Scientific Name(s): Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baillon, Schisandra arisanensis Hayata, Schisandra sphenanthera Rehd., Schisandra rubriflora Franch. Family: Schisandraceae. It is also called Kansura chinensis , Sphaerostemma japonica , Sphaerostemma japonicum , Maximoviczia chinensis , and Maximoviczia amurensis .
Common Name(s): Schisandra , schizandra , gomishi , hoku-gomishi , kita-gomishi (Japanese), wu-wei-zu (5 taste fruit), ji-chu or hoy tsi (Chinese), omiza (Korean), Maximowich's red grape , Limonnik (Russian)
Schisandra has been used as a tonic and restorative, as well as for liver protection, nervous system effects, respiratory treatment, and GI therapy. However, there are limited clinical trials to support these uses.
Schisandra fruit is used as an adaptogen at dosages of 1.5 to 6 g/day. A standardized extract containing 3.4% schisandrin has been used in a clinical trial for improved athletic performance at 91 mg/day of extract. Examples of various doses used in Russia include the following: Tinctura Fructum : Schisandrae prepared with air-dried fruits and 95% ethanol given as 20 to 30 drops twice daily; Tinctura Seminum : Schizandrae prepared with dried seeds and 95% ethanol given as 20 to 30 drops twice daily; Infusion Fructum : Schizandrae prepared with air-dried fruits and water (1:20 w/v) given as 150 mL twice daily; Fructum Schizandrae : contains air-dried fruits given at a dose of 0.5 to 1.5 g twice daily; Schizandra seed powder : given as 0.5 to 1.5 g twice daily before lunch and dinner over 20 to 30 days; Schizandra seed extract : prepared with air-dried seed and 95% ethanol given as a single dose of 0.05 or 0.2 mL/kg.
Contraindications have not been identified.
Information regarding safety and efficacy in pregnancy and lactation is lacking. Various compounds from the stem of Schisandra propinqua were found to be cytotoxic against rat luteal cells and human decidual cells in vitro.
Because of its documented effects on hepatic and gastric enzyme activity, particularly CYP3A, it is possible that schisandra may interfere with the metabolism of coadministered drugs (eg, midazolam). Findings from a study of healthy volunteers suggest patients receiving schisandra while concomitantly taking drugs that are P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrates (eg, tacrolimus) may require a dosage adjustment.
Research does not report any incidence of adverse effects.
The minimal toxic dose when given orally to mice is 3.6 g/kg. The acute toxicity was studied in mice, and following intraperitoneal administration, no effects on blood pressure, breath, or motility were noted; however, high doses caused convulsions (median effective dose [ED 50 ] = 175 mg/kg) and paresis (ED 50 = 370 mg/kg).
Schisandra spp. are climbing, aromatic woody vines, with white, pink, yellow, or reddish male or female flowers. The fruits are globular and red with several kidney-shaped seeds. The fruit is harvested in autumn when fully ripened. 1 S. chinensis is native to northeastern and north central China and is found in eastern Russia.
Schisandra is one of the many traditional Chinese herbs recommended for coughs and various nonspecific pulmonary diseases. 2 It has been studied extensively in Chinese and Japanese literature. Schisandra has been used for healing purposes for over 2,000 years. It is often used as an ethanolic tincture. The Chinese name for the plant, wu-wei-zu, means “5 taste fruit” and is associated with sweet, sour, bitter, astringent, and salty flavors. Salty and sour tastes were believed to have effects on the liver and testicles, while the bitter and astringent properties were beneficial to the heart and lungs. The sweet component had effects on the stomach. 3
Schisandra chemistry has been studied extensively. The fruit contains reducing sugars and up to 10% organic acids (carboxylic, malic, citric, tartaric). The seeds contain reducing sugars, alkaloids, and fatty esters; however, no flavones, glycosides, or tannins are found in the seeds or fruit. 4 Approximately 2% of the fruit by weight is composed of lignans with a dibenzocyclooctane skeleton (eg, schizandrin, deoxyschizandrin, and related compounds such as schizandrol and schizanderer). In some specimens, the lignan content can approach 19% in the seeds and 10% in the stems. 5 More than 30 lignans have been identified in the seed, 2 including gomisins A, B, C, D, F, and G 6 ; tigloylgomisin P; and angeloylgomisin. 7 Other plant constituents include phytosterols, volatile oil, and vitamins C and E. 1 Analytical methods have been devised for processing and standardization purposes. 8 , 9 , 10 Metabolism of schisandra components has been reported. 11 , 12 , 13
Uses and Pharmacology
Besides serving as a tonic and restorative, schisandra has other reported uses, such as liver protection, nervous system effects, respiratory treatment, GI therapy, and adaptogenic properties.Liver
The lignan components in schisandra possess pronounced liver protectant effects. The active principles appear to be the lignans wu-wei-zu C, shisantherin D, deoxygomisin A, gomisin N, and gomisin C. The presence of 1 or 2 methylenedioxy groups appear to be important in hepatoprotection. 2 , 14Animal data
