Skip to Content

Chamomile

Scientific Name(s): Chameamelum nobile (L.) All., Matricaria recutita L.
Common Name(s): Common chamomile, English chamomile, Garden chamomile, Genuine chamomile, German chamomile, Hungarian chamomile, Lawn chamomile, Roman chamomile, Scotch chamomile, Sweet chamomile, True chamomile, Wild chamomile

Clinical Overview

See also: Embeline

Use

Chamomile is used topically in skin and mucous membrane inflammations and skin diseases. It can be inhaled for respiratory tract inflammations or irritations; used in baths as irrigation for anogenital inflammation; and used internally for GI spasms and inflammatory diseases, and applied topically as an analgesic and spasmolytic. Preliminary data also indicate potential benefit for maintaining remission of ulcerative colitis, improving glycemic and lipid parameters in type 2 diabetes, and improving adaptive and social functioning in children with autism. However, clinical trials supporting any use of chamomile are limited.

Dosing

Chamomile has been used as a tea for various conditions and as a topical cream, gel, or oil. Typical oral doses are 1.1 to 15 g/day. Gargles made from 8 g chamomile flowers in 1,000 mL of water have been used in clinical trials.

Contraindications

The use of chamomile-containing preparations is contraindicated in persons with hypersensitivity to ragweed pollens.

Pregnancy/Lactation

Unreferenced adverse reactions have been cited. Avoid use during pregnancy. No clinical data are available on use during lactation.

Interactions

See Drug Interactions section.

Adverse Reactions

Use of the tea and essential oil has resulted in anaphylaxis, contact dermatitis, and other severe hypersensitivity reactions. Cross-reactivity to asters, chrysanthemums, ragweed, and other members of the Asteraceae family exists.

Toxicology

Animal studies report low toxicity with oral ingestion of chamomile.

Scientific Family

  • Asteraceae (daisy)

Botany

M. recutita (German chamomile) grows as an erect annual, and Chamaemelum nobilis (Roman chamomile) is a slow-growing perennial. The fragrant flowering heads of both plants are collected and dried for use as teas and extracts.1, 2 Synonyms for M. recutita are Chamomilla chamomilla (L.) Rydb., Chamomilla recutita, Matricaria chamomilla, and Matricaria suavoelens, whereas synonyms for Chamaemelum nobile (L.) All, a synonym is Anthemis nobilis L. Chamomile is a member of the daisy (Asteraceae) family that includes aster, chrysanthemum, feverfew, ragweed, sunflower, tansy, and yarrow.

History

Known since Roman times for their medicinal properties, both plants have been used as antispasmodics and sedatives in the treatment of digestive and rheumatic disorders. Teas have been used to treat parasitic worm infections, and as hair tints and conditioners. The volatile oil has been used to flavor cigarette tobacco.

Chamomile has been used as a skin wash to cleanse wounds and ulcers, and to increase the sloughing of necrotic tissue and promote granulation and epithelialization. Chamomile is also reported to have antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, astringent, and deodorant properties. Various formulations of chamomile have been used to treat colic, cystitis, fever, flatulence, and vomiting.3, 4

Chemistry

Both plants contain similar chemical compounds. Chamomile tea contains 10% to 15% of the plant's essential oil. The blue-colored volatile oil is a complex mixture of sesquiterpenes (alpha-bisabolol, bisbolol-oxides A and B, and farnesene), sesquiterpenelactones (including the blue compound chamazulene), and acetylene derivatives.2

Phenolic compounds found in the flowers include hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, caffeic acid, and flavonoids (apigenin, luteolin, and chamaemeloside).4, 5 A nonpeptide, tachykinin NK1 receptor antagonist has been identified in Matricaria flowers.6 Coumarin has also been identified in chamomile.7, 8

Uses and Pharmacology

German chamomile flower is approved by the German Commission E for use as an inhalant in skin and mucous membrane inflammations, bacterial skin diseases, including those of the oral cavity and gums, and respiratory tract inflammations and irritations. The flower has been approved for use in baths, as irrigation for anogenital inflammation, and for use internally to treat GI spasms and inflammatory diseases.9

Analgesic

As a follow up to significant beneficial results observed with topical application of chamomile oil in patients with severe carpal tunnel syndrome, investigators conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial (n=86) in patients with mild and moderate carpal tunnel syndrome to determine the effects of chamomile oil on symptoms and functional status. After 4 weeks topical application of 1% chamomile oil (standardized to 0.227 mg/g apigenin) to the palmar area of the wrist, significant improvements were observed in symptom severity (P=0.017), functionality (P=0.0001), dynamometry (P=0.04), and compound latency (P=0.035) with chamomile compared to placebo.58

Anti-inflammatory

Chamomile has purported anti-inflammatory effects, but there are no published clinical trials supporting the findings of animal experiments. Chemical constituents of chamomile, such as bisabolol, chamazulene, and the flavonoids apigenin and luteolin, possess anti-inflammatory properties.10, 11, 12, 13

