the recommended deflazacort dose when used together with a strong or moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor. Consider therapy modification

Delamanid: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Delamanid. Management: Increase ECG monitoring frequency if delamanid is combined with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors due to the risk for QTc interval prolongation. Continue frequent ECG assessments throughout full delamanid treatment period. Exceptions discussed separately. Consider therapy modification

DexAMETHasone (Ophthalmic): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of DexAMETHasone (Ophthalmic). Monitor therapy

DexAMETHasone (Systemic): May decrease the serum concentration of Cobicistat. Dexamethasone (Systemic) may also counteract the boosting effects of Cobicistat on some agents. Management: Consider an alternative corticosteroid. Monitor patients receiving this combination closely for evidence of diminished response to the antiviral regimen. Consider therapy modification

Didanosine: May decrease the serum concentration of Atazanavir. Specifically, the buffered formulation of didanosine may decrease atazanavir absorption. Atazanavir may decrease the serum concentration of Didanosine. Reported with enteric coated didanosine capsules. Management: To avoid therapeutic failure of atazanavir, atazanavir should be administered 2 hours before or 1 hour after didanosine. This recommendation applies to both buffered didanosine products and enteric coated didanosine products. Consider therapy modification

Digoxin: Cobicistat may increase the serum concentration of Digoxin. Monitor therapy

Dihydroergotamine: Cobicistat may increase the serum concentration of Dihydroergotamine. Avoid combination

Disulfiram: Atazanavir may diminish the therapeutic effect of Disulfiram. Monitor therapy

DOCEtaxel: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of DOCEtaxel. Management: Avoid the concomitant use of docetaxel and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors when possible. If combined use is unavoidable, consider a 50% docetaxel dose reduction and monitor for increased docetaxel toxicities. Consider therapy modification

Dofetilide: Cobicistat may increase the serum concentration of Dofetilide. Monitor therapy

Domperidone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Domperidone. Management: Drugs listed as exceptions to this monograph are discussed in further detail in separate drug interaction monographs. Avoid combination

Doxercalciferol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Doxercalciferol. Monitor therapy

DOXOrubicin (Conventional): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of DOXOrubicin (Conventional). Management: Seek alternatives to strong CYP3A4 inhibitors in patients treated with doxorubicin whenever possible. One U.S. manufacturer (Pfizer Inc.) recommends that these combinations be avoided. Consider therapy modification

Dronabinol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Dronabinol. Monitor therapy

Dronedarone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Dronedarone. Management: Drugs listed as exceptions to this monograph are discussed in further detail in separate drug interaction monographs. Avoid combination

Drospirenone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Drospirenone. Management: Drospirenone use is contraindicated specifically when the strong CYP3A4 inhibitors atazanavir and cobicistat are administered concurrently. Caution should be used when drospirenone is coadministered with other strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Consider therapy modification

Dutasteride: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Dutasteride. Monitor therapy

Duvelisib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Duvelisib. Management: Reduce the dose of duvelisib to 15 mg twice a day when used together with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Consider therapy modification

Edoxaban: Cobicistat may increase the serum concentration of Edoxaban. Monitor therapy

Efavirenz: May decrease the serum concentration of Atazanavir. Management: When used with efavirenz, the adult atazanavir dose should be 400 mg daily, boosted with ritonavir 100 mg daily or cobicistat 150 mg daily, for treatment-naive patients only; treatment-experienced patients should not use atazanavir with efavirenz. Consider therapy modification

Elagolix: OATP1B1/1B3 (SLCO1B1/1B3) Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Elagolix. Avoid combination

Elagolix, Estradiol, and Norethindrone: OATP1B1/1B3 (SLCO1B1/1B3) Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Elagolix, Estradiol, and Norethindrone. Specifically, concentrations of elagolix may be increased. Avoid combination

Elagolix, Estradiol, and Norethindrone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Elagolix, Estradiol, and Norethindrone. Avoid combination

Elbasvir: Cobicistat may increase the serum concentration of Elbasvir. Avoid combination

Eletriptan: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Eletriptan. Avoid combination

Elexacaftor, Tezacaftor, and Ivacaftor: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Elexacaftor, Tezacaftor, and Ivacaftor. Management: When combined with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors, administer two elexacaftor/tezacaftor/ivacaftor tablets (100 mg/50 mg/75 mg) in the morning, twice a week, approximately 3 to 4 days apart. No evening doses of ivacaftor (150 mg) alone should be administered. Consider therapy modification

Eliglustat: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Eliglustat. Management: Reduce eliglustat dose to 84 mg daily in CYP2D6 EMs when used with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Use of strong CYP3A4 inhibitors is contraindicated in CYP2D6 IMs, PMs, or in CYP2D6 EMs who are also taking strong or moderate CYP2D6 inhibitors. Consider therapy modification

Eluxadoline: OATP1B1/1B3 (SLCO1B1/1B3) Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Eluxadoline. Management: Decrease the eluxadoline dose to 75 mg twice daily if combined with OATP1B1/1B3 inhibitors and monitor patients for increased eluxadoline effects/toxicities. Consider therapy modification

Elvitegravir: Atazanavir may increase the serum concentration of Elvitegravir. Specifically, atazanavir/ritonavir may increase the concentration of elvitegravir. Management: When elvitegravir is combined with atazanavir/ritonavir, the dose of elvitegravir should be reduced to 85 mg once daily and the dose of atazanavir/ritonavir should be 300 mg/100 mg once daily. Avoid the use of atazanavir/cobicistat and elvitegravir. Consider therapy modification

Encorafenib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Encorafenib. Management: Avoid use of encorafenib and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors when possible. If combined, decrease encorafenib from 450 mg to 150 mg; or from 300 mg, 225 mg, or 150 mg to 75 mg. Once the CYP3A4 inhibitor is discontinued for 3 to 5 half-lives, resume prior dose. Consider therapy modification

Enfortumab Vedotin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Enfortumab Vedotin. Specifically, concentrations of the active monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE) component may be increased. Monitor therapy

Enfuvirtide: Protease Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Enfuvirtide. Enfuvirtide may increase the serum concentration of Protease Inhibitors. Monitor therapy

Entrectinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Entrectinib. Management: Avoid strong CYP3A4 inhibitors during treatment with entrectinib when possible. If combined in adults and those 12 yrs of age or older with a BSA of at least 1.5 square meters, reduce dose to 100 mg/day. Avoid if BSA is less than 1.5 square meters. Consider therapy modification

Enzalutamide: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Management: Concurrent use of enzalutamide with CYP3A4 substrates that have a narrow therapeutic index should be avoided. Use of enzalutamide and any other CYP3A4 substrate should be performed with caution and close monitoring. Consider therapy modification

Eplerenone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Eplerenone. Avoid combination

Erdafitinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Erdafitinib. Management: Avoid concomitant use of erdafitinib and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors when possible. If combined, monitor closely for erdafitinib adverse reactions and consider dose modifications accordingly. Consider therapy modification