Animal studies on gomisin A offer convincing evidence of liver protection, including protective actions against halothane-induced hepatitis, 15 carbon tetrachloride, d-galactosamine and dl-ethionine toxicities, 16 , 17 hepatic failure induced by bacteria, 18 and preneoplastic hepatic lesions. 19 , 20 , 21 , 22 Gomisin A's mechanism for tumor inhibition may be a result of its ability to improve bile acid metabolism. 23 Gomisin A causes hepatic cell proliferation and improves liver regeneration, hepatic blood flow, and liver function recovery in rats. 24 These effects are caused by protection of the hepatocyte plasma membrane. 25 Ethanol extracts of schisandra have been found to increase liver weight in rats and mice. This action has been attributed to schizandrin B and schizandrol B. In another murine study, schisandrin B was found to reduce total cholesterol and triglyceride levels similarly to fenofibrate, as well as increase liver weights. 26
In a mouse study, extract added to a semipurified basal diet over a 14-day period increased the enzymatic metabolism of the mutagens benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and aflatoxin B (AFB) and increased cytochrome P450 (CYP-450) activity. Despite this increased level of metabolism, schisandra extract increased the in vitro mutagenicity of AFB. However, chemicals inducing similar patterns of enzymes have been found to reduce the in vivo binding of AFB to DNA. 11 It is also recognized that the schizandrins and approximately 6 related compounds may temporarily inhibit or lower the activity of hepatic ALT. This has been observed in animals pretreated with hepatotoxins. 27 , 28 , 29Clinical data
Research reveals no clinical data for the use of schisandra for its protective properties in the liver.Nervous system
Schisandra is a nervous system stimulant that reportedly increases reflex responses and improves mental alertness. In China, the berries are used to treat mental illnesses, such as depression. It is also used to treat irritability and memory loss. 1 Schisandra has been evaluated for its inhibitory effects on the CNS, as well. In Chinese medicine, it is used as a sedative for insomnia. 1 A phenolic-rich component from S. chinensis may be beneficial in the prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative conditions, such as Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, and Huntington disease, as noted by a dose-dependent reduction in H 2 O 2 -induced cell death in SH-SY5Y cells. 30Animal data
Schisandra in combination with other herbs has improved memory retention disorder and facilitated memory retention deficit in animal testing. This suggests a possible use in treating age-related memory deficits in humans. 31 Schisandra, in combination with Zizyphus spinosa and Angelica sinensis , has accelerated neurocyte growth and may prevent atrophy of neurocyte process branches. 32
The CNS inhibition mechanism has been evaluated and may be related to an effect on dopaminergic receptors. 33 Gomisin A has also inhibited spontaneous and methamphetamine-induced motor activity in animals. 34
In a murine model, schisandrin B was found to confer protection against brain infarction due to cerebral ischemia reperfusion. This protection occurred in a dose-dependent manner, with protection ranging from 10% to 33%. 35Clinical data
In a phase 2a (randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled) study, 40 healthy women who were under psychological stress were randomized to receive ADAPT-232 (containing S. chinensis , Eleutherococcus senticosus , and Rhodiola rosea ) or placebo before and after a series of attention, speed, and accuracy tests. In comparison with placebo, women receiving ADAPT-232 experienced improvements in attention, speed, and accuracy during stressful activities, as well as better quality of work. 36Respiratory
Schisandra has been used to treat respiratory ailments, such as shortness of breath, wheezing, and cough. 1 Gomisin A exerted antitussive effects when evaluated in guinea pigs. 35 In rat basophilic leukemia cells, schizandrins, schisandrols, gomisins, fargesin, eudesmin, and lirioresinol B dimethyl ether were found to inhibit leukotriene production by 5-lipoxygenase, with most potent inhibitory activity noted with schisandrol A and gomisins. These may be useful as antiallergic agents. 37Clinical data
Research reveals no data for the utility of schisandra for the treatment of respiratory ailments.GI
In the rat intestine, schisandra extract reduces BaP metabolism, which is the opposite effect from that in the liver. Experiments show that it increases the activity of glutathione S-transferase. In the intestine, schisandra shifts BaP metabolism in favor of diols and 3-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene and away from BaP-4,5-epoxide and the mutagenic BaP quinones. Schisandra does not increase intestinal CYP-450 activity. 38 Schisandra has been used for treatment of diarrhea and dysentery. 1 One report found schisandra extract to have no effects on gastric secretory volume, gastric pH, or acid output, 39 while another study found schisandra to have inhibitory effects on gastric contraction and stress-induced gastric ulceration when administered intravenously and orally in rats. 34Clinical data
