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Apalutamide

Pronunciation

(a pa LOO ta mide)

Index Terms

  • ARN-509
  • Erleada
  • JNJ-56021927

Dosage Forms

Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for generics); consult specific product labeling.

Tablet, Oral:

Erleada: 60 mg

Brand Names: U.S.

  • Erleada

Pharmacologic Category

  • Antineoplastic Agent, Antiandrogen

Pharmacology

Apalutamide is a nonsteroidal androgen receptor inhibitor; apalutamide binds directly to the androgen receptor ligand-binding domain to prevent androgen-receptor translocation, DNA binding, and receptor-mediated transcription (Smith 2018). Androgen receptor inhibition results in decreased proliferation of tumor cells and increased apoptosis, leading to a decrease in tumor volume.

Distribution

~276 L

Metabolism

Hepatic; primarily via CYP2C8 and CYP3A4 to form the active metabolite N-desmethyl apalutamide

Excretion

Urine (65%; 1.2% as apalutamide and 2.7% as N-desmethyl apalutamide); Feces (24%; 1.5% as apalutamide and 2% as N-desmethyl apalutamide)

Time to Peak

2 hours (range: 1 to 5 hours)

Half-Life Elimination

~3 days

Protein Binding

Apalutamide: 96%; N-desmethyl apalutamide: 95%; to plasma proteins

Use: Labeled Indications

Prostate cancer, non-metastatic, castration-resistant: Treatment of non-metastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer (NM-CRPC).

Contraindications

Pregnancy

Dosing: Adult

Prostate cancer, non-metastatic, castration-resistant: Oral: 240 mg once daily (in combination with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog agonist or antagonist [if had not received bilateral orchiectomy]); continue until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity (Smith 2018)

Missed doses: If a daily dose is missed, administer as soon as possible on the same day and return to the normal dosing schedule the following day; do not administer extra tablets to make up a missed dose.

Dosing: Geriatric

Refer to adult dosing.

Dosing: Renal Impairment

Note: Renal function estimated by the modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD) equation.

eGFR 30 to 89 mL/minute/1.73 m2: There are no dosage adjustments provided in the manufacturer’s labeling. However, no clinically significant pharmacokinetic differences were observed in mild or moderate renal impairment; therefore, dosage adjustment is not likely necessary.

eGFR ≤29 mL/minute/1.73 m2: There are no dosage adjustments provided in the manufacturer’s labeling (has not been studied).

Dosing: Hepatic Impairment

Mild to moderate impairment (Child-Pugh classes A and B): There are no dosage adjustments provided in the manufacturer’s labeling. However, no clinically significant pharmacokinetic differences were observed in mild or moderate hepatic impairment; therefore, dosage adjustment is not likely necessary.

Severe impairment (Child-Pugh class C): There are no dosage adjustments provided in the manufacturer’s labeling (has not been studied).

Dosing: Adjustment for Toxicity

Grade 3 or higher toxicity (or intolerable adverse reaction): Withhold dosing until symptoms improve to baseline or to grade 1 or lower, then resume either at the same dose or (if warranted) with the dose reduced to 180 mg or 120 mg.

Seizure: Permanently discontinue.

Administration

Oral: Administer at the same time each day, either with or without food. Swallow tablets whole.

Storage

Store at 20°C to 25°C (68°F to 77°F); excursions permitted to 15°C to 30°C (59°F to 86°F). Protect from light. Store in the original package. Do not discard desiccant; protect from moisture.

Drug Interactions

Abemaciclib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Abemaciclib. Avoid combination

Abiraterone Acetate: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Abiraterone Acetate. Management: Avoid whenever possible. If such a combination cannot be avoided, increase abiraterone acetate dosing frequency from once daily to twice daily during concomitant use. Consider therapy modification

Acalabrutinib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Acalabrutinib. Management: Avoid co-administration of strong CYP3A inducers in patients taking acalabrutinib. If strong CYP3A inducers cannot be avoided, increase the dose of acalabrutinib to 200 mg twice daily. Consider therapy modification

Afatinib: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inducers may decrease the serum concentration of Afatinib. Management: Per US labeling: if requiring chronic use of P-gp inducers, increase afatinib dose by 10mg as tolerated; reduce to original afatinib dose 2-3 days after stopping P-gp inducers. Per Canadian labeling: avoid combination if possible. Consider therapy modification

