Skip to main content


Scientific Name(s): Urtica dioica L., Urtica urens L.
Common Name(s): Common nettle, Nettle, Soii (Kashmiri), Stinging nettle

Medically reviewed by Last updated on Nov 30, 2022.

Clinical Overview


Nettles are primarily used in the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), diabetes, and arthritis. However, clinical trials are limited.


Clinical trials for BPH have used aqueous extracts of U. dioica root in dosages of 360 mg daily over 6 months and methanol root extract in dosages of 600 to 1,200 mg daily for 6 to 9 weeks. Dosages of 600 mg of freeze-dried nettle leaf have been used in a clinical trial for allergic rhinitis. Standardization of commercial preparations is lacking.


Due to the effects on androgen and estrogen metabolism, nettle preparations are contraindicated in pregnancy and lactation and should not be used in children younger than 12 years.


Avoid use. Adverse effects have been documented.


None well documented.

Adverse Reactions

Nettles are primarily known for their ability to induce acute urticaria following contact with exposed skin. Radix urticae extracts and other nettle preparations are generally well tolerated; minor and transient gastric effects, including diarrhea, gastric pain, and nausea, have been reported.


The possibility of oral toxicity with nettle preparations is considered low. Mutagenicity and carcinogenicity studies using the aqueous extract have been negative.

Scientific Family

  • Urticaceae (nettle)


Nettles are perennial plants native to Europe and found throughout the United States and parts of Canada. U. dioica and U. urens are botanically very similar; they are often distributed together in the wild and considered therapeutically interchangeable.

The nettle plant has an erect stalk that grows up to 1 m in height. It has dark green serrated leaves that grow opposite one another along the stalk and bristles that transmit irritating principles upon contact. The plant flowers from June to September and its fruit is a small, oval-shaped seed approximately 1 mm wide and yellow-brown in color.1, 2, 3


Although known for its stinging properties, the nettle plant has been used in traditional medicine as a diuretic, antispasmodic, and expectorant, as well as in the treatment of asthma. The juice is purported to stimulate hair growth when applied to the scalp. Extracts of the leaves have been used topically for the treatment of rheumatic disorders. The tender tips of young nettles have been used as a cooked potherb in salads. Claims of activity against diabetes, cancer, eczema, rheumatism, hair loss, and aging have not been substantiated. Other folk medicine applications include wound healing, treatment of scalp seborrhea and greasy hair, and gastric juice secretion. Nettles are considered to be nourishing plants and have been used to treat scurvy. A combination product includes nettle to treat hyposecretory gastritis.2


Varying chemical constituents of the plant's leaf, flower, seed, and root have been used.2 Phenolic compounds in the root, stalk, and leaves have been described.4, 5, 6 Compounds with possible clinical relevance include nettle root lignans (including divanillyltetrahydrofuran), lectin, U. dioica agglutinin, 9-hydroxy-10 trans-12-cis-octadecadienic acid, steroidal compounds (including stigmasterol, stimast-4-en-3-one, campesterol, and others), polysaccharides, and caffeic and malic acids.2, 7, 8, 9 The plant has been used as a commercial source of chlorophyll, and the young shoots are rich in carotene and vitamin C. The plant also contains B-group vitamins and vitamin K, along with other acids. The stinging trichomes of nettle contain amines, including histamine, serotonin, and choline. Nettle fruit contains protein, mucilage, and fixed oil (primarily carvacrol [38%], carvone [9%], and naphthalene [9%]).2, 9, 10, 11

High-performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography, capillary electrophoresis, and other methods have identified the lectin specific to U. dioica roots, which may help to standardize preparations.2, 7, 8, 12

Uses and Pharmacology

Anti-inflammatory effects

In vitro studies using human cell lines suggest extracts may down-regulate the inflammation cascade, exert effects on cyclo-oxygenase enzymes, and reduce primary T-cell responses.(13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19)

Animal data

In writhing and licking tests in rodent studies, extracts of U. dioica showed analgesic and antinociceptive properties. Reduced inflammation in induced paw edema was also demonstrated. (20, 21, 22, 23)

Experiments in rats, including induced pancreatitis, colitis, and biliary obstruction, showed that nettle extracts reduce proinflammatory cytokines and markers, and also protect against tissue damage.(24, 25, 26)

Clinical data

Limited clinical trials using nettle leaves to reduce pain associated with osteoarthritis have been conducted.(27, 28) The methodological quality of these small studies is limited(29, 30); however, further clinical trials may be warranted based on self-reported measures.(31)