Research reveals no data for the use of schisandra for GI problems.Protection against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity
Schisandra fructus has been suggested to exert antioxidant effects through inhibiting lipid peroxidation, the induction of the antioxidant system, as well as scavenging of reactive oxygen species. It has been investigated for its cytoprotective effects against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity, caused by the production of free radicals. 40 In H9c2 cardiomyocytes, treatment with 150 mcg/mL and 300 mcg/mL of S. fructus extract was found to increase cell survival time by 15% and 25%, respectively, when compared with doxorubicin-controls ( P < 0.05). It was also found to inhibit lipid peroxidation caused by doxorubicin and inhibit the production of reactive oxygen species. 40Animal data
Research reveals no animal data for the use of schisandra for protection against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity.Clinical data
Research reveals no clinical data for the use of schisandra for protection against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity.Other uses
The plant helps the body adapt to stress. It has been used to balance fluid levels, improve sexual stamina, treat rash, stimulate uterine contractions, and improve failing senses. 1 One report found antibacterial effects in alcohol and acetone extracts of the fruit. 4 In a study of pre- and post-menopausal women, treatment with a combination product containing S. chinensis among other components was found to increase urinary 2-OHE concentrations, suggesting a potential reduction in the risk of breast cancer. 41 Three lignans (gomisin N, gomisin J, and schisandran C) suppressed pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion in murine macrophages, suggesting a potential anti-inflammatory role. 42 Treatment with a combination product containing schisandra was not found to improve quality of life parameters, viral load, or CD4 counts in asymptomatic HIV patients. 43 Schisandrol A and schisandrol B were found to enhance the corpora cavernosae relaxation induced by sildenafil by 2-fold in rabbits. Schisandrol A exerted the most relaxant effect. It may offer a synergistic role in patients who do not adequately respond to sildenafil monotherapy. 44 In mice, topical administration of an ethanolic extract of Schisandra nigra was found to promote hair growth. This occurred through down regulation of the transforming factor-beta-2 pathway and proliferation of dermal papilla. 45 In an in vitro study, several components isolated from Schisandra propinqua were found to exert antioxidant effects. 46 S. chinensis may be beneficial in improving glucose tolerance. 47
Schisandra fruit is used as an adaptogen at dosages of 1.5 to 6 g/day. A standardized extract containing 3.4% of schisandrin has been used in a clinical trial to improve athletic performance at 91 mg/day of extract. 47 , 48 Examples of various doses used in Russia include 3 :
Tinctura Fructum Schisandrae prepared with air-dried fruits and 95% ethanol given as 20 to 30 drops twice daily.
Tinctura Seminum Schizandrae prepared with dried seeds and 95% ethanol given as 20 to 30 drops twice daily.
Infusion Fructum Schizandrae prepared with air-dried fruits and water (1:20 w/v) given as 150 mL twice daily.
Fructum Schizandrae contains air-dried fruits given at a dose of 0.5 to 1.5 g twice daily.
Schizandra seed powder given as 0.5 to 1.5 g twice daily before lunch and dinner over 20 to 30 days.
Schizandra seed extract prepared with air-dried seed and 95% ethanol given as a single dose of 0.05 or 0.2 mL/kg.
Information regarding safety and efficacy in pregnancy and lactation is minimal. Various compounds from the stem of the S. propinqua were found to be cytotoxic in rat luteal cells and human decidual cells in vitro. 49
Because of its documented effects on hepatic and gastric enzyme activity, particularly CYP3A, it is possible that schisandra may interfere with the metabolism of other concurrently administered drugs (eg, midazolam). 50 , 51 , 52 Additionally, in a study of healthy volunteers, a 14-day treatment course with S. chinensis 300 mg twice daily was found to significantly inhibit P-gp as measured by administration of talinolol and noted by the increased oral bioavailability of talinolol. Patients receiving schisandra while concomitantly taking drugs that are P-gp substrates (eg, tacrolimus) may require a dosage adjustment. 53 , 54 In rats, the administration of schisandrol B, an active component of schisandra, was found to increase the oral bioavailability of paclitaxel by approximately 3-fold. 55
Research reveals little information regarding adverse reactions with the use of this product.