Antihepaciviral Combination Products: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Antihepaciviral Combination Products. Avoid combination

Apixaban: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Apixaban. Avoid combination

Apremilast: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Apremilast. Avoid combination

Aprepitant: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Aprepitant. Avoid combination

ARIPiprazole: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of ARIPiprazole. Management: Double the oral aripiprazole dose and closely monitor. Reduce oral aripiprazole dose to 10-15 mg/day (for adults) if the inducer is discontinued. Avoid use of strong CYP3A4 inducers for more than 14 days with extended-release injectable aripiprazole. Consider therapy modification

ARIPiprazole Lauroxil: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of ARIPiprazole Lauroxil. Management: Patients taking the 441 mg dose of aripiprazole lauroxil increase their dose to 662 mg if used with a strong CYP3A4 inducer for more than 14 days. No dose adjustment is necessary for patients using the higher doses of aripiprazole lauroxil. Consider therapy modification

Artemether: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Artemether. Specifically, dihydroartemisinin concentrations may be reduced. CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Artemether. Avoid combination

Asunaprevir: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Asunaprevir. Avoid combination

Axitinib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Axitinib. Avoid combination

Bedaquiline: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Bedaquiline. Avoid combination

Benperidol: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Benperidol. Monitor therapy

Benzhydrocodone: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Benzhydrocodone. Specifically, the serum concentrations of hydrocodone may be reduced. Monitor therapy

Bictegravir: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Bictegravir. Management: Rifampin is specifically contraindicated, and the use of carbamazepine, phenytoin, or phenobarbital is not recommended when alternatives are acceptable Monitor therapy

Boceprevir: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Boceprevir. Avoid combination

Bortezomib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Bortezomib. Avoid combination

Bosutinib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Bosutinib. Avoid combination

Brentuximab Vedotin: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Brentuximab Vedotin. Specifically, concentrations of the active monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE) component may be decreased. Monitor therapy

Brentuximab Vedotin: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inducers may decrease the serum concentration of Brentuximab Vedotin. Specifically, concentrations of the active monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE) component may be decreased. Monitor therapy

Brexpiprazole: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Brexpiprazole. Management: If brexpiprazole is used together with a strong CYP3A4 inducer, the brexpiprazole dose should gradually be doubled over the course of 1 to 2 weeks. Consider therapy modification

Brigatinib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Brigatinib. Avoid combination

Buprenorphine: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Buprenorphine. Monitor therapy

BusPIRone: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of BusPIRone. Management: Consider alternatives to this combination. If coadministration of these agents is deemed necessary, monitor patients for reduced buspirone effects and increase buspirone doses as needed. Consider therapy modification

Cabozantinib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Cabozantinib. Management: Avoid use of strong CYP3A4 inducers with cabozantinib if possible. If combined, cabozantinib dose adjustments are recommended and vary based on the cabozantinib product used and the indication for use. See monograph for details. Consider therapy modification

Calcifediol: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Calcifediol. Monitor therapy

Cannabidiol: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Cannabidiol. Monitor therapy

Cannabis: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Cannabis. More specifically, tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol serum concentrations may be decreased. Monitor therapy

Cariprazine: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Cariprazine. Avoid combination

Celiprolol: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inducers may decrease the serum concentration of Celiprolol. Monitor therapy

Ceritinib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Ceritinib. Avoid combination

Choline C 11: Antiandrogens may diminish the therapeutic effect of Choline C 11. Monitor therapy

Clarithromycin: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Clarithromycin. Clarithromycin may increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong). CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Clarithromycin. Management: Consider alternative antimicrobial therapy for patients receiving a CYP3A inducer. Drugs that enhance the metabolism of clarithromycin into 14-hydroxyclarithromycin may alter the clinical activity of clarithromycin and may impair clarithromycin efficacy. Consider therapy modification

Clindamycin (Systemic): CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Clindamycin (Systemic). Refer to the specific clindamycin (systemic) - rifampin drug interaction monograph for information concerning that combination. Monitor therapy

Clopidogrel: CYP2C19 Inducers (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Clopidogrel. Monitor therapy

CloZAPine: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of CloZAPine. Avoid combination