Benign prostatic hyperplasia

Experimental studies suggest a number of possible mechanisms of action of nettle extracts in managing symptoms of BPH. Reductions in the plasma level of sex hormone–binding globulin involved in binding of circulating androgens and estrogen have occurred. An effect on enzyme activity, including the conversion of testosterone to estrogens and weak inhibition of 5 alpha-reductase and aromatase, has been demonstrated in vitro.(2, 9, 32) Anti-inflammatory effects have also been noted(32); therefore, the Complete German Commission E Monographs support use in urinary tract inflammation and in the prevention and treatment of kidney gravel.(3)

Animal data

Animal studies have been conducted to evaluate the effect of U. dioica extracts in BPH; however, the availability of more recent clinical trial data makes these studies less important.(2, 9, 32, 33) In vitro and animal studies have examined a potential role for nettle extract in prostate cancer, suggesting inhibition of adenosine deaminase as a further mechanism of action.(32, 34)

Clinical data

Most trials have been of open-label design, and few high-quality clinical trials using U. dioica alone compared with standard therapy have been conducted. However, some evidence suggests that certain nettle extracts do exhibit efficacy in reducing symptoms of BPH, as measured by International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS).(2, 9, 32, 33)

Improved IPSS scores have been demonstrated in limited placebo-controlled, randomized clinical studies.(35, 36, 37) Three clinical studies examined nettle extracts over 8 weeks,(37) 1 year,(36) and 6 months(35) in population sizes of 100, 246, and 558 participants, respectively. Not all studies showed improved maximal urinary flow rate. One study(35) showed a modest reduction in prostate size when measured via transrectal ultrasound. No alterations in prostate-specific antigen or testosterone levels were reported in a clinical trial.(35)

Other industry-sponsored clinical studies have used combination preparations, such as saw palmetto with nettle extract, and demonstrated a positive but small effect on nocturia in BPH (absolute reduction of 0.2 voids per night; P = 0.0015).(38)

The American Urology Association's updated guideline for the management of lower urinary tract symptoms attributed to benign prostatic hyperplasia (2021) could not make any positive recommendations about supplements and nutraceuticals, including stinging nettle, due to variable results, methods, and quality of studies.(103) The European Association of Urology's 2022 updated guideline on management of non-neurogenic male lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), including benign prostatic obstruction makes no specific recommendation but references the European Union herbal monograph for the traditional use of U. dioica or U. urens, radix and their hybrids or mixtures for LUTS related to BPH, after serious conditions have been excluded. This use is based on sufficient safety data and plausible efficacy from long-standing use and experience.(39)

Cardiovascular effects

Nettles have traditionally been used for their diuretic and hypotensive effects. In vitro studies show that U. dioica extracts may inhibit thrombin-induced platelet aggregation, possibly because of flavonoid content, although results of in vitro studies are equivocal.(40, 41)

Animal data

Improved lipid profiles have been demonstrated in rodent studies; reported effects on indices vary.(42, 43, 44) Diuretic, natriuretic, and hypotensive actions have been demonstrated in rats.(45, 46) In isolated heart studies, decreased heart rate and inotropic activity, as well as increased left ventricular pressure and vascular contractility, occurred.(46, 47)


Animal data

Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of nettle extracts appeared to be protective in models of neurodegeneration in rodent studies.(48) In a study in diabetic mice, nettle leaf extract improved memory and reduced depression-like behavior.(49) In another study in diabetic rats, nettle extract improved cognitive function and increased pain threshold.(50)


Lectins isolated from the seeds and leaves of nettle have been evaluated for a potential role in the management of diabetes. In vitro studies suggest effects on Langerhans and muscle cells, with increased glucose uptake into cells and reduced intestinal absorption of glucose by inhibition of alpha-amylase.(51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57)

Animal data

Serum glucose levels were reduced in some(44, 50, 54, 58, 59, 60, 61) experiments in rats with induced diabetes.(54, 59, 62) Nettle extracts had no effect on renal indices in diabetic rats(63); however, protective effects on the liver, seminiferous, and nervous system tissue were observed in diabetic rats.(50, 64, 65)

Clinical data

Limited clinical studies have been conducted with nettle extracts alone. One small (N = 50) single-blind study using 100 mg/kg of hydroalcoholic nettle extract over 8 weeks showed decreased fasting glucose levels and decreased glycated hemoglobin, but no effect on insulin.(66) There is a case report of hypoglycemia due to consumption of nettle preparations for prostatic hypertrophy.(67)

Other uses


In vitro studies have shown antiviral action against HIV, cytomegalovirus, coronavirus, rotavirus, and feline immunodeficiency virus.(68, 69, 70, 71) Antibacterial action against both plant and human pathogens has also been described.(20, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77) A clinical trial with some methodological limitations78 evaluated the adjunctive effect of U. dioica as a combination preparation in treating bacterial prostatitis.(79)