The minimum toxic dose given orally to mice was 3.6 g/kg. The acute toxicity was studied in mice, and following intraperitoneal administration, no effects on blood pressure, breath, or motility were noted; however, high doses caused convulsions (ED 50 = 175 mg/kg) and paresis (ED 50 = 370 mg/kg). 3
Bibliography1. Chevallier A. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants . New York, NY: DK Publishing, 1996.
2. Hikino H, Kiso Y, Taguchi H, Ikeya Y. Antihepatotoxic actions of lignoids from Schizandra chinensis fruits. Planta Medica . 1984;50(3):213-218.
3. Panossian A, Wikman G. Pharmacology of Schisandra chinensis Bail.: an overview of Russian research and uses in medicine. J Ethnopharmacol . 2008;118(2):183-212.
4. Ma TS, Roper R. Microchemical investigation of medicinal plants. I. The antitubercular principle of Prunus mume and Schizandra chinensis . Mikrochimica Acta . 1968;(1):167-181.
5. Song WZ, Tong YY. The occurrence of some important lignans in Wu Wei Zi ( Schisandra chinensis ) and its allied species [in Chinese]. Yao Xue Xue Bao . 1983;18(2):138-143.
6. Ikeya Y, Taguchi H, Yosioka I, Kobayashi H. The constituents of Schizandra chinensis Baill. I. Isolation and structure determination of five new lignans, gomisin A, B, C, F, and G, and the absolute structure of schizandrin. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) . 1979;27(6):1383-1394.
7. Ikeya Y, Taguchi H, Yosioka I, Kobayashi H. The constituents of Schizandra chinesis BAILL. BIII. The structures of two new lignans, tigloylgomisin P and angeloylgomisin P. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) . 1980;28(11):3357-3361.
8. Suprunov NI, Samoĭlenko LI. Standardization of Schizandra preparations [in Russian]. Farmatsiia . 1975;24(2):35-37.
9. Rao W, et al. Zhong Yao Tong Bao . 1986;11:154-155.
10. Zhu YX, Yan KD, Tu, GS. Chemical studies on Sheng Mai San. Part 1. Quantitative determination of active ingredients of Schizandra in Sheng Mai San by TLC-densitometry. Chin J Pharm Anal . 1988;8:71-73.
11. Hendrich S, Bjeldanes LF. Effects of dietary Schizandra chinensis , brussels sprouts and Illicium verum extracts on carcinogen metabolism systems in mouse liver. Food Chem Toxicol . 1986;24(9):903-912.
12. Cui YY, Wang MZ. Metabolic transformation of schizandrin [in Chinese]. Yao Xue Xue Bao . 1992;27(1):57-63.
13. Cui YY, Wang MZ. Aspects of schizandrin metabolism in vitro and in vivo. Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet . 1993;18(2):155-160.
14. Maeda S, Sudo K, Miyamoto Y, et al. Pharmacological studies on schizandra fruits. II. Effects of constituents of schizandra fruits on drugs induced hepatic damage in rats [in Japanese]. Yakugaku Zasshi . 1982;102(6):579-588.
15. Jiaxiang N, Fujii K, Sato N, Yuge O. Inhibitory effect of gomisi on reductive metabolism of halothane. J Appl Toxicol . 1993;13(6):385-388.
16. Ko KM, Ip SP, Poon MK, et al. Effect of a lignan-enriched Fructus Schisandrae extract on hepatic glutathione status in rats: protection against carbon tetrachloride toxicity. Planta Med . 1995;61(2):134-137.
17. Takeda S, Maemura S, Sudo K, et al. Effects of gomisin A, a lignan component of Schizandra fruits, on experimental liver injuries and liver microsomal drug-metabolizing enzymes [in Japanese]. Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi . 1986;87(2):169-187.
18. Mizoguchi Y, Kawada N, Ichikawa Y, Tsutsui H. Effect of gomisin A in the prevention of acute hepatic failure induction. Planta Med . 1991;57(4):320-324.