Cobimetinib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Cobimetinib. Avoid combination

Codeine: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Codeine. Monitor therapy

Copanlisib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Copanlisib. Avoid combination

Corticosteroids (Systemic): CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Corticosteroids (Systemic). Exceptions: Hydrocortisone (Systemic); PrednisoLONE (Systemic); PredniSONE. Monitor therapy

Crizotinib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Crizotinib. Avoid combination

CYP2C19 Substrates (High risk with Inducers): CYP2C19 Inducers (Strong) may increase the metabolism of CYP2C19 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Management: Consider an alternative for one of the interacting drugs. Some combinations may be specifically contraindicated. Consult appropriate manufacturer labeling. Consider therapy modification

CYP2C8 Inhibitors (Strong): May increase the serum concentration of Apalutamide. Monitor therapy

CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong): May decrease the serum concentration of Apalutamide. Monitor therapy

CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong): May increase the serum concentration of Apalutamide. Monitor therapy

CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers): CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may increase the metabolism of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Management: Consider an alternative for one of the interacting drugs. Some combinations may be specifically contraindicated. Consult appropriate manufacturer labeling. Exceptions: Benzhydrocodone; Buprenorphine; Etizolam; HYDROcodone; TraMADol; Zolpidem. Consider therapy modification

Dabigatran Etexilate: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inducers may decrease the serum concentration of Dabigatran Etexilate. Management: Avoid concurrent use of dabigatran with p-glycoprotein inducers when possible. Closely monitor for decreased levels/effects of dabigatran if concomitantly administering P-glycoprotein inducers, particularly strong inducers. Avoid combination

Dabrafenib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Dabrafenib. Monitor therapy

Daclatasvir: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Daclatasvir. Avoid combination

Dasabuvir: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Dasabuvir. Avoid combination

Dasatinib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Dasatinib. Management: Avoid when possible. If such a combination cannot be avoided, consider increasing dasatinib dose and monitor clinical response and toxicity closely. Consider therapy modification

Deflazacort: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Deflazacort. Avoid combination

Delamanid: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Delamanid. Avoid combination

Dexamethasone (Systemic): CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Dexamethasone (Systemic). Management: Consider dexamethasone dose increases in patients receiving strong CYP3A4 inducers and monitor closely for reduced steroid efficacy. Consider therapy modification

Dienogest: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Dienogest. Management: Avoid use of dienogest for contraception when using medications that induce CYP3A4 and for at least 28 days after discontinuation of a CYP3A4 inducer. An alternative form of contraception should be used during this time. Avoid combination

Diethylstilbestrol: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Diethylstilbestrol. Monitor therapy

Doxercalciferol: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Doxercalciferol. Monitor therapy

DOXOrubicin (Conventional): CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of DOXOrubicin (Conventional). Management: Seek alternatives to strong CYP3A4 inducers in patients treated with doxorubicin. One U.S. manufacturer (Pfizer Inc.) recommends that these combinations be avoided. Consider therapy modification

DOXOrubicin (Conventional): P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inducers may decrease the serum concentration of DOXOrubicin (Conventional). Management: Seek alternatives to P-glycoprotein inducers in patients treated with doxorubicin whenever possible. One U.S. manufacturer (Pfizer Inc.) recommends that these combinations be avoided. Consider therapy modification

Dronabinol: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Dronabinol. Monitor therapy

Dronedarone: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Dronedarone. Avoid combination

Elbasvir: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Elbasvir. Avoid combination

Eliglustat: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Eliglustat. Avoid combination

Enzalutamide: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Enzalutamide. Management: Consider using an alternative agent that has no or minimal CYP3A4 induction potential when possible. If this combination cannot be avoided, increase the dose of enzalutamide from 160 mg daily to 240 mg daily. Consider therapy modification

Erlotinib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Erlotinib. Management: Avoid combination if possible. If combination must be used, increase erlotinib dose by 50 mg increments every 2 weeks as tolerated, to a maximum of 450 mg/day. Consider therapy modification

Estriol (Systemic): CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Estriol (Systemic). Monitor therapy

Estriol (Topical): CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Estriol (Topical). Monitor therapy