Antioxidant action of U. dioica has been evaluated. The roots and stem have little action, while the leaves and seeds demonstrate high activity. The antioxidant effect may be responsible for a hepatoprotective effect, as well as for anti-apoptotic action in brain cells and protection in ischemia/reperfusion injury.(20, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88)


Screening studies have evaluated nettle extracts for antiproliferative effect with varying results.(11, 89) While activity in human prostate cancer cells has been demonstrated,(90) no clinically important apoptosis in human cancer cell lines has been reported,(89) and no relationship between flavonoid content and antiproliferative effects has been noted.(12) Animal and human studies are lacking.

Immune effects

Freeze-dried nettle has been evaluated for allergic rhinitis; in a double-blind trial, 600 mg of freeze-dried nettle leaf was more effective than placebo in controlling symptoms.(91) Effects may be due to immunomodulatory or anti-inflammatory actions.(14, 18, 92, 93, 94) Other immune effects have been described following in vitro studies, including a cellular response greater than that evoked by Echinacea tincture.(95) Beluga sturgeon fed nettles showed increased neutrophil and red blood cell counts, as well as increased hemoglobin and hematocrit values.(96)


Dosages of 600 mg of freeze-dried nettle leaf have been used in a clinical trial for allergic rhinitis.91 Clinical trials for BPH have used aqueous extracts of U. dioica root in dosages of 360 mg daily over 6 months35 and methanol root extract in dosages of 600 to 1,200 mg daily for 6 to 9 weeks.2

Pregnancy / Lactation

Avoid use. Adverse effects have been documented; nettle is a reputed abortifacient and has demonstrated effects on androgen and estrogen metabolism.2, 97

Despite a lack of evidence to support its use, nettle was identified as one of the most common herbs used for pregnancy-related anemia and included in pregnancy tea by certified or licensed midwives in state-wide surveys conducted in California, Texas, and North Carolina.102


Case reports are lacking.2 In an experiment with rat platelets, crude aqueous extracts and the isolated flavonoids inhibited platelet aggregation40; however, an in vitro study using human blood samples found no effect on platelet function.41 Studies in rats found some effect of the seed extract on the cytochrome P450 enzyme system and on glutathione S-transferase, suggesting potential for interactions.99

Adverse Reactions

Nettles are primarily known for their ability to induce acute urticaria following contact with exposed skin, which generally resolves spontaneously and is caused by the release of histamine, serotonin, and choline from the hairs and spines of the leaves and stem. Treatment with systemic antihistamines and topical steroids may be of benefit.13, 100 Case reports of prolonged effects exist101; 1 case report describes generalized urticaria and elevated IgE levels in a neonate due to contact with maternal skin to which a nettle extract had been applied.84

Radix urticae extracts and other nettle preparations are generally well tolerated; minor and transient gastric effects, including diarrhea, gastric pain, and nausea, have been reported.2 There is a case report of hypoglycemia due to consumption of nettle preparations for prostatic hypertrophy; cases of gynecomastia and galactorrhea due to consumption of nettle tea have also been identified.67, 55 Clinical studies using nettles in BPH report no adverse effects at the doses used.35, 36, 37

Due to the effects on androgen and estrogen metabolism, nettle preparations are contraindicated in pregnancy and lactation and should not be used in children younger than 12 years.2, 97


The oral median lethal dose in rats is estimated to be greater than 30 g/kg for the aqueous leaf extract and 1.3 g/kg for the root.2, 9, 42 Liver function tests in rats fed aqueous nettle extracts for 30 days were normal.42 A dose of 2 g/kg of leaf extract caused diarrhea and diuresis in rats.76 Mutagenicity and carcinogenicity studies using the aqueous extract have been negative.9



This information relates to an herbal, vitamin, mineral or other dietary supplement. This product has not been reviewed by the FDA to determine whether it is safe or effective and is not subject to the quality standards and safety information collection standards that are applicable to most prescription drugs. This information should not be used to decide whether or not to take this product. This information does not endorse this product as safe, effective, or approved for treating any patient or health condition. This is only a brief summary of general information about this product. It does NOT include all information about the possible uses, directions, warnings, precautions, interactions, adverse effects, or risks that may apply to this product. This information is not specific medical advice and does not replace information you receive from your health care provider. You should talk with your health care provider for complete information about the risks and benefits of using this product.