Ergot Derivatives: Protease Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Ergot Derivatives. Exceptions: Cabergoline; Lisuride; Nicergoline; Pergolide. Avoid combination

Ergotamine: Cobicistat may increase the serum concentration of Ergotamine. Avoid combination

Erlotinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Erlotinib. Management: Avoid use of this combination when possible. When the combination must be used, monitor the patient closely for the development of severe adverse reactions, and if such severe reactions occur, reduce the erlotinib dose (in 50 mg decrements). Consider therapy modification

Erythromycin (Systemic): Cobicistat may increase the serum concentration of Erythromycin (Systemic). Management: Consider alternatives to this combination when cobicistat is combined with atazanavir or darunavir. If combined, monitor for increased erythromycin and cobicistat effects/toxicities. Consider therapy modification

Estrogen Derivatives: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Estrogen Derivatives. Monitor therapy

Estrogen Derivatives (Contraceptive): Cobicistat may decrease the serum concentration of Estrogen Derivatives (Contraceptive). Management: Consider an alternative, nonhormone-based contraceptive in patients receiving cobicistat-containing products. Consider therapy modification

Eszopiclone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Eszopiclone. Management: Limit the eszopiclone dose to 2 mg daily when combined with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors and monitor for increased eszopiclone effects and toxicities (eg, somnolence, drowsiness, CNS depression). Consider therapy modification

Etizolam: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Etizolam. Management: Consider use of lower etizolam doses when using this combination; specific recommendations concerning dose adjustment are not available. Monitor clinical response to the combination closely. Consider therapy modification

Etravirine: Atazanavir may increase the serum concentration of Etravirine. Etravirine may decrease the serum concentration of Atazanavir. Management: The combination of etravirine and atazanavir should be avoided unless atazanavir is boosted with ritonavir. The use of cobicistat instead of ritonavir has not been evaluated and is not recommended. Consider therapy modification

Everolimus: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Everolimus. Management: Consider avoiding use of strong CYP3A4 inhibitors with everolimus. If combined, closely monitor for increased everolimus serum concentrations and toxicities. Everolimus dose reductions will likely be required. Consider therapy modification

Evogliptin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Evogliptin. Monitor therapy

Fedratinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Fedratinib. Management: Consider alternatives when possible. If used together, decrease fedratinib dose to 200 mg/day. After the inhibitor is stopped, increase fedratinib to 300 mg/day for the first 2 weeks and then to 400 mg/day as tolerated. Consider therapy modification

FentaNYL: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of FentaNYL. Management: Consider fentanyl dose reductions when combined with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Monitor for respiratory depression and sedation. Upon discontinuation of a CYP3A4 inhibitor, consider a fentanyl dose increase; monitor for signs and symptoms of withdrawal. Consider therapy modification

Fesoterodine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Fesoterodine. Management: Limit fesoterodine doses to 4 mg daily in patients who are also receiving strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Consider therapy modification

Fexinidazole [INT]: Atazanavir may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Fexinidazole [INT]. Avoid combination

Flibanserin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Flibanserin. Management: Use of flibanserin with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors is contraindicated. If starting flibanserin, start 2 weeks after the last dose of the CYP3A4 inhibitor. If starting a CYP3A4 inhibitor, start 2 days after the last dose of flibanserin. Avoid combination

Fluticasone (Nasal): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Fluticasone (Nasal). Avoid combination

Fluticasone (Oral Inhalation): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Fluticasone (Oral Inhalation). Consider therapy modification

Fluvastatin: Atazanavir may increase the serum concentration of Fluvastatin. Management: When used with atazanavir/cobicistat, initiate fluvastatin at the lowest recommended dose and monitor clinical response (particularly any evidence of toxicity) to dose titration. Consider therapy modification

Fosamprenavir: Cobicistat may increase the serum concentration of Fosamprenavir. However, the magnitude of this change is unclear, and dosing recommendations for this combination are not available. Avoid combination

Fosaprepitant: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Fosaprepitant. Avoid combination

Fosnetupitant: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Monitor therapy

Fosphenytoin-Phenytoin: May decrease the serum concentration of Cobicistat. Avoid combination

Fostamatinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Fostamatinib. Monitor therapy

Fusidic Acid (Systemic): May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Avoid combination

Galantamine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Galantamine. Monitor therapy

Garlic: May decrease the serum concentration of Protease Inhibitors. Management: Concurrent use of garlic supplements with protease inhibitors is not recommended. If this combination is used, monitor closely for altered serum concentrations/effects of protease inhibitors, and particularly for signs/symptoms of therapeutic failure. Consider therapy modification

Gefitinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Gefitinib. Monitor therapy

Gilteritinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Gilteritinib. Management: Consider alternatives to the use of a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor with gilteritinib. If the combination cannot be avoided, monitor more closely for evidence of gilteritinib toxicities. Consider therapy modification

Glasdegib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Glasdegib. Management: Consider alternatives to this combination when possible. If the combination must be used, monitor closely for evidence of QT interval prolongation and other adverse reactions to glasdegib. Consider therapy modification

Glecaprevir and Pibrentasvir: Atazanavir may increase the serum concentration of Glecaprevir and Pibrentasvir. Avoid combination

Grazoprevir: Atazanavir may increase the serum concentration of Grazoprevir. Avoid combination

Grazoprevir: Cobicistat may increase the serum concentration of Grazoprevir. Avoid combination

GuanFACINE: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of GuanFACINE. Management: Reduce the extended-release guanfacine dose 50% when combined with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Monitor for increased guanfacine toxicities when these agents are combined. Consider therapy modification

Halofantrine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Halofantrine. Management: Drugs listed as exceptions to this monograph are discussed in further detail in separate drug interaction monographs. Avoid combination

Histamine H2 Receptor Antagonists: May decrease the serum concentration of Atazanavir. Management: Specific dose limitations and administration guidelines exist; consult full interaction monograph or atazanavir prescribing information. Consider therapy modification

HYDROcodone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of HYDROcodone. Monitor therapy

Ibrutinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ibrutinib. Management: Avoid concomitant use of ibrutinib and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. If a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor must be used short-term (eg, anti-infectives for 7 days or less), interrupt ibrutinib therapy until the strong CYP3A4 inhibitor is discontinued. Avoid combination

Idelalisib: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Avoid combination

Ifosfamide: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Ifosfamide. Monitor therapy

Iloperidone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Iloperidone. Specifically, concentrations of the metabolites P88 and P95 may be increased. CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Iloperidone. Management: Reduce iloperidone dose by half when administered with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Consider therapy modification

Imatinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Imatinib. Monitor therapy

Imidafenacin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Imidafenacin. Monitor therapy

Indinavir: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Atazanavir. Atazanavir may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Indinavir. Avoid combination

Irinotecan Products: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Irinotecan Products. Specifically, serum concentrations of SN-38 may be increased. CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Irinotecan Products. Avoid combination

Isavuconazonium Sulfate: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Isavuconazonium Sulfate. Specifically, CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase isavuconazole serum concentrations. Management: Combined use is considered contraindicated per US labeling. Lopinavir/ritonavir (and possibly other uses of ritonavir doses less than 400 mg every 12 hours) is treated as a possible exception to this contraindication despite strongly inhibiting CYP3A4. Avoid combination