Etoposide: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Etoposide. Management: When possible, seek alternatives to strong CYP3A4-inducing medications in patients receiving etoposide. If these combinations cannot be avoided, monitor patients closely for diminished etoposide response. Consider therapy modification

Etoposide Phosphate: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Etoposide Phosphate. Management: When possible, seek alternatives to strong CYP3A4-inducing medications in patients receiving etoposide phosphate. If these combinations cannot be avoided, monitor patients closely for diminished etoposide phosphate response. Consider therapy modification

Everolimus: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Everolimus. Management: Avoid concurrent use of strong CYP3A4 inducers if possible. If coadministration cannot be avoided, double the daily dose of everolimus using increments of 5 mg or less. Monitor everolimus serum concentrations closely when indicated. Consider therapy modification

Evogliptin: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Evogliptin. Monitor therapy

Exemestane: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Exemestane. Management: Exemestane U.S. product labeling recommends using an increased dose (50 mg/day) in patients receiving concurrent strong CYP3A4 inducers. The Canadian product labeling does not recommend a dose adjustment with concurrent use of strong CYP3A4 inducers. Consider therapy modification

FentaNYL: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of FentaNYL. Monitor therapy

Flibanserin: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Flibanserin. Avoid combination

Fosnetupitant: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Fosnetupitant. Avoid combination

Fostamatinib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Fostamatinib. Avoid combination

Gefitinib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Gefitinib. Management: In the absence of severe adverse reactions, increase gefitinib dose to 500 mg daily in patients receiving strong CYP3A4 inducers; resume 250 mg dose 7 days after discontinuation of the strong inducer. Carefully monitor clinical response. Consider therapy modification

Gemigliptin: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Gemigliptin. CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Gemigliptin. Avoid combination

Glecaprevir and Pibrentasvir: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Glecaprevir and Pibrentasvir. Monitor therapy

Glecaprevir and Pibrentasvir: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inducers may decrease the serum concentration of Glecaprevir and Pibrentasvir. Monitor therapy

Grazoprevir: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Grazoprevir. Avoid combination

GuanFACINE: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of GuanFACINE. Management: Increase the guanfacine dose by up to double when initiating concomitant therapy with strong CYP3A4 inducers. Increase guanfacine dose gradually over 1-2 weeks if strong CYP3A4 inducer therapy is just beginning. Consider therapy modification

HYDROcodone: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of HYDROcodone. Monitor therapy

Hydrocortisone (Systemic): CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Hydrocortisone (Systemic). Monitor therapy

Ibrutinib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Ibrutinib. Avoid combination

Idelalisib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Idelalisib. Avoid combination

Ifosfamide: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Ifosfamide. CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Ifosfamide. Monitor therapy

Imatinib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Imatinib. Management: Avoid concurrent use of imatinib with strong CYP3A4 inducers when possible. If such a combination must be used, increase imatinib dose by at least 50% and monitor the patient's clinical response closely. Consider therapy modification

Indium 111 Capromab Pendetide: Antiandrogens may diminish the diagnostic effect of Indium 111 Capromab Pendetide. Avoid combination

Irinotecan Products: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Irinotecan Products. Specifically, serum concentrations of SN-38 may be reduced. CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Irinotecan Products. Avoid combination

Isavuconazonium Sulfate: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Isavuconazonium Sulfate. Specifically, CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease isavuconazole serum concentrations. Avoid combination

Itraconazole: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Itraconazole. Avoid combination

Ivabradine: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Ivabradine. Avoid combination

Ivacaftor: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Ivacaftor. Avoid combination

Ixabepilone: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Ixabepilone. Management: Avoid this combination whenever possible. If this combination must be used, a gradual increase in ixabepilone dose from 40 mg/m2 to 60 mg/m2 (given as a 4-hour infusion), as tolerated, should be considered. Consider therapy modification

Ixazomib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Ixazomib. Avoid combination

Lapatinib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Lapatinib. Management: If therapy overlap cannot be avoided, consider titrating lapatinib gradually from 1,250 mg/day up to 4,500 mg/day (HER2 positive metastatic breast cancer) or 1,500 mg/day up to 5,500 mg/day (hormone receptor/HER2 positive breast cancer) as tolerated. Avoid combination

Ledipasvir: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inducers may decrease the serum concentration of Ledipasvir. Avoid combination