This product may adversely interact with certain health and medical conditions, other prescription and over-the-counter drugs, foods, or other dietary supplements. This product may be unsafe when used before surgery or other medical procedures. It is important to fully inform your doctor about the herbal, vitamins, mineral or any other supplements you are taking before any kind of surgery or medical procedure. With the exception of certain products that are generally recognized as safe in normal quantities, including use of folic acid and prenatal vitamins during pregnancy, this product has not been sufficiently studied to determine whether it is safe to use during pregnancy or nursing or by persons younger than 2 years of age.

1. Urtica dioica L. USDA, NRCS. 2010. The PLANTS Database (, 9 August 2010). National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA. Accessed April 6, 2015.
2. Radix Urticae. In: WHO Monographs on Selected Medicinal Plants. Vol. 2. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2004:329-341.
3. Blumethal M, Busse WR, et al, eds. The Complete German Commission E Monographs: Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicines. Austin, TX: American Botanical Council; 1998:216.
4. Farag MA, Weigend M, Luebert F, Brokamp G, Wessjohann LA. Phytochemical, phylogenetic, and anti-inflammatory evaluation of 43 Urtica accessions (stinging nettle) based on UPLC-Q-TOF-MS metabolomic profiles. Phytochemistry. 2013;96:170-183.24169378
5. Otles S, Yalcin B. Phenolic compounds analysis of root, stalk, and leaves of nettle [published online April 19, 2012]. Scientific World Journal. 2012;2012:564367.2259369410.1100/2012/564367
6. Orčić D, Francišković M, Bekvalac K, et al. Quantitative determination of plant phenolics in Urtica dioica extracts by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometric detection. Food Chem. 2014;143:48-53.24054211
7. Pinelli P, Ieri F, Vignolini P, Bacci L, Baronti S, Romani A. Extraction and HPLC analysis of phenolic compounds in leaves, stalks, and textile fibers of Urtica dioica L. J Agric Food Chem. 2008;56(19):9127-9132.18778029
8. Ganzera M, Piereder D, Sturm S, Erdelmeier C, Stuppner H. Urtica dioica agglutinin: separation, identification, and quantitation of individual isolectins by capillary electrophoresis and capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry. Electrophoresis. 2005;26(9):1724-1731.15812839
9. Chrubasik JE, Roufogalis BD, Wagner H, Chrubasik S. A comprehensive review on the stinging nettle effect and efficacy profiles. Part II: urticae radix. Phytomedicine. 2007;14(7-8):568-579.17509841
10. Bisset NG, trans-ed. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 1994:5027.
11. Gül S, Demirci B, Başer KH, Akpulat HA, Aksu P. Chemical composition and in vitro cytotoxic, genotoxic effects of essential oil from Urtica dioica L. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2012;88(5):666-671.22310841
12. Fattahi S, Zabihi E, Abedian Z, et al. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents of aqueous extract of stinging nettle and in vitro antiproliferative effect on hela and BT-474 cell lines. Int J Mol Cell Med. 2014;3(2):102-107.25035860
13. Anderson BE, Miller CJ, Adams DR. Stinging nettle dermatitis. Am J Contact Dermat. 2003;14(1):44-46.14744424
14. Roschek B Jr, Fink RC, McMichael M, Alberte RS. Nettle extract (Urtica dioica) affects key receptors and enzymes associated with allergic rhinitis. Phytother Res. 2009;23(7):920-926.19140159
15. Broer J, Behnke B. Immunosuppressant effect of IDS 30, a stinging nettle leaf extract, on myeloid dendritic cells in vitro. J Rheumatol. 2002;29(4):659-666.11950004
16. Shakibaei M, Allaway D, Nebrich S, Mobasheri A. Botanical extracts from rosehip (Rosa canina), willow bark (Salix alba), and nettle leaf (Urtica dioica) suppress IL-1beta-induced NF-kappaB activation in canine articular chondrocytes. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012;2012:509383.22474508
17. Yang CL, Or TC, Ho MH, Lau AS. Scientific basis of botanical medicine as alternative remedies for rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2013;44(3):284-300.22700248
18. Johnson TA, Sohn J, Inman WD, Bjeldanes LF, Rayburn K. Lipophilic stinging nettle extracts possess potent anti-inflammatory activity, are not cytotoxic and may be superior to traditional tinctures for treating inflammatory disorders. Phytomedicine. 2013;20(2):143-147.23092723