Istradefylline: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Istradefylline. Management: Limit the maximum istradefylline dose to 20 mg daily when combined with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors and monitor for increased istradefylline effects/toxicities. Consider therapy modification

Itraconazole: May increase the serum concentration of Cobicistat. Cobicistat may increase the serum concentration of Itraconazole. Management: Limit itraconazole to a maximum adult dose of 200 mg/day in patients treated with the elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir combination product. Dosing recommendations for other cobicistat-containing products are not available. Consider therapy modification

Ivabradine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ivabradine. Avoid combination

Ivacaftor: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ivacaftor. Management: Ivacaftor dose reductions are required; consult full drug interaction monograph content for age- and weight-specific recommendations. Consider therapy modification

Ivosidenib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ivosidenib. Management: Avoid use of a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor with ivosidenib whenever possible. When combined use is required, reduce the ivosidenib dose to 250 mg once daily. Drugs listed as exceptions are discussed in further detail in separate drug interaction monographs. Consider therapy modification

Ixabepilone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ixabepilone. Management: Avoid use of ixabepilone and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors when possible. If combined, reduce the ixabepilone dose to 20 mg/m2. The previous ixabepilone dose can be resumed 1 week after discontinuation of the strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Consider therapy modification

Ketoconazole (Systemic): May increase the serum concentration of Cobicistat. Cobicistat may increase the serum concentration of Ketoconazole (Systemic). Management: Limit ketoconazole to a maximum adult dose of 200 mg/day in patients being treated with the elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir combination product. Dosing recommendations for other cobicistat-containing products are not available. Consider therapy modification

LamoTRIgine: Atazanavir may decrease the serum concentration of LamoTRIgine. Specifically, the use of ritonavir-boosted atazanavir may decrease the serum concentration of lamotrigine. Monitor therapy

Lapatinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Lapatinib. Management: Avoid use of lapatinib and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors when possible. If combined, reduce lapatinib dose to 500 mg daily. The previous lapatinib dose can be resumed 1 week after discontinuation of the strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Consider therapy modification

Larotrectinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Larotrectinib. Management: Avoid use of strong CYP3A4 inhibitors with larotrectinib. If this combination cannot be avoided, reduce the larotrectinib dose by 50%. Increase to previous dose after stopping the inhibitor after a period of 3 to 5 times the inhibitor's half-life. Consider therapy modification

Lefamulin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Lefamulin. Management: Avoid concomitant use of lefamulin tablets and strong inhibitors of CYP3A4. Avoid combination

Lemborexant: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Lemborexant. Avoid combination

Lercanidipine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Lercanidipine. Avoid combination

Levamlodipine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Levamlodipine. Monitor therapy

Levobupivacaine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Levobupivacaine. Monitor therapy

Levomethadone: Cobicistat may increase the serum concentration of Levomethadone. Monitor therapy

Levomilnacipran: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Levomilnacipran. Management: Do not exceed a maximum adult levomilnacipran dose of 80 mg/day in patients also receiving strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Consider therapy modification

Lomitapide: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Lomitapide. Avoid combination

Lorlatinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Lorlatinib. Management: Avoid use of lorlatinib with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. If the combination cannot be avoided, reduce the lorlatinib dose from 100 mg once daily to 75 mg once daily, or from 75 mg once daily to 50 mg once daily. Consider therapy modification

Lovastatin: Protease Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Lovastatin. Avoid combination

Lovastatin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Lovastatin. Avoid combination

Lumacaftor and Ivacaftor: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Lumacaftor and Ivacaftor. Management: When initiating or resuming lumacaftor/ivacaftor after a therapy interruption of 7 days or more, reduce the lumacaftor/ivacaftor dose to 1 tablet daily or 1 packet of oral granules every other day for the first week, and then resume the standard dose. Consider therapy modification

Lumateperone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Lumateperone. Avoid combination

Lumefantrine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Lumefantrine. Monitor therapy

Lurasidone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Lurasidone. Avoid combination

Lurbinectedin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Lurbinectedin. Avoid combination

Macitentan: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Macitentan. Avoid combination

Manidipine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Manidipine. Management: Consider avoiding concomitant use of manidipine and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. If combined, monitor closely for increased manidipine effects and toxicities. Manidipine dose reductions may be required. Consider therapy modification

Maraviroc: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Maraviroc. Management: Reduce maraviroc to 150mg twice/day in adult and pediatric patients weighing 40kg or more. See full interaction monograph or maraviroc labeling for dose adjustments in pediatric patients less than 40kg. Do not use in patients with CrCl less than 30mL/min. Consider therapy modification

Meperidine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Meperidine. Monitor therapy

Methadone: Cobicistat may increase the serum concentration of Methadone. Management: No increased monitoring appears necessary if the cobicistat regimen also contains elvitegravir. Monitor therapy

Methylergonovine: Cobicistat may increase the serum concentration of Methylergonovine. Avoid combination

MethylPREDNISolone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of MethylPREDNISolone. Management: Consider methylprednisolone dose reduction in patients receiving strong CYP3A4 inhibitors and monitor for increased steroid related adverse effects. Consider therapy modification

Midazolam: Cobicistat may increase the serum concentration of Midazolam. Management: Oral midazolam use is contraindicated with cobicistat-containing products. IV midazolam should be used with caution, close monitoring, and consideration of lower IV midazolam doses. Avoid combination

Midostaurin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Midostaurin. Management: Seek alternatives to the concomitant use of midostaurin and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors if possible. If concomitant use cannot be avoided, monitor patients for increased risk of adverse reactions. Exceptions are discussed in separate monographs. Consider therapy modification

MiFEPRIStone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of MiFEPRIStone. Management: For treatment of hyperglycemia in Cushing's syndrome, start mifepristone at 300 mg/day, may titrate to a maximum of 900 mg/day. If starting a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor and taking >300 mg/day mifepristone, decrease the mifepristone dose by 300 mg/day. Consider therapy modification

MiFEPRIStone: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Management: Minimize doses of CYP3A4 substrates, and monitor for increased concentrations/toxicity, during and 2 weeks following treatment with mifepristone. Avoid cyclosporine, dihydroergotamine, ergotamine, fentanyl, pimozide, quinidine, sirolimus, and tacrolimus. Consider therapy modification

Minocycline (Systemic): May decrease the serum concentration of Atazanavir. Monitor therapy

Minoxidil (Systemic): Atazanavir may increase the serum concentration of Minoxidil (Systemic). Monitor therapy

Mirodenafil: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Mirodenafil. Management: Consider using a lower dose of mirodenafil when used with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Monitor for increased mirodenafil effects/toxicities with the use of this combination. Consider therapy modification

Mirtazapine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Mirtazapine. Monitor therapy

Mitotane: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Management: Doses of CYP3A4 substrates may need to be adjusted substantially when used in patients being treated with mitotane. Consider therapy modification