Linagliptin: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Linagliptin. Management: Strongly consider using an alternative to any strong CYP3A4 inducer in patients who are being treated with linagliptin. If this combination is used, monitor patients closely for evidence of reduced linagliptin effectiveness. Consider therapy modification

Linagliptin: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inducers may decrease the serum concentration of Linagliptin. Management: Strongly consider using an alternative to any strong P-glycoprotein inducer in patients who are being treated with linagliptin. If this combination is used, monitor patients closely for evidence of reduced linagliptin effectiveness. Consider therapy modification

Lumefantrine: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Lumefantrine. Avoid combination

Lurasidone: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Lurasidone. Avoid combination

Macimorelin: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Macimorelin. Avoid combination

Macitentan: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Macitentan. Avoid combination

Manidipine: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Manidipine. Management: Consider avoiding concomitant use of manidipine and strong CYP3A4 inducers. If combined, monitor closely for decreased manidipine effects and loss of efficacy. Increased manidipine doses may be required. Consider therapy modification

Maraviroc: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Maraviroc. Management: Increase maraviroc adult dose to 600 mg twice daily when used with strong CYP3A4 inducers. This does not apply to patients also receiving strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Do not use maraviroc with strong CYP3A4 inducers in patients with CrCl less than 30 mL/min. Consider therapy modification

MethylPREDNISolone: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of MethylPREDNISolone. Management: Consider methylprednisolone dose increases in patients receiving strong CYP3A4 inducers and monitor closely for reduced steroid efficacy. Consider therapy modification

Midostaurin: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Midostaurin. Avoid combination

MiFEPRIStone: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of MiFEPRIStone. Avoid combination

Mirodenafil: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Mirodenafil. Management: Consider avoiding the concomitant use of mirodenafil and strong CYP3A4 inducers. If combined, monitor for decreased mirodenafil effects. Mirodenafil dose increases may be required to achieve desired effects. Consider therapy modification

Naldemedine: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Naldemedine. Avoid combination

Naloxegol: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Naloxegol. Avoid combination

Neratinib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Neratinib. Avoid combination

Netupitant: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Netupitant. Avoid combination

NIFEdipine: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of NIFEdipine. Avoid combination

Nilotinib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Nilotinib. Avoid combination

NiMODipine: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of NiMODipine. Avoid combination

Nintedanib: Combined Inducers of CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein may decrease the serum concentration of Nintedanib. Avoid combination

Nisoldipine: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Nisoldipine. Avoid combination

Olaparib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Olaparib. Avoid combination

Osimertinib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Osimertinib. Consider therapy modification

OXcarbazepine: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of OXcarbazepine. Specifically, the concentrations of the 10-monohydroxy active metabolite of oxcarbazepine may be decreased. Monitor therapy

Palbociclib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Palbociclib. Avoid combination

Paliperidone: Inducers of CYP3A4 (Strong) and P-glycoprotein may decrease the serum concentration of Paliperidone. Management: Avoid using the 3-month extended-release injectable suspension (Invega Trinza) with inducers of both CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein during the 3-month dosing interval if possible. If combination is necessary, consider using extended-release tablets. Consider therapy modification

Panobinostat: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Panobinostat. Avoid combination

PAZOPanib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of PAZOPanib. Avoid combination

Perampanel: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Perampanel. Management: Increase the perampanel starting dose to 4 mg/day when perampanel is used concurrently with moderate and strong CYP3A4 inducers. Consider therapy modification

P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Substrates: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inducers may decrease the serum concentration of P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Substrates. P-glycoprotein inducers may also further limit the distribution of p-glycoprotein substrates to specific cells/tissues/organs where p-glycoprotein is present in large amounts (e.g., brain, T-lymphocytes, testes, etc.). Monitor therapy

Pimavanserin: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Pimavanserin. Monitor therapy

Piperaquine: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Piperaquine. Avoid combination

Pitolisant: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Pitolisant. Monitor therapy

PONATinib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of PONATinib. Avoid combination

Praziquantel: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Praziquantel. Management: Avoid concomitant use of praziquantel with strong CYP3A4 inducers. Discontinue rifampin 4 weeks prior to initiation of praziquantel therapy. Rifampin may be resumed the day following praziquantel completion. Avoid combination