19. Zgrajka W, Turska M, Rajtar G, Majdan M, Parada-Turska J. Kynurenic acid content in anti-rheumatic herbs. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2013;20(4):800-802.24364456
20. Gülçin I, Küfrevioglu OI, Oktay M, Büyükokuroglu ME. Antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiulcer and analgesic activities of nettle (Urtica dioica L.). J Ethnopharmacol. 2004;90(2-3):205-215.15013182
21. Marrassini C, Acevedo C, Miño J, Ferraro G, Gorzalczany S. Evaluation of antinociceptive, antiinflammatory activities and phytochemical analysis of aerial parts of Urtica urens L. Phytother Res. 2010;(12):1807-1812.20564509
22. Alford L. The use of nettle stings for pain. Altern Ther Health Med. 2007;13(6):58.
23. Hajhashemi V, Klooshani V. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Urtica dioica leaf extract in animal models. Avicenna J Phytomed. 2013;3(2):193-200.25050274
24. Yilmaz B, Basar O, Aktas B, et al. Effects of Urtica dioica extract on experimental acute pancreatitis model in rats. Int J Clin Exp Med. 2014;7(5):1313-1318.24995088
25. Genc Z, Yarat A, Tunali-Akbay T, et al. The effect of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) seed oil on experimental colitis in rats. J Med Food. 2011;14(12):1554-1561.21861725
26. Oguz S, Kanter M, Erboga M, Ibis C. Protective effect of Urtica dioica on liver damage induced by biliary obstruction in rats. Toxicol Ind Health. 2013;29(9):838-845.22585933
27. Rayburn K, Fleischbein E, Song J, et al. Stinging nettle cream for osteoarthritis. Altern Ther Health Med. 2009;15(4):60-61.19623834
28. Randall C, Dickens A, White A, Sanders H, Fox M, Campbell J. Nettle sting for chronic knee pain: a randomised controlled pilot study. Complement Ther Med. 2008;16(2):66-72.18514907
29. Di Lorenzo C, Dell'Agli M, Badea M, et al. Plant food supplements with anti-inflammatory properties: A systematic review (II). Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2013;53(5):507-516.23391017
30. Cameron M, Chrubasik S. Topical herbal therapies for treating osteoarthritis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;5:CD010538.23728701
31. White AR, Randall C, Harding G, Paterson C. Patient consensus on mode of use of nettle sting for musculoskeletal pain. Complement Ther Med. 2011;19(4):179-186.21827931
32. Azimi H, Khakshur AA, Aghdasi I, Fallah-Tafti M, Abdollahi M. A review of animal and human studies for management of benign prostatic hyperplasia with natural products: Perspective of new pharmacological agents. Inflamm Allergy Drug Targets. 2012;11(3):207-221.22512478
33. Pagano E, Laudato M, Griffo M, Capasso R. Phytotherapy of benign prostatic hyperplasia. A minireview. Phytother Res. 2014;28(7):949-955.25165780
34. Durak I, Biri H, Devrim E, Sözen S, Avci A. Aqueous extract of Urtica dioica makes significant inhibition on adenosine deaminase activity in prostate tissue from patients with prostate cancer. Cancer Biol Ther. 2004;3(9):855-857.15254411
35. Safarinejad MR. Urtica dioica for treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. J Herb Pharmacother. 2005;5(4):1-11.16635963
36. Schneider T, Rübben H. Stinging nettle root extract (Bazoton-uno) in long term treatment of benign prostatic syndrome (BPS). Results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled multicenter study after 12 months [in German]. Urologe A. 2004;43(3):302-306.15045190
37. Ghorbanibirgani A, Khalili A, Zamani L. The efficacy of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia: a randomized double-blind study in 100 patients. Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2013;15(1):9-10.23487561
38. Oelke M, Berges R, Schläfke S, Burkart M. Fixed-dose combination PRO 160/120 of sabal and urtica extracts improves nocturia in men with LUTS suggestive of BPH: Re-evaluation of four controlled clinical studies. World J Urol. 2014;32(5):1149-1154.24938176
39. Gravas S, Cornu N, Gacci M, et al. EAU guidelines on management of non-neurogenic male lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), including benign prostatic obstruction (BPO). Edn. presented at the EAU Annual Congress Amsterdam 2022. ISBN 978-94-92671-16-5. Accessed October 2022.
40. El Haouari M, Bnouham M, Bendahou M, et al. Inhibition of rat platelet aggregation by Urtica dioica leaves extracts. Phytother Res. 2006;20(7):568-572.16619332