Mometasone (Oral Inhalation): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Mometasone (Oral Inhalation). Monitor therapy

Naldemedine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Naldemedine. Monitor therapy

Nalfurafine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Nalfurafine. Monitor therapy

Naloxegol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Naloxegol. Avoid combination

Nefazodone: Protease Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Nefazodone. Management: Consider alternatives to, or reduced doses of, nefazodone in patients treated with HIV protease inhibitors. Monitor patients receiving these combinations closely for toxic effects of nefazodone. Consider therapy modification

Neratinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Neratinib. Avoid combination

Netupitant: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Monitor therapy

Nevirapine: Atazanavir may increase the serum concentration of Nevirapine. Nevirapine may decrease the serum concentration of Atazanavir. Avoid combination

Nilotinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Nilotinib. Management: Avoid if possible. If combination needed, decrease nilotinib to 300 mg once/day for patients with resistant or intolerant Ph+ CML or to 200 mg once/day for patients with newly diagnosed Ph+ CML in chronic phase. Exceptions discussed in separate monograph. Consider therapy modification

NiMODipine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of NiMODipine. Avoid combination

Nisoldipine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Nisoldipine. Avoid combination

Olaparib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Olaparib. Management: Avoid use of strong CYP3A4 inhibitors with olaparib, if possible. If such concurrent use cannot be avoided, the dose of olaparib tablets should be reduced to 100 mg twice daily and the dose of olaparib capsules should be reduced to 150 mg twice daily. Consider therapy modification

Oliceridine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Oliceridine. Monitor therapy

Ombitasvir, Paritaprevir, and Ritonavir: Atazanavir may increase the serum concentration of Ombitasvir, Paritaprevir, and Ritonavir. Specifically, the paritaprevir component may increase significantly. Avoid combination

Ombitasvir, Paritaprevir, Ritonavir, and Dasabuvir: Atazanavir may increase the serum concentration of Ombitasvir, Paritaprevir, Ritonavir, and Dasabuvir. Specifically, the paritaprevir component may increase significantly. Management: These agents can be combined if the atazanavir dose is 300 mg daily, atazanavir is administered in the morning at the same time as the ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir/dasabuvir combination product, and atazanavir is given without additional ritonavir. Consider therapy modification

Orlistat: May decrease the serum concentration of Antiretroviral Agents. Monitor therapy

Osilodrostat: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Osilodrostat. Management: Reduce osilodrostat dose by 50% during coadministration with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Consider therapy modification

Ospemifene: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ospemifene. Monitor therapy

OXcarbazepine: May decrease the serum concentration of Cobicistat. Management: Consider an alternative antiepileptic when possible. Consider therapy modification

Oxybutynin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Oxybutynin. Monitor therapy

Ozanimod: BCRP/ABCG2 Inhibitors may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Ozanimod. Avoid combination

PACLitaxel (Conventional): Atazanavir may increase the serum concentration of PACLitaxel (Conventional). Management: Use of paclitaxel or other narrow therapeutic index CYP2C8 substrates with atazanavir without concurrent ritonavir is not recommended. If paclitaxel is used with ritonavir-boosted atazanavir, no significant interaction is expected. Avoid combination

Palbociclib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Palbociclib. Management: Avoid concurrent use of strong CYP3A4 inhibitors with palbociclib when possible. If the use of a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor cannot be avoided, decrease the palbociclib dose to 75 mg/day. Consider therapy modification

Panobinostat: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Panobinostat. Management: Reduce the panobinostat dose to 10 mg when it must be used with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Consider therapy modification

Parecoxib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Parecoxib. Specifically, serum concentrations of the active moiety valdecoxib may be increased. Monitor therapy

Paricalcitol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Paricalcitol. Monitor therapy

PAZOPanib: BCRP/ABCG2 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of PAZOPanib. Avoid combination

Pemigatinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Pemigatinib. Management: If combined use cannot be avoided, reduce the pemigatinib dose from 13.5 mg daily to 9 mg daily, or from 9 mg daily to 4.5 mg daily. Resume prior pemigatinib dose after stopping the strong inhibitor once 3 half-lives of the inhibitor has passed. Consider therapy modification

Pexidartinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Pexidartinib. Management: Avoid use of pexidartinib with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors if possible. If combined use cannot be avoided, pexidartinib dose should be reduced. Decrease 800 mg or 600 mg daily doses to 200 mg twice daily. Decrease doses of 400 mg per day to 200 mg once daily Consider therapy modification

PHENobarbital: May decrease the serum concentration of Cobicistat. Avoid combination

Pimavanserin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Pimavanserin. Management: Decrease the pimavanserin dose to 10 mg daily when combined with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Consider therapy modification

Pimecrolimus: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may decrease the metabolism of Pimecrolimus. Monitor therapy

Pimozide: Protease Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Pimozide. Avoid combination

Pimozide: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Pimozide. Avoid combination

Piperaquine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Piperaquine. CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Piperaquine. Management: Avoid concomitant use of piperaquine and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors when possible. If the combination cannot be avoided, frequent ECG monitoring is recommended due to the risk for QTc prolongation. Exceptions are discussed separately. Consider therapy modification

Pitavastatin: Atazanavir may increase the serum concentration of Pitavastatin. Monitor therapy

Pitavastatin: Cobicistat may increase the serum concentration of Pitavastatin. Monitor therapy

Polatuzumab Vedotin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Polatuzumab Vedotin. Exposure to unconjugated MMAE, the cytotoxic small molecule component of polatuzumab vedotin, may be increased. Monitor therapy

PONATinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of PONATinib. Management: Per ponatinib U.S. prescribing information, the adult starting dose of ponatinib should be reduced to 30 mg daily during treatment with any strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Consider therapy modification

Posaconazole: May increase the serum concentration of Atazanavir. Monitor therapy

Pralsetinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Pralsetinib. Avoid combination

Pranlukast: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Pranlukast. Monitor therapy

Praziquantel: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Praziquantel. Monitor therapy

PrednisoLONE (Systemic): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of PrednisoLONE (Systemic). Monitor therapy

PredniSONE: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of PredniSONE. Monitor therapy

Primidone: May decrease the serum concentration of Cobicistat. Avoid combination

Progestins (Contraceptive): Cobicistat may increase the serum concentration of Progestins (Contraceptive). Management: Consider an alternative, nonhormone-based contraceptive in patients receiving cobicistat-containing products. Drospirenone is specifically contraindicated with atazanavir and cobicistat. Exceptions: Levonorgestrel (IUD). Consider therapy modification

Progestins (Contraceptive): Atazanavir may increase the serum concentration of Progestins (Contraceptive). However, atazanavir may lead to decreased ethinyl estradiol concentrations and decreased effectiveness of oral contraceptive products. Management: Consider an alternative or additional method of contraception, particularly with combined estrogen/progestin products. Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate may be used without a need for additional contraception. Exceptions: Levonorgestrel (IUD). Consider therapy modification

Propafenone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Propafenone. Management: Drugs listed as exceptions to this monograph are discussed in further detail in separate drug interaction monographs. Monitor therapy