19. Nomura M, Nakachiyama M, Hida T, et al. Gomisin A, a lignan component of schizandra fruits, inhibits development of preneoplastic lesions in rat liver by 3′-methyl-4-dimethylamino-azobenzene. Cancer Lett . 1994;76(1):11-18.
20. Ohtaki Y, Nomura M, Hida T, et al. Inhibition by gomisin A, a lignan compound of hepatocarcinogenesis by 3′-methyl-4-dimethylaminoazobenzene in rats. Biol Pharm Bull . 1994;17(6):808-814.
21. Nomura M, Ohtaki Y, Hida T, Aizawa T, Wakita H, Miyamato K. Inhibition of early 3-methyl-4-dimethylaminoazobenzene-induced hepatocarcinogenesis by gomisin A in rats. Anticancer Res . 1994;14(5A):1967-1971.
22. Miyamoto K, Hiramatsu K, Ohtaki Y, Kanitani M, Nomura M, Aburada M. Effects of gomisin A on the promotor action and serum bile acid concentration in hepatocarcinogenesis induced by 3′-methyl-4-dimethylamino-azobenzene. Biol Pharm Bull . 1995;18(10):1443-1445.
23. Ohtaki Y, Hida T, Hiramatsu K, et al. Deoxycholic acid as an endogenous risk factor for hepatocarcinogenesis and effects of gosimin A, a lignan component of schizandra fruits. Anticancer Res . 1996;16(2):751-755.
24. Takeda S, Kase Y, Arai I, et al. Effects of TJN-101 ((+)-(6s,7s,R-biar)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-1,2,3,12-tetramethoxy-6,7-dimethyl-10,11-methylenedioxy-6-dibenzo [a,c] cyclooctenol) on liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy, and on regional hepatic blood flow and fine structure of the liver in normal rats [in Japanese]. Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi . 1986;88(4):321-330.
25. Nagai H, Yakuo I, Aoki M, et al. The effect of gomisin A on immunologic liver injury in mice. Planta Med . 1989;55(1):13-17.
26. Pan SY, Don H, Zhao XY, et al. Schisandrin B from Schisandra chinensis reduces hepatic lipid contents in hypercholesterolaemic mice. J Pharm Pharmacol . 2008;60(3):399-403.
27. Bao TT, Liu GT, Song ZY, Xu GF, Sun RH. A comparison of the pharmacological actions of seven constituents isolated from Fructus schizandre . Chin Med J (Engl) . 1980;93(1):41-47.
28. Maeda S, Takeda S, Miyamato Y, Aburada M, Harada M. Effects of gomisin A on liver functions in hepatotoxic chemicals-treated rats. Jpn J Pharmacol . 1985;38(4):347-353.
29. Pao TT, Liu KT, Hsu KF, Sung C-Y. Studies on Fructus Schizandre 1. Effects on increased SGPT levels in animals caused by hepatotoxic chemical agents [in Chinese]. Chung-hua I Hsueh Tsa Chih . 1974;54:275-277.
30. Jung CH, Hong MH, Kim JH, et al. Protective effects of a phenolic-rich fraction from Schisandra chinensis against H 2 O 2 -induced apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells. J Pharm Pharmacol . 2007;59(3):455-462.
31. Nishiyama N, Chu PJ, Saito H. An herbal prescription, S-113m, consisting of biota, ginseng and schizandra, improves learning performance in senescence accelerated mouse. Biol Pharm Bull . 1996;19(3):388-393.
32. Hu G, Liu QH, Chenng JH, et al. Effects of herb drugs on aging-related changes in neurocyte culture. Chin Pharm J . 1994;29:333-336.
33. Zhang L, Niu X. Effects of schizandrol A on monamine neurotransmitters in the central nervous system. Chung Kuo I Hsueh Ko Hsueh Yuan Hsueh Pao . 1991;13(1):13-16.
34. Maeda S, Suduo K, Aburada M, et al. Pharmacological studies on Schizandra fruit. I. General pharmacological effects of gomisin A and schizandrin (authors transl) [in Japanese]. Yakugaku Zasshi . 1981;101(11):1030-1041.
35. Chen N, Chiu PY, Ko KM. Schisandra B enhances cerebral mitochondrial antioxidant status and structural integrity, and protects against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. Biol Pharm Bull . 2008;31(7):1387-1391.
36. Aslanyan G, Amroyan E, Garielyan E, Nylander M, Wikman G, Panossian A. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised study of single dose effects of ADAPT-232 on cognitive functions. Phytomedicine . 2010;17(7):494-499.