41. Hollands WJ, Saha S, Hayran O, et al. Lack of effect of bioactive-rich extracts of pomegranate, persimmon, nettle, dill, kale and sideritis and isolated bioactives on platelet function. J Sci Food Agric. 2013;93(14):3588-3594.23649552
42. Daher CF, Baroody KG, Baroody GM. Effect of Urtica dioica extract intake upon blood lipid profile in the rats. Fitoterapia. 2006;77(3):183-188.16540261
43. Nassiri-Asl M, Zamansoltani F, Abbasi E, Daneshi MM, Zangivand AA. Effects of Urtica dioica extract on lipid profile in hypercholesterolemic rats. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao. 2009;7(5):428-433.19435556
44. Ahangarpour A, Mohammadian M, Dianat M. Antidiabetic effect of hydroalcholic urticadioica leaf extract in male rats with fructose-induced insulin resistance. Iran J Med Sci. 2012;37(3):181-186.23115450
45. Tahri A, Yamani S, Legssyer A, et al. Acute diuretic, natriuretic and hypotensive effects of a continuous perfusion of aqueous extract of Urtica dioica in the rat. J Ethnopharmacol. 2000;73(1-2):95-100.11025144
46. Testai L, Chericoni S, Calderone V, et al. Cardiovascular effects of Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae) roots extracts: in vitro and in vivo pharmacological studies. J Ethnopharmacol. 2002;81(1):105-109.12020933
47. Legssyer A, Ziyyat A, Mekhfi H, et al. Cardiovascular effects of Urtica dioica L. in isolated rat heart and aorta. Phytother Res. 2002;16(6):503-507.12237804
48. Toldy A, Atalay M, Stadler K, et al. The beneficial effects of nettle supplementation and exercise on brain lesion and memory in rat. J Nutr Biochem. 2009;20(12):974-981.19071007
49. Patel SS, Udayabanu M. Urtica dioica extract attenuates depressive like behavior and associative memory dysfunction in dexamethasone induced diabetic mice. Metab Brain Dis. 2014;29(1):121-130.24435938
50. Patel SS, Udayabanu M. Effect of Urtica dioica on memory dysfunction and hypoalgesia in an experimental model of diabetic neuropathy. Neurosci Lett. 2013;552:114-119.23916662
51. Domola MS, Vu V, Robson-Doucette CA, Sweeney G, Wheeler MB. Insulin mimetics in Urtica dioica: structural and computational analyses of Urtica dioica extracts [published correction appears in Phytother Res. 2010;(24)(suppl 2):S233-S234]. Phytother Res. 2010;(24)(suppl 2):S175-S182.20013820
52. Farzami B, Ahmadvand D, Vardasbi S, Majin FJ, Khaghani Sh. Induction of insulin secretion by a component of Urtica dioica leave extract in perifused Islets of Langerhans and its in vivo effects in normal and streptozotocin diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2003;89(1):47-53.14522431
53. Bnouham M, Merhfour FZ, Ziyyat A, Mekhfi H, Aziz M, Legssyer A. Antihyperglycemic activity of the aqueous extract of Urtica dioica. Fitoterapia. 2003;74(7-8):677-681.14630172
54. Golalipour MJ, Khori V. The protective activity of Urtica dioica leaves on blood glucose concentration and beta-cells in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Pak J Biol Sci. 2007;10(8):1200-1204.19069917
55. Sahin M, Yilmaz H, Gursoy A, Demirel AN, Tutuncu NB, Guvener ND. Gynaecomastia in a man and hyperoestrogenism in a woman due to ingestion of nettle (Urtica dioica). N Z Med J. 2007;120(1265):U2803.18264183
56. Kadan S, Saad B, Sasson Y, Zaid H. In vitro evaluations of cytotoxicity of eight antidiabetic medicinal plants and their effect on GLUT4 translocation. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013;2013:549345.23606883
57. Rahimzadeh M, Jahanshahi S, Moein S, Moein MR. Evaluation of alpha-amylase inhibition by Urtica dioica and Juglans 58. regia extracts. Iran J Basic Med Sci. 2014;17(6):465-469.25140210
58. Kavalali G, Tuncel H, Göksel S, Hatemi HH. Hypoglycemic activity of Urtica pilulifera in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2003;84(2-3):241-245.12648821
59. Swanston-Flatt SK, Day C, Flatt PR, Gould BJ, Bailey CJ. Glycaemic effects of traditional European plant treatments for diabetes. Studies in normal and streptozotocin diabetic mice. Diabetes Res. 1989;10(2):69-73.2743711
60. Ozkol H, Tuluce Y, Dilsiz N, Koyuncu I. Therapeutic potential of some plant extracts used in Turkish traditional medicine on streptozocin-induced type 1 diabetes mellitus in rats. J Membr Biol. 2013;246(1):47-55.23052826
61. Qujeq D, Tatar M, Feizi F, Parsian H, Sohan Faraji A, Halalkhor S. Effect of Urtica dioica leaf alcoholic and aqueous extracts on the number and the diameter of the islets in diabetic rats. Int J Mol Cell Med. 2013;2(1):21-26.24551786