Protease Inhibitors: May increase the serum concentration of other Protease Inhibitors. Management: Atazanavir--indinavir combination contraindicated. Tipranavir/ritonavir or atazanavir/ritonavir not recommended with other protease inhibitors (PI). Darunavir/cobicistat not recommended with PI that require boosting.Other combos may require dose changes. Consider therapy modification

Proton Pump Inhibitors: May decrease the serum concentration of Atazanavir. Management: Avoid use in treatment-experienced patients. In treatment-naive patients, administer boosted atazanavir 12 hours after the PPI and the PPI dose should not exceed the equivalent of 20 mg omeprazole. Monitor for reduced atazanavir efficacy. Consider therapy modification

QUEtiapine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of QUEtiapine. Management: In quetiapine treated patients, reduce quetiapine to one-sixth of regular dose after starting strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. In those on strong CYP3A4 inhibitors, start quetiapine at lowest dose and up-titrate as needed. Exceptions discussed separately. Consider therapy modification

QuiNIDine: Atazanavir may increase the serum concentration of QuiNIDine. Monitor therapy

QuiNIDine: Cobicistat may increase the serum concentration of QuiNIDine. Monitor therapy

Radotinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Radotinib. Avoid combination

Ramelteon: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ramelteon. Monitor therapy

Ranolazine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ranolazine. Avoid combination

Red Yeast Rice: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Red Yeast Rice. Specifically, concentrations of lovastatin and related compounds found in Red Yeast Rice may be increased. Avoid combination

Regorafenib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Regorafenib. Avoid combination

Repaglinide: Atazanavir may increase the serum concentration of Repaglinide. Management: Use of repaglinide or other narrow therapeutic index CYP2C8 substrates with atazanavir without concurrent ritonavir is not recommended. If repaglinide is used with ritonavir-boosted atazanavir, no significant interaction is expected. Avoid combination

Retapamulin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Retapamulin. Management: Avoid this combination in patients less than 2 years old. No action is required in other populations. Monitor therapy

Revefenacin: OATP1B1/1B3 (SLCO1B1/1B3) Inhibitors may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Revefenacin. Avoid combination

Ribociclib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ribociclib. Management: Avoid use of ribociclib with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors when possible; if combined use cannot be avoided, reduce ribociclib dose to 400 mg once daily. Exceptions are discussed in separate monographs. Consider therapy modification

Rifabutin: Atazanavir may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Rifabutin. Atazanavir may increase the serum concentration of Rifabutin. Management: Reduce rifabutin doses. Clinical guidelines recommend 150 mg daily or 300 mg 3 times per week with atazanavir/ritonavir. Atazanavir labeling recommends a decrease of at least 75%, to 150 mg every other day or 150 mg 3 times per week for adults. Consider therapy modification

Rifabutin: Cobicistat may increase the serum concentration of Rifabutin. Management: Reduce rifabutin dose. Clinical guidelines recommend administering rifabutin 150 mg daily or 300 mg 3 times per week when used with cobicistat. Cobicistat labeling recommends decreasing the rifabutin dose to 150 mg every other day. Consider therapy modification

RifAMPin: May decrease the serum concentration of Atazanavir. Avoid combination

RifAMPin: May decrease the serum concentration of Cobicistat. Avoid combination

Rifapentine: May decrease the serum concentration of Cobicistat. Avoid combination

Rilpivirine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Rilpivirine. Monitor therapy

Rimegepant: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Rimegepant. Avoid combination

Rimegepant: BCRP/ABCG2 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Rimegepant. Avoid combination

Riociguat: Inhibitors of CYP3A4 (Strong) and BCRP may increase the serum concentration of Riociguat. Management: Consider a riociguat starting dose of 0.5 mg 3 times a day when initiating riociguat in patients receiving strong CYP3A4 and BCRP inhibitors. Monitor for hypotension when these agents are combined and reduce the riociguat dose as needed. Consider therapy modification

Ripretinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ripretinib. Monitor therapy

Ritonavir: Cobicistat may enhance the therapeutic effect of Ritonavir. Specifically, cobicistat and ritonavir have overlapping effects on the CYP3A4-mediated metabolism of other drugs. Avoid combination

Rivaroxaban: Cobicistat may increase the serum concentration of Rivaroxaban. Avoid combination

RomiDEPsin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of RomiDEPsin. Monitor therapy

Rosiglitazone: Atazanavir may increase the serum concentration of Rosiglitazone. Monitor therapy

Rosuvastatin: Cobicistat may increase the serum concentration of Rosuvastatin. Management: Rosuvastatin dose should not exceed 10 mg/day with concurrent use of atazanavir and cobicistat or 20 mg/day with concurrent use of darunavir and cobicistat. Consider therapy modification

Rupatadine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Rupatadine. Avoid combination

Ruxolitinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ruxolitinib. Management: This combination should be avoided under some circumstances. See monograph for details. Consider therapy modification

Sacituzumab Govitecan: UGT1A1 Inhibitors may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Sacituzumab Govitecan. Specifically, concentrations of SN-38 may be increased. Avoid combination

Salmeterol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Salmeterol. Avoid combination

Saquinavir: Cobicistat may increase the serum concentration of Saquinavir. However, the magnitude of this change is unclear, and dosing recommendations for this combination are not available. Avoid combination

Saquinavir: May increase the serum concentration of Atazanavir. Atazanavir may increase the serum concentration of Saquinavir. Avoid combination

Sarilumab: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Monitor therapy

SAXagliptin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of SAXagliptin. Management: Limit the saxagliptin dose to 2.5 mg daily when combined with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. When using the saxagliptin combination products saxagliptin/dapagliflozin or saxagliptin/dapagliflozin/metformin, avoid use with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Consider therapy modification

Selpercatinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Selpercatinib. Management: Avoid combination if possible. If use is necessary, reduce selpercatinib dose as follows: from 120 mg twice/day to 40 mg twice/day, or from 160 mg twice/day to 80 mg twice/day. Consider therapy modification

Selumetinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Selumetinib. Management: Avoid concomitant use when possible. If combined, selumetinib dose reductions are recommended and vary based on body surface area and selumetinib dose. For details, see the full drug interaction monograph or selumetinib prescribing information. Consider therapy modification

Sibutramine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Sibutramine. CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Sibutramine. Monitor therapy

Sildenafil: Protease Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Sildenafil. Management: Erectile dysfunction: sildenafil max = 25 mg/48 hrs with ritonavir, atazanavir, or darunavir; starting dose = 25 mg with other protease inhibitors (adult doses). Contraindicated if sildenafil being used for pulmonary arterial hypertension. Consider therapy modification

Sildenafil: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Sildenafil. Management: Use of sildenafil for pulmonary hypertension should be avoided with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. When used for erectile dysfunction, starting adult dose should be reduced to 25 mg. Maximum adult dose with ritonavir or cobicistat is 25 mg per 48 hours. Consider therapy modification

Silodosin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Silodosin. Avoid combination