37. Lim H, Son KH, Bae KH, Hung TM, Kim YS, Kim HP. 5-lipoxygenase-inhibitory constituents from Schisandra fructus and Magnolia flos . Phytother Res . 2009;23(10):1489-1492.
38. Salbe AD, Bjeldanes LF. The effects of dietary brussels sprouts and Schizandra chinensis on the xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes of the rat small intestine. Food Chem Toxicol . 1985;23(1):57-65.
39. Hernandez DE, Hancke JL, Wikman G. Evaluation of the anti-ulcer and antisecretory activity of extracts of Aralia elata and Schizandra chinensis fruit in the rat. J Ethnopharmacol . 1988;23(1):109-114.
40. Choi EH, Lee N, Kim HJ, et al. Schisandra fructus extract ameliorates doxorubicin-induce cytotoxicity in cardiomyocytes: altered gene expression for detoxification enzymes. Genes Nutr . 2008;2(4):337-345.
41. Laidlaw M, Cockerline CA, Sepkovic DW. Effects of a breast-health herbal formula supplement on estrogen metabolism in pre- and post-menopausal women not taking hormonal contraceptives or supplements: a randomized controlled trial. Breast Cancer (Auckl) . 2010;4:85-95.
42. Oh SY, Kim YH, Bae DS, et al. Anti-inflammatory effects of gomisin N, gomisin J, and schisandran C isolated from the fruit of Schisandra chinensis . Biosci Biotechnol Biochem . 2010;74(2):285-291.
43. Maek-a-nantawat W, Phonrat B, Dhitavat J, et al. Safety and efficacy of CKBM-A01, a Chinese herbal medicine, among asymptomatic HIV patients. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health . 2009;40(3):494-501.
44. Kim HK, Bak YO, Choi BR, et al. The role of the lignan constituents in the effect of Schisandra chinensis fruit extract on penile erection. [published online ahead of print April 6, 2011]. Phytother Res . doi:10.1002/ptr.3486. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21469238 . Accessed June 9, 2011.
45. Kang JI, Kim SC, Hyun JH, et al. Promotion effect of Schisandra nigra on the growth of hair. Eur J Dermatol . 2009;19(2):119-125.
46. Huang F, Xu L, Ganggan S. Antioxidant isolated from Schisandra propinqua (Wall.) Baill. Biol Res . 2009;42(3):351-356.
47. Panossian AG, Oganessian AS, Ambartsumian M, Gabrielian ES, Wagner H, Wikman G. Effects of heavy physical exercise and adaptogens on nitric oxide content in human saliva. Phytomedicine . 1999;6(1):17-26.
48. Schisandra berry; Schisandra chinensis , Analytical, quality control and therapeutic monograph. In: American Herbal Pharmacopeia . Santa Cruz, CA: American Herbal Pharmacopeia; 1999.
49. Chen YG, Qin GW, Cao L, Leng Y, Xie YY. Triterpenoid acids from Schisandra propinqua with cytotoxic effect on rat luteal cells and human decidual cells in vitro. Fitoterapia . 2001;72(4):435-437.
50. Lai L, Hao H, Wang Q, et al. Effects of short-term and long-term pretreatment of Schisandra lignans on regulating hepatic and intestinal CYP3A in rats. Drug Metab Dispos. 2009;37(12):2399-2407.
51. Xin HW, Wu XC, Li Q, Yu AR, Xiong L. Effects of Schisandra sphenanthera extract on the pharmacokinetics of midazolam in healthy volunteers. Br J Clin Pharmacol . 2009;67(5):541-546.
52. Jiang W, Wang X, Xu X, Kong L. Effect of Schisandra sphenanthera extract on the concentration of tacrolimus in the blood of liver transplant patients. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther . 2010;48(3):224-229.
53. Fan L, Mao XQ, Tao GY, et al. Effect of Schisandra chinensis and Ginkgo biloba extract on the pharmacokinetics of talinolol in healthy volunteers. Xenobiotica . 2009;39(3):249-254.
54. Xin HW, Wu XC, Li Q, et al. Effects of Schisandra sphenanthera extract on the pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus in healthy volunteers. Br J Clin Pharmacol . 2007;64(4):469-475.
55. Jin J, Bi H, Hu J, et al. Enhancement of oral bioavailability of paclitaxel after oral administration of Schisandrol B in rats. Biopharm Drug Dispos . 2010;31(4):264-268.
Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health