62. Román Ramos R, Alarcón-Aguilar F, Lara-Lemus A, Flores-Saenz JL. Hypoglycemic effect of plants used in Mexico as antidiabetics. Arch Med Res. 1992;23(1):59-64.1308793
63. Golalipour MJ, Gharravi AM, Ghafari S, Afshar M. Effect of Urtica dioica on morphometric indices of kidney in streptozotocin diabetic rats—a stereological study. Pak J Biol Sci. 2007;10(21):3875-3879.19090245
64. Golalipour MJ, Ghafari S, Afshar M. Protective role of Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae) extract on hepatocytes morphometric changes in STZ diabetic wistar rats. Turk J Gastroenterol. 2010;21(3):262-269.20931430
65. Golalipour MJ, Kabiri Balajadeh B, Ghafari S, Azarhosh R, Khori V. Protective effect of Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae) on morphometric and morphologic alterations of seminiferous tubules in STZ diabetic rats. Iran J Basic Med Sci. 2011;14(5):472-477.23493848
66. Esfanjani TA, Namazi N, Bahrami A, Ehteshami M. Effect of hydroalcoholic extract of nettle (Urtica dioica) on glycemic index and insulin resistance index in type 2 diabetic patients. Iran J Endocrinol Metab. 2012;13(6);561-568.
67. Edgcumbe DP, McAuley D. Hypoglycaemia related to ingestion of a herbal remedy. Eur J Emerg Med. 2008;15(4):236-237.19078824
68. Balzarini J, Neyts J, Schols D, et al. The mannose-specific plant lectins from Cymbidium hybrid and Epipactis helleborine and the (N-acetylglucosamine)n-specific plant lectin from Urtica dioica are potent and selective inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus and cytomegalovirus replication in vitro. Antiviral Res. 1992;18(2):191-207.1329650
69. Uncini Manganelli RE, Zaccaro L, Tomei PE. Antiviral activity in vitro of Urtica dioica L., Parietaria diffusa M. et K. and Sambucus nigra L. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005;98(3):323-327.15814267
70. Kumaki Y, Wandersee MK, Smith AJ, et al. Inhibition of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus replication in a lethal SARS-CoV BALB/c mouse model by stinging nettle lectin, Urtica dioica agglutinin. Antiviral Res. 2011;90(1):22-32.21338626
71. Knipping K, Garssen J, van't Land B. An evaluation of the inhibitory effects against rotavirus infection of edible plant extracts. Virol J. 2012;9:137.22834653
72. Gul N, Ahmed SA, Smith LA. Inhibition of the protease activity of the light chain of type A botulinum neurotoxin by aqueous extract from stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) leaf. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2004;95(5):215-219.15546475
73. Körpe DA, Işeri ÖD, Sahin FI, Cabi E, Haberal M. High-antibacterial activity of Urtica spp. seed extracts on food and plant pathogenic bacteria. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2013;64(3):355-362.23067263
74. Samoilova Z, Muzyka N, Lepekhina E, Oktyabrsky O, Smirnova G. Medicinal plant extracts can variously modify biofilm formation in Escherichia coli. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 2014;105(4):709-722.24500005
75. Singh R, Hussain S, Verma R, Sharma P. Anti-mycobacterial screening of five Indian medicinal plants and partial purification of active extracts of Cassia sophera and Urtica dioica. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2013;6(5):366-371.23608375
76. Dar SA, Ganai FA, Yousuf AR, Balkhi MU, Bhat TM, Sharma P. Pharmacological and toxicological evaluation of Urtica dioica. Pharm Biol. 2013;51(2):170-180.23036051
77. Modarresi-Chahardehi A, Ibrahim D, Fariza-Sulaiman S, Mousavi L. Screening antimicrobial activity of various extracts of Urtica dioica. Rev Biol Trop. 2012;60(4):1567-1576.23342511
78. Giannarini G, Autorino R. Re: Serenoa repens associated with Urtica dioica (ProstaMEV) and curcumin and quercitin (FlogMEV) extracts are able to improve the efficacy of prulifloxacin in bacterial prostatitis patients: results from a prospective randomised study. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2009;34(3):283-284.19394800
79. Cai T, Mazzoli S, Bechi A, et al. Serenoa repens associated with Urtica dioica (ProstaMEV) and curcumin and quercitin (FlogMEV) extracts are able to improve the efficacy of prulifloxacin in bacterial prostatitis patients: results from a prospective randomised study. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2009;33(6):549-553.19181486