Siltuximab: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Monitor therapy

Simeprevir: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Simeprevir. Avoid combination

Simeprevir: Protease Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Simeprevir. Simeprevir may increase the serum concentration of Protease Inhibitors. Avoid combination

Simvastatin: Protease Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Simvastatin. Avoid combination

Simvastatin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Simvastatin. Avoid combination

Sirolimus: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Sirolimus. Management: Avoid concurrent use of sirolimus with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors when possible and alternative agents with lesser interaction potential with sirolimus should be considered. Concomitant use of sirolimus and voriconazole or posaconazole is contraindicated. Consider therapy modification

Solifenacin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Solifenacin. Management: Limit adult solifenacin doses to 5 mg daily and limit doses in pediatric patients to the recommended weight-based starting dose (and do not increase the dose) when combined with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Consider therapy modification

Sonidegib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Sonidegib. Avoid combination

SORAfenib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of SORAfenib. Monitor therapy

St John's Wort: May decrease the serum concentration of Cobicistat. Avoid combination

St John's Wort: May decrease the serum concentration of Atazanavir. Avoid combination

Stiripentol: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Management: Use of stiripentol with CYP3A4 substrates that are considered to have a narrow therapeutic index should be avoided due to the increased risk for adverse effects and toxicity. Any CYP3A4 substrate used with stiripentol requires closer monitoring. Consider therapy modification

SUFentanil: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of SUFentanil. Management: If a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor is initiated in a patient on sufentanil, consider a sufentanil dose reduction and monitor for increased sufentanil effects and toxicities (eg, respiratory depression). Consider therapy modification

SUNItinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of SUNItinib. Management: Avoid when possible. If combined, decrease sunitinib dose to a minimum of 37.5 mg daily when treating GIST or RCC. Decrease sunitinib dose to a minimum of 25 mg daily when treating PNET. Monitor patients for both reduced efficacy and increased toxicities. Consider therapy modification

Suvorexant: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Suvorexant. Avoid combination

Tacrolimus (Systemic): Protease Inhibitors may decrease the metabolism of Tacrolimus (Systemic). Management: Tacrolimus dose reductions may be required when starting or altering a protease inhibitor. Some patients may required less than 1 mg/week of tacrolimus during coadministration with a protease inhibitor. Monitor plasma concentrations and response. Consider therapy modification

Tacrolimus (Systemic): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Tacrolimus (Systemic). Management: Reduce tacrolimus dose to one-third of the original dose if starting posaconazole or voriconazole. Coadministration with nelfinavir is not generally recommended. Tacrolimus dose reductions or prolongation of dosing interval will likely be required. Consider therapy modification

Tacrolimus (Topical): Protease Inhibitors may decrease the metabolism of Tacrolimus (Topical). Monitor therapy

Tadalafil: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Tadalafil. Management: Avoid this combination in patients taking tadalafil for pulmonary arterial hypertension. In patients taking tadalafil for ED or BPH, max tadalafil dose is 2.5 mg if taking daily or 10 mg no more frequently than every 72 hours if used as needed. Consider therapy modification

Talazoparib: BCRP/ABCG2 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Talazoparib. Monitor therapy

Tamsulosin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Tamsulosin. Avoid combination

Tasimelteon: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Tasimelteon. Monitor therapy

Tazemetostat: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Tazemetostat. Avoid combination

Telithromycin: May increase the serum concentration of Cobicistat. Cobicistat may increase the serum concentration of Telithromycin. Management: Seek alternatives to telithromycin. US prescribing information for the combination product containing elvitegravir, cobicistat, emtricitabine, and tenofovir does not address this potential interaction. Consider therapy modification

Temsirolimus: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Temsirolimus. Management: Avoid concomitant use of temsirolimus and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. If coadministration is unavoidable, decrease temsirolimus dose to 12.5 mg per week. Resume previous temsirolimus dose 1 week after discontinuation of the strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Consider therapy modification

Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate: May decrease the serum concentration of Atazanavir. Atazanavir may increase the serum concentration of Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate. Management: Use boosted atazanavir in adults; give combo (atazanavir/ritonavir or atazanavir/cobicistat with tenofovir) as a single daily dose with food. Pediatric patients, pregnant patients, and use of H2-blockers require dose changes. See Lexi Interact monograph. Consider therapy modification

Tenofovir Products: Cobicistat may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Tenofovir Products. More specifically, cobicistat may impair proper tenofovir monitoring and dosing. Monitor therapy

Terfenadine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Terfenadine. Management: Drugs listed as exceptions to this monograph are discussed in further detail in separate drug interaction monographs. Avoid combination

Tetrahydrocannabinol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Tetrahydrocannabinol. Monitor therapy

Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol. Monitor therapy

Tezacaftor and Ivacaftor: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Tezacaftor and Ivacaftor. Management: If combined with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors, tezacaftor/ivacaftor should be administered in the morning, twice a week, approximately 3 to 4 days apart. Tezacaftor/ivacaftor dose depends on age and weight; see full Lexi-Interact monograph for details. Consider therapy modification

Thioridazine: CYP2D6 Inhibitors (Weak) may increase the serum concentration of Thioridazine. Management: Consider avoiding concomitant use of thioridazine and weak CYP2D6 inhibitors. If combined, monitor closely for QTc interval prolongation and arrhythmias. Some weak CYP2D6 inhibitors list use with thioridazine as a contraindication. Consider therapy modification

Thiotepa: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Thiotepa. CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Thiotepa. Management: Thiotepa prescribing information recommends avoiding concomitant use of thiotepa and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. If concomitant use is unavoidable, monitor for adverse effects and decreased efficacy. Consider therapy modification

Ticagrelor: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Ticagrelor. CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ticagrelor. Avoid combination

Tipranavir: Cobicistat may increase the serum concentration of Tipranavir. However, the magnitude of this change is unclear, and dosing recommendations for this combination are not available. Avoid combination

Tocilizumab: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Monitor therapy

Tofacitinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Tofacitinib. Management: Tofacitinib dose reductions are recommended when combined with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Recommended dose adjustments vary by tofacitinib formulation and therapeutic indication. See full Lexi Interact monograph for details. Consider therapy modification

Tolterodine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Tolterodine. Management: The maximum recommended adult dose of tolterodine is 2 mg/day when used together with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Consider therapy modification

Tolvaptan: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Tolvaptan. Avoid combination

Topotecan: BCRP/ABCG2 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Topotecan. Avoid combination

Toremifene: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Toremifene. Management: Use of toremifene with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors should be avoided if possible. If coadministration is necessary, monitor for increased toremifene toxicities, including QTc interval prolongation. Exceptions are discussed in separate monograph. Consider therapy modification

Trabectedin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Trabectedin. Avoid combination

TraMADol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of TraMADol. Monitor therapy

TraZODone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of TraZODone. Management: Consider the use of a lower trazodone dose and monitor for increased trazodone effects (eg, sedation, QTc prolongation) if combined with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Consider therapy modification

Triazolam: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Triazolam. Avoid combination