PrednisoLONE (Systemic): CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of PrednisoLONE (Systemic). Monitor therapy

PredniSONE: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of PredniSONE. Monitor therapy

Propafenone: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Propafenone. Monitor therapy

QUEtiapine: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of QUEtiapine. Management: An increase in quetiapine dose (as much as 5 times the regular dose) may be required to maintain therapeutic benefit. Reduce the quetiapine dose back to the previous/regular dose within 7-14 days of discontinuing the inducer. Consider therapy modification

Radotinib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Radotinib. Management: Consider alternatives to this combination when possible as the risk of radotinib treatment failure may be increased. Consider therapy modification

Ramelteon: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Ramelteon. Monitor therapy

Ranolazine: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Ranolazine. Avoid combination

Reboxetine: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Reboxetine. Monitor therapy

Regorafenib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Regorafenib. Avoid combination

Ribociclib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Ribociclib. Avoid combination

RisperiDONE: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of RisperiDONE. Management: Consider increasing the dose of oral risperidone (to no more than double the original dose) if a strong CYP3A4 inducer is initiated. For patients on IM risperidone, consider an increased IM dose or supplemental doses of oral risperidone. Consider therapy modification

Rivaroxaban: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Rivaroxaban. Avoid combination

Roflumilast: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Roflumilast. Management: Roflumilast U.S. prescribing information recommends against combining strong CYP3A4 inducers with roflumilast. The Canadian product monograph makes no such recommendation but notes that such agents may reduce roflumilast therapeutic effects. Avoid combination

Rolapitant: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Rolapitant. Management: Avoid rolapitant use in patients requiring chronic administration of strong CYP3A4 inducers. Monitor for reduced rolapitant response and the need for alternative or additional antiemetic therapy even with shorter-term use of such inducers. Consider therapy modification

RomiDEPsin: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of RomiDEPsin. Avoid combination

Rosuvastatin: Apalutamide may decrease the serum concentration of Rosuvastatin. Monitor therapy

Ruxolitinib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Ruxolitinib. Monitor therapy

SAXagliptin: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of SAXagliptin. Monitor therapy

Sertraline: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Sertraline. Monitor therapy

Simeprevir: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Simeprevir. Avoid combination

Sirolimus: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Sirolimus. Management: Avoid concomitant use of strong CYP3A4 inducers and sirolimus if possible. If combined, monitor for reduced serum sirolimus concentrations. Sirolimus dose increases will likely be necessary to prevent subtherapeutic sirolimus levels. Consider therapy modification

Sofosbuvir: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inducers may decrease the serum concentration of Sofosbuvir. Avoid combination

Sonidegib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Sonidegib. Avoid combination

SORAfenib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of SORAfenib. Avoid combination

SUFentanil: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of SUFentanil. Monitor therapy

SUNItinib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of SUNItinib. Management: Avoid when possible. If such a combination cannot be avoided, consider increasing sunitinib dose and monitor clinical response and toxicity closely. Consider therapy modification

Suvorexant: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Suvorexant. Avoid combination

Tadalafil: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Tadalafil. Management: Erectile dysfunction: monitor for decreased effectiveness - no standard dose adjustments recommended. Avoid use of tadalafil for pulmonary arterial hypertension in patients receiving a strong CYP3A4 inducer. Consider therapy modification

Tamoxifen: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Tamoxifen. CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Tamoxifen. Management: Consider alternatives to concomitant use of strong CYP3A4 inducers and tamoxifen. If the combination cannot be avoided, monitor for reduced therapeutic effects of tamoxifen. Consider therapy modification

Tasimelteon: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Tasimelteon. Avoid combination

Telaprevir: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Telaprevir. Avoid combination

Temsirolimus: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Temsirolimus. Management: Consider increasing the dose of temsirolimus to 50 mg IV/week (from 25 mg IV/week) if a concomitant CYP3A4 strong inducer is necessary. Consider therapy modification

Tetrahydrocannabinol: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Tetrahydrocannabinol. Monitor therapy

Thyroid Products: Apalutamide may diminish the therapeutic effect of Thyroid Products. Monitor therapy

TiaGABine: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of TiaGABine. Management: Approximately 2-fold higher tiagabine doses and a more rapid dose titration will likely be required in patients concomitantly taking a strong CYP3A4 inducer. Consider therapy modification