80. Hudec J, Burdová M, Kobida L, et al. Antioxidant capacity changes and phenolic profile of Echinacea purpurea, nettle (Urtica dioica L.), and dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) after application of polyamine and phenolic biosynthesis regulators. J Agric Food Chem. 2007;55(14):5689-5696.17579437
81. Yener Z, Celik I, Ilhan F, Bal R. Effects of Urtica dioica L. seed on lipid peroxidation, antioxidants and liver pathology in aflatoxin-induced tissue injury in rats. Food Chem Toxicol. 2009;47(2):418-424.19073231
82. Celik I, Tuluce Y. Elevation protective role of Camellia sinensis and Urtica dioica infusion against trichloroacetic acid-exposed in rats. Phytother Res. 2007;21(11):1039-1044.17622976
83. Ozen T, Korkmaz H. Modulatory effect of Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae) leaf extract on biotransformation enzyme systems, antioxidant enzymes, lactate dehydrogenase and lipid peroxidation in mice. Phytomedicine. 2003;10(5):405-415.12834006
84. Uslu S, Bulbul A, Diler B, Bas EK, Nuhoglu A. Urticaria due to Urtica dioica in a neonate. Eur J Pediatr. 2011;170(3):401-403.20953796
85. Toldy A, Stadler K, Sasvári M, et al. The effect of exercise and nettle supplementation on oxidative stress markers in the rat brain. Brain Res Bull. 2005;65(6):487-493.15862920
86. Sayhan MB, Kanter M, Oguz S, Erboga M. Protective effect of Urtica dioica L. on renal ischemia/reperfusion injury in rat. J Mol Histol. 2012;43(6):691-698.22760215
87. Özkol H, Musa D, Tuluce Y, Koyuncu I. Ameliorative influence of Urtica dioica L against cisplatin-induced toxicity in mice bearing Ehrlich ascites carcinoma. Drug Chem Toxicol. 2012;35(3):251-257.21939360
88. Kandis H, Karapolat S, Yildirim U, Saritas A, Gezer S, Memisogullari R. Effects of Urtica dioica on hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2010;65(12):1357-1361.21340227
89. Nahata A, Dixit VK. Ameliorative effects of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) on testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia in rats. Andrologia. 2012;(44)(suppl 1):396-409.21806658
90. Antiproliferative effect on human prostate cancer cells by a stinging nettle root (Urtica dioica) extract. Altern Med Rev. 2000:385.
91. Mittman P. Randomized, double-blind study of freeze-dried Urtica dioica in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. Planta Med. 1990;56(1):44-47.2192379
92. Harput US, Saracoglu I, Ogihara Y. Stimulation of lymphocyte proliferation and inhibition of nitric oxide production by aqueous Urtica dioica extract. Phytother Res. 2005;19(4):346-348.16041733
93. Akbay P, Basaran AA, Undeger U, Basaran N. In vitro immunomodulatory activity of flavonoid glycosides from Urtica dioica L. Phytother Res. 2003;17(1):34-37.12557244
94. Konrad A, Mähler M, Arni S, Flogerzi B, Klingelhöfer S, Seibold F. Ameliorative effect of IDS 30, a stinging nettle leaf extract, on chronic colitis. Int J Colorectal Dis. 2005;20(1):9-17.15338166
95. Borsuk OS, Masnaya NV, Sherstoboev EY, Isaykina NV, Kalinkina GI, Reihart DV. Effects of drugs of plant origin on the development of the immune response. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2011;151(2):194-196.22238748
96. Binaii M, Ghiasi M, Farabi SM, et al. Biochemical and hemato-immunological parameters in juvenile beluga (Huso huso) following the diet supplemented with nettle (Urtica dioica). Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2014;36(1):46-51.24516872
97. Ernst E. Herbal medicinal products during pregnancy: are they safe? BJOG. 2002;109(3):227-235.11950176
99. Agus HH, Tekin P, Bayav M, Semiz A, Sen A. Drug interaction potential of the seed extract of Urtica urens L. (dwarf nettle). Phytother Res. 2009;23(12):1763-1770.19441062
100. Cummings AJ, Olsen M. Mechanism of action of stinging nettles. Wilderness Environ Med. 2011;22(2):136-139.21396858
101. Caliskaner Z, Karaayvaz M, Ozturk S. Misuse of a herb: stinging nettle (Urtica urens) induced severe tongue oedema. Complement Ther Med. 2004;12(1):57-58.15130574
102. Dennehy C, Tsourounis C, Bui L, King TL. The use of herbs by California midwives. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 2010;39(6):684-693.21044150
103. Lerner LB, McVary KT, Barry MJ, et al. Management of lower urinary tract symptoms attributed to benign prostatic hyperplasia: AUA guideline part I, initial work-up and medical management. J Urol. 2021;206(4):1-11. doi: 10.1097/JU.000000000000218334384237

Further information

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.