Ubrogepant: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ubrogepant. Avoid combination

Udenafil: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Udenafil. Avoid combination

Ulipristal: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ulipristal. Management: This is specific for when ulipristal is being used for signs/symptoms of uterine fibroids (Canadian indication). When ulipristal is used as an emergency contraceptive, patients receiving this combo should be monitored for ulipristal toxicity. Avoid combination

Upadacitinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Upadacitinib. Monitor therapy

Valbenazine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Valbenazine. Management: Reduce the valbenazine dose to 40 mg daily when combined with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Consider therapy modification

Valproate Products: Protease Inhibitors may decrease the serum concentration of Valproate Products. Monitor therapy

Vardenafil: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Vardenafil. Management: Limit Levitra (vardenafil) dose to a single 2.5 mg dose within a 24-hour period if combined with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Avoid concomitant use of Staxyn (vardenafil) and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Combined use is contraindicated outside of the US. Consider therapy modification

Vemurafenib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Vemurafenib. Management: Avoid concurrent use of vemurafenib with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors when possible. If concomitant use is unavoidable, consider a vemurafenib dose reduction if clinically indicated. Consider therapy modification

Venetoclax: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Venetoclax. Management: Coadministration is contraindicated during venetoclax initiation and ramp-up in CLL/SLL patients. Reduced venetoclax doses are required during ramp-up for patients with AML, and all maintenance therapy. See full Lexi Interact monograph for details. Consider therapy modification

Vilanterol: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong). Monitor therapy

Vilazodone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Vilazodone. Management: Limit the maximum vilazodone dose to 20 mg daily in patients receiving strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. The original vilazodone dose can be resumed following discontinuation of the strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Consider therapy modification

VinBLAStine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of VinBLAStine. Monitor therapy

VinCRIStine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of VinCRIStine. Management: Seek alternatives to this combination when possible. If combined, monitor closely for vincristine toxicities (eg, neurotoxicity, gastrointestinal toxicity, myelosuppression). Consider therapy modification

VinCRIStine (Liposomal): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of VinCRIStine (Liposomal). Avoid combination

Vindesine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Vindesine. Monitor therapy

Vinflunine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Vinflunine. Avoid combination

Vinorelbine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Vinorelbine. Monitor therapy

Vorapaxar: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Vorapaxar. Avoid combination

Voriconazole: Atazanavir may decrease the serum concentration of Voriconazole. Atazanavir may increase the serum concentration of Voriconazole. Voriconazole may decrease the serum concentration of Atazanavir. Management: Voriconazole should not be used in a patient who is being treated with ritonavir-boosted atazanavir unless the benefits of the combination outweigh the potential risks. Extra monitoring for both loss of effectiveness and toxicity is warranted. Avoid combination

Voxelotor: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Voxelotor. Management: Avoid concomitant use of voxelotor and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. If concomitant use is unavoidable, reduce the voxelotor dose to 1,000 mg once daily. Consider therapy modification

Voxilaprevir: Atazanavir may increase the serum concentration of Voxilaprevir. Avoid combination

Warfarin: Atazanavir may increase the serum concentration of Warfarin. Monitor therapy

Warfarin: Cobicistat may increase the serum concentration of Warfarin. Monitor therapy

Zanubrutinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Zanubrutinib. Management: Decrease the zanubrutinib dose to 80 mg once daily during coadministration with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Further dose adjustments may be required for zanubrutinib toxicities, refer to prescribing information for details. Consider therapy modification

Zidovudine: Protease Inhibitors may decrease the serum concentration of Zidovudine. Monitor therapy

Zolpidem: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Zolpidem. Monitor therapy

Zopiclone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Zopiclone. Management: If coadministered with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors, initiate zopiclone at 3.75 mg in adults, with a maximum dose of 5 mg. Monitor for zopiclone toxicity (eg, drowsiness, confusion, lethargy, ataxia, respiratory depression). Consider therapy modification

Test Interactions

Refer to individual monographs.

Adverse Reactions

All adverse reactions are from trials using cobicistat coadministered with atazanavir, emtricitabine + tenofovir. Also see individual agents.

>10%: Hepatic: Increased serum bilirubin (grades 3/4: 73%)

1% to 10%:

Central nervous system: Headache (2%), abnormal dreams (<2%), depression (<2%), fatigue (<2%), insomnia (<2%)

Dermatologic: Skin rash (5%)

Endocrine & metabolic: Increased gamma-glutamyl transferase (grades 3/4: 4%), glycosuria (grades 3/4: 3%), increased serum glucose (grades 3/4: 2%), Fanconi syndrome (<2%)

Gastrointestinal: Increased serum amylase (grades 3/4: 4%), diarrhea (2%), nausea (2%), upper abdominal pain (<2%), vomiting (<2%)

Genitourinary: Hematuria (grades 3/4: 6%)

Hematologic & oncologic: Decreased neutrophils (grades 3/4: 3%)

Hepatic: Increased serum ALT (grades 3/4: 6%), jaundice (6%), increased serum AST (grades 3/4: 4%)

Neuromuscular & skeletal: Increased creatine phosphokinase (grades 3/4: 8%), rhabdomyolysis (<2%)

Ophthalmic: Scleral icterus (4%)

Renal: Nephrolithiasis (<2%), renal disease (<2%)

Frequency not defined: Endocrine & metabolic: Increased HDL cholesterol, increased LDL cholesterol, increased serum glucose, increased serum triglycerides

Warnings/Precautions

Concerns related to adverse effects:

• Cholelithiasis: Cases have been reported postmarketing; some required hospitalization and some had complications. Temporary or permanent discontinuation of therapy should be considered if symptoms develop.

• Elevated bilirubin: Asymptomatic elevations in bilirubin (unconjugated) occur commonly during therapy; reversible upon discontinuation. Safety data does not exist for bilirubin persistently >5 times ULN. Evaluate alternative etiologies if transaminase elevations also occur. Consider alternative therapy if jaundice or scleral icterus cause cosmetic concern.

• Fat redistribution: May cause redistribution of fat (eg, buffalo hump, peripheral wasting with increased abdominal girth, cushingoid appearance).

• Hypersensitivity reactions: Protease inhibitors have been associated with a variety of hypersensitivity events (some severe), including rash, anaphylaxis (rare), angioedema, bronchospasm, erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome (rare), acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis, toxic epidermal necrolysis, and/or drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome. Discontinue treatment if severe skin reactions develop. Severe skin reactions may be accompanied by fever, malaise, fatigue, arthralgias, hepatitis, oral lesions, blisters, conjunctivitis, and/or eosinophilia. Mild to moderate rash may occur early in treatment and resolve with continued therapy.

• Immune reconstitution syndrome: Patients may develop immune reconstitution syndrome resulting in the occurrence of an inflammatory response to an indolent or residual opportunistic infection during initial HIV treatment or activation of autoimmune disorders (eg, Graves disease, polymyositis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, autoimmune hepatitis) later in therapy; further evaluation and treatment may be required.