Ticagrelor: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Ticagrelor. CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Ticagrelor. Avoid combination

Tofacitinib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Tofacitinib. Avoid combination

Tolvaptan: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Tolvaptan. Management: If concurrent use is necessary, increased doses of tolvaptan (with close monitoring for toxicity and clinical response) may be needed. Avoid combination

Toremifene: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Toremifene. Avoid combination

Trabectedin: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Trabectedin. Avoid combination

TraMADol: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of TraMADol. Monitor therapy

Tropisetron: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Tropisetron. Monitor therapy

Udenafil: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Udenafil. Monitor therapy

Ulipristal: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Ulipristal. Avoid combination

Valbenazine: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Valbenazine. Avoid combination

Vandetanib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Vandetanib. Avoid combination

Velpatasvir: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Velpatasvir. Avoid combination

Velpatasvir: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inducers may decrease the serum concentration of Velpatasvir. Avoid combination

Vemurafenib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Vemurafenib. Management: Avoid concurrent use of vemurafenib with a strong CYP3A4 inducer and replace with another agent when possible. If a strong CYP3A4 inducer is indicated and unavoidable, the dose of vemurafenib may be increased by 240 mg (1 tablet) as tolerated. Consider therapy modification

Venetoclax: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Venetoclax. Avoid combination

Vilazodone: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Vilazodone. Management: Consider increasing vilazodone dose by as much as 2-fold (do not exceed 80 mg/day), based on response, in patients receiving strong CYP3A4 inducers for > 14 days. Reduce to the original vilazodone dose over 1-2 weeks after inducer discontinuation. Consider therapy modification

VinCRIStine (Liposomal): CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of VinCRIStine (Liposomal). Avoid combination

VinCRIStine (Liposomal): P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inducers may decrease the serum concentration of VinCRIStine (Liposomal). Avoid combination

Vinflunine: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Vinflunine. Avoid combination

Vorapaxar: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Vorapaxar. Avoid combination

Vortioxetine: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Vortioxetine. Management: Consider increasing the vortioxetine dose to no more than 3 times the original dose when used with a strong drug metabolism inducer for more than 14 days. The vortioxetine dose should be returned to normal within 14 days of stopping the strong inducer. Consider therapy modification

Voxilaprevir: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Voxilaprevir. Avoid combination

Warfarin: Apalutamide may decrease the serum concentration of Warfarin. Monitor therapy

Zaleplon: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Zaleplon. Management: Consider the use of an alternative hypnotic that is not metabolized by CYP3A4 in patients receiving strong CYP3A4 inducers. If zalephon is combined with a strong CYP3A4 inducer, monitor for decreased effectiveness of zaleplon. Consider therapy modification

Zolpidem: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Zolpidem. Monitor therapy

Zuclopenthixol: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Zuclopenthixol. Monitor therapy

Adverse Reactions

>10%:

Cardiovascular: Hypertension (25%), peripheral edema (11%)

Central nervous system: Fatigue (39%), falling (16%)

Dermatologic: Skin rash (24%)

Endocrine & metabolic: Hypercholesterolemia (76%), hyperglycemia (70%), hypertriglyceridemia (67%), hyperkalemia (32%), increased thyroid stimulating hormone level (25%), weight loss (16%), hot flash (14%)

Gastrointestinal: Diarrhea (20%), nausea (18%), decreased appetite (12%)

Hematologic & oncologic: Anemia (70%; grades 3/4: <1%), leukopenia (47%; grades 3/4: <1%), lymphocytopenia (41%; grades 3/4: 2%)

Neuromuscular & skeletal: Arthralgia (16%), bone fracture (12%)

1% to 10%:

Cardiovascular: Ischemic heart disease (4%), cardiac failure (2%)

Dermatologic: Pruritus (6%)

Endocrine & metabolic: Hypothyroidism (8%)

<1%, postmarketing, and/or case reports: Seizure

Warnings/Precautions

Concerns related to adverse effects:

• Dermatologic toxicity: Rashes (usually macular or maculo-papular) were reported in nearly one-fourth of patients who received apalutamide; including some that were grade 3 or 4. Rash onset usually occurred at median of 82 days and typically resolved within a median of 60 days in most patients. Some patients required systemic corticosteroids to manage rash. Rash recurred in approximately half of patients who were re-challenged with apalutamide.