• Nephrolithiasis: Cases have been reported postmarketing; some required hospitalization and some had complications. Temporary or permanent discontinuation of therapy should be considered if symptoms develop.

• Renal toxicity: Concomitant use of cobicistat and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate may cause renal toxicity (acute renal failure and/or Fanconi syndrome); avoid use with concurrent or recent nephrotoxic therapy. Calculate estimated creatinine clearance (CrCl) prior to initiation of therapy. Assess serum phosphorus in patients with or at risk for renal impairment. In patients receiving concomitant tenofovir, assess urine glucose and urine protein prior to and periodically during treatment and monitor renal function (including recalculation of creatinine clearance) during therapy. Do not administer in combination with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in patients with CrCl <70 mL/minute or in patients with concomitant or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent.

Disease-related concerns:

• Conduction abnormalities: Atazanavir may prolong PR interval; usually first degree AV block only and asymptomatic; rare cases of second-degree AV block have been reported. ECG monitoring should be considered in patients with preexisting conduction abnormalities or with medications which prolong AV conduction (dosage adjustment required with some agents).

• Diabetes: Changes in glucose tolerance, hyperglycemia, exacerbation of diabetes, DKA, and new-onset diabetes mellitus have been reported in patients receiving protease inhibitors. Initiation or dose adjustments of antidiabetic agents may be required.

• Hemophilia A or B: Use with caution in patients with hemophilia A or B; increased bleeding (eg, spontaneous skin hematomas and hemarthroses) has been reported during protease inhibitor therapy. Some patients receive additional factor VIII. In more than half of the cases, protease inhibitor treatment was continued or reintroduced if treatment was discontinued.

• Hepatic impairment: Not recommended in patients with hepatic impairment. Patients with underlying hepatic disease such as hepatitis B or C or marked transaminase elevations may be at risk for further transaminase elevations or hepatic decompensation. Closely monitor at risk patients at baseline and periodically during treatment.

• Renal impairment: Cases of chronic kidney disease, including granulomatous interstitial nephritis, have been reported in postmarketing surveillance with or without ritonavir; consider alternative therapy in patients at high risk for renal impairment or with preexisting renal disease. Renal function monitoring should be performed at baseline and periodically during treatment. Not recommended for use in treatment-experienced patients with ESRD on hemodialysis. Consider therapy discontinuation in patients with progressive kidney disease.

Concurrent drug therapy issues:

• Concurrent therapy: Avoid use with other protease inhibitors, elvitegravir, ritonavir, or other atazanavir- or cobicistat-containing products.

Special populations:

• Pediatric: Atazanavir should not be used in patients <3 months of age due to potential for kernicterus.

Other warning/precautions:

• False elevations in serum creatinine: Cobicistat may inhibit tubular secretion of creatinine without affecting actual renal glomerular function; use caution when interpreting serum creatinine values in patients with medical conditions or receiving drugs needing to be monitored with estimated CrCl. Patients who experience a confirmed increase in serum creatinine >0.4 mg/dL from baseline should have renal function monitored closely. Assess estimated CrCl prior to initiating therapy; consider alternative medications that do not require dosage adjustments in patients with renal impairment.

Monitoring Parameters

Vital signs, ECG; serum creatinine, estimated CrCl, and urinalysis with microscopic examination (baseline and periodically during treatment); liver function tests (baseline and periodically during treatment in patients with existing liver disease). When coadministered with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, creatinine clearance, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to initiation and as clinically indicated during therapy; assess serum phosphorus in patients with or at risk for renal impairment. Patients who experience a confirmed increase in serum creatinine >0.4 mg/dL from baseline should have renal function monitored closely. Testing for HBV is recommended prior to the initiation of antiretroviral therapy.

Reproductive Considerations

The Health and Human Services perinatal HIV guidelines do not recommend this fixed-dose combination for females living with HIV who are not yet pregnant but are trying to conceive (HHS [perinatal] 2019).

Females living with HIV not planning a pregnancy may use any available type of contraception, considering possible drug interactions and contraindications of the specific method. Consult drug interactions database for more detailed information specific to use of atazanavir/cobicistat and combination oral contraceptives. The manufacturer recommends considering use of nonhormonal contraceptives.

Refer to individual monographs for additional information.

Pregnancy Considerations

The Health and Human Services (HHS) perinatal HIV guidelines do not recommend this fixed-dose combination for pregnant females living with HIV who are antiretroviral-naive, who have had antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the past but are restarting, or who require a new ART regimen (due to poor tolerance or poor virologic response of current regimen). For females who become pregnant while taking this combination, consider altering the regimen, or continue with frequent monitoring if viral suppression is effective and the regimen is well tolerated. Trough concentrations of atazanavir may be significantly reduced during the second and third trimesters when used in combination with cobicistat (HHS [perinatal] 2019).

Refer to individual monographs for additional information.

Patient Education

What is this drug used for?

• It is used to treat HIV infection.

WARNING/CAUTION: Even though it may be rare, some people may have very bad and sometimes deadly side effects when taking a drug. Tell your doctor or get medical help right away if you have any of the following signs or symptoms that may be related to a very bad side effect:

• Liver problems like dark urine, fatigue, lack of appetite, nausea, abdominal pain, light-colored stools, vomiting, or yellow skin

• High blood sugar like confusion, fatigue, increased thirst, increased hunger, passing a lot of urine, flushing, fast breathing, or breath that smells like fruit

• Kidney problems like unable to pass urine, blood in the urine, change in amount of urine passed, or weight gain

• Gallstones like pain in the upper right abdominal area, right shoulder area, or between the shoulder blades; yellow skin; or fever with chills

• Kidney stone like back pain, abdominal pain, or blood in the urine

• Dizziness

• Passing out

• Muscle pain

• Joint pain

• Painful urination

• Abnormal heartbeat

• Severe nausea

• Vomiting

• Change in body fat

• Yellow skin

• Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis like red, swollen, blistered, or peeling skin (with or without fever); red or irritated eyes; or sores in mouth, throat, nose, or eyes

• Infection

• Signs of an allergic reaction, like rash; hives; itching; red, swollen, blistered, or peeling skin with or without fever; wheezing; tightness in the chest or throat; trouble breathing, swallowing, or talking; unusual hoarseness; or swelling of the mouth, face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Note: This is not a comprehensive list of all side effects. Talk to your doctor if you have questions.

Consumer Information Use and Disclaimer: This information should not be used to decide whether or not to take this medicine or any other medicine. Only the healthcare provider has the knowledge and training to decide which medicines are right for a specific patient. This information does not endorse any medicine as safe, effective, or approved for treating any patient or health condition. This is only a limited summary of general information about the medicine's uses from the patient education leaflet and is not intended to be comprehensive. This limited summary does NOT include all information available about the possible uses, directions, warnings, precautions, interactions, adverse effects, or risks that may apply to this medicine. This information is not intended to provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment and does not replace information you receive from the healthcare provider. For a more detailed summary of information about the risks and benefits of using this medicine, please speak with your healthcare provider and review the entire patient education leaflet.

Further information

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.