• Falls/fractures: Fall and fractures have occurred in patients receiving apalutamide. Grade 3 or 4 fractures have been reported. In a clinical study, the median time to onset of fracture was ~10 months (range: ~0.6 to 32 months); the study did not perform routine bone density assessments or osteoporosis treatment with bone modifying agents. Evaluate patients for fall and fracture risk. Patients at risk for fractures should be monitored and managed according to established management guidelines. Consider the use of bone modifying agents.

• QT prolongation: Based on exposure-QT analysis in an uncontrolled, single-arm dedicated QTc interval assessment study, a concentration-dependent increase in QTcF was noted with apalutamide (and the active metabolite). The maximum mean QTcF change from baseline was 12.4 msec.

• Seizures: Seizures occurred in patients receiving apalutamide. It is not known if antiepileptic medications can prevent apalutamide-related seizures. In a clinical study, a small number of patients experienced seizures, with the onset occurring from ~12 months to 16 months after treatment initiation. Patients with a history of seizure, predisposing factors for seizure, or receiving medications known to reduce seizure threshold or to induce seizures were excluded from the study. There is no experience in reinitiating apalutamide in patients who experienced a seizure. Advise patients of the risk of seizures during apalutamide treatment and of the risk of engaging in activities where sudden loss of consciousness could cause serious harm to themselves or others. Discontinue apalutamide permanently if seizures develop during treatment.

• Thyroid dysfunction: Hypothyroidism and elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) have been reported with apalutamide; the median onset was ~4 months (there were no grade 3 or 4 hypothyroid events). Thyroid replacement therapy was initiated in some patients; if clinically indicated, thyroid replacement therapy should be initiated and/or dose-adjusted.

Disease-related concerns:

• Cardiovascular disease: Androgen-deprivation therapy may increase the risk for cardiovascular disease (Levine 2010).

Concurrent drug therapy issues:

• Drug-drug interactions: Potentially significant interactions may exist, requiring dose or frequency adjustment, additional monitoring, and/or selection of alternative therapy. Consult drug interactions database for more detailed information.

Monitoring Parameters

Monitor thyroid function (eg, TSH) as clinically necessary. Monitor for signs/symptoms of seizure and dermatologic toxicity. Assess for fall and fracture risk. Monitor adherence.

Pregnancy Considerations

Use is contraindicated during pregnancy.

Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted. Based on the mechanism of action, apalutamide may cause fetal harm if administered during pregnancy. Males with female partners of reproductive potential should use effective contraception during therapy and for 3 months after the last apalutamide dose. Apalutamide may impair fertility in males of reproductive potential (based on findings in animal studies).

Patient Education

• Discuss specific use of drug and side effects with patient as it relates to treatment. (HCAHPS: During this hospital stay, were you given any medicine that you had not taken before? Before giving you any new medicine, how often did hospital staff tell you what the medicine was for? How often did hospital staff describe possible side effects in a way you could understand?)

• Patient may experience joint pain, lack of appetite, weight loss, hot flash, diarrhea, or nausea. Have patient report immediately to prescriber severe headache, dizziness, passing out, vision changes, signs of high blood sugar (confusion, fatigue, increased thirst, increased hunger, polyuria, flushing, fast breathing, or breath that smells like fruit), signs of high potassium (abnormal heartbeat, confusion, dizziness, passing out, weakness, shortness of breath, or numbness or tingling feeling), signs of a low thyroid level (constipation; difficulty handling heat or cold; memory problems; mood changes; or burning, numbness, or tingling feeling), seizures, swelling of arms or legs, bone pain, severe loss of strength and energy, or signs of infection (HCAHPS).

• Educate patient about signs of a significant reaction (eg, wheezing; chest tightness; fever; itching; bad cough; blue skin color; seizures; or swelling of face, lips, tongue, or throat). Note: This is not a comprehensive list of all side effects. Patient should consult prescriber for additional questions.

Intended Use and Disclaimer: Should not be printed and given to patients. This information is intended to serve as a concise initial reference for health care professionals to use when discussing medications with a patient. You must ultimately rely on your own discretion, experience, and judgment in diagnosing, treating, and advising patients.

Further information

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.

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