Antimicrobial

Because of the association of Helicobacter pylori with gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer, in vitro experimentation was conducted in H. pylori-infected gastric epithelial cells with 24 medicinal plants indigenous to Pakistan to evaluate their effect on secretion of interleukin (IL)-8 and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in order to assess anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective effects. Although no significant direct cytotoxic effects on the gastric cells or bactericidal effects on H. pylori were found, chamomile flower extract was observed to have mild inhibitory activity on IL-8 at 50 and 100 mcg/mL and significant suppression on ROS generation in H. pylori-infected gastric cells.55

Antispasmodic

Chamomile infusions have been used traditionally as GI antispasmodics despite the lack of rigorous trials to support this use. A small trial of a tea containing chamomile and other herbs was effective in treating infantile colic, but the volume of tea required for effect limited its usefulness.14 Chemical components in chamomile (bisabolol and flavonoids) have demonstrated antispasmodic effects in animal experiments.15, 16 The use of a chamomile preparation in children with acute, noncomplicated diarrhea reduced the duration of the diarrheal episode compared with placebo17 and reduced stool frequency.18

Chamomile has also been used in traditional Persian medicine as a treatment for enuresis; spasmolytic activity on the detrusor muscle may attenuate overactivity. To evaluate use of chamomile for enuresis, children with daytime or nocturnal enuresis were enrolled in a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial in Iran (n=80). According to traditional use, chamomile oil was applied topically to the perineal and suprapubic area nightly for a total of 6 weeks. Compared to baseline and placebo, topical chamomile application significantly improved mean frequency of enuresis at 2 and 6 weeks (P<0.001 each). No significant correlation was found between gender and outcome, and no adverse effects were observed.59

Autism

Data from a small, prospective, open-label trial (n = 40; 87.5% boys) in children with autism spectrum disorder showed significant improvement in adaptive functioning and overall behavior after 26-week administration of a supplement containing luteolin from chamomile (100 mg), quercetin (70 mg) and the quercetin glycoside rutin (30 mg); 1 capsule per 10 kg of weight was given daily with food. Changes in raw and age-equivalent scores were significant for all domains except communication raw scores and were greater than those expected by maturation per se. No major adverse effects were documented; however, 6 children from the original 50 enrolled withdrew due to increased irritability caused by the formulation.48

CNS/sensory effects

Animal data

Apigenin extracted from chamomile demonstrated inhibition of benzodiazepine binding in rat brain membranes, it did not display anxiolytic effects in whole rat models, indicating that CNS activity of chamomile is not mediated through this mechanism.27

Clinical data

In a small, blind, crossover, placebo-controlled study, aromatized chamomile oil demonstrated a sedative effect as well as a positive effect on mood.13 Changes in alpha wave activity during chamomile oil inhalation were demonstrated using electroencephalogram mapping.28 Diminished withdrawal symptoms were achieved when chamomile was coadministered with morphine.29

In a study investigating the efficacy of essential oils in reducing maternal anxiety during labor, the use of chamomile aromatherapy resulted in a reduction in opioid use, with less than 1% reporting minimal adverse reactions.30 An 8-week, double-blind, randomized clinical trial observed statistically and clinically significant anxiolytic effects in adults (n = 49) with mild to moderate generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) who took chamomile versus placebo (P = 0.047). Pharmaceutical grade chamomile, standardized to 1.2% apigenin, was initiated at 220 mg once daily and increased weekly in nonresponders (up to 50% reduction in anxiety score) to a maximum of 1,100 mg. Timing of drug administration was not standardized. Over time, a significant improvement in mean total Hamilton Anxiety Rating (HAM-A) score was seen with chamomile. Although the study was powered to detect only large differences in secondary outcomes, clinically beneficial trends in additional anxiety and well-being scores were noted for chamomile. No significant differences in adverse events were observed between groups. Despite study limitations, these data identify chamomile as a safe and effective potential alternative therapy in patients with mild GAD.49 Long-term use of chamomile was shown to be safe over a 38-week period in adults with GAD. Responders to chamomile supplementation during a 12-week open-label lead-in were randomized to either chamomile (1,500 mg/day; corresponding to 18 mg/day of total apigenin-7-glycosides) or placebo for a 26-week double-blind continuation period. Although no significant difference was observed in relapse rate or time to relapse during the follow-up period, significant improvements were seen in symptom occurrence (P=0.0032) and overall well-being (P=0.013), specifically in anxiety scores on well-being (P=0.0094), for those patients who continued on chamomile for the entire 38-week study period. Adverse events potentially related to treatment were mild with an incidence that did not differ between groups.57

Diabetes

Effectiveness of chamomile tea on glycemic and lipid parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes was evaluated in a single-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial (n = 64) conducted in Iran. Chamomile tea 3 g per 150 mL prepared as a 10-minute infusion without sugar or milk was given 3 times daily immediately after meals for 8 weeks. Statistically significant improvements were observed at 8 weeks with chamomile tea compared to controls, respectively, for the mean difference in serum insulin (−5.27 vs 0.34 microunits/dL; P < 0.001), HbA1c (−0.43 vs 0.01%; P = 0.03), insulin resistance measurements (−2.81 vs 0.31, P < 0.001), total cholesterol (−17.25 vs 4.06 mg/dL; P = 0.001), LDL (−8.9 vs 2.9 mg/dL; P = 0.05), and triglycerides (−38.62 vs 7.12 mg/dL; P < 0.001). Compared to baseline, all of these parameters also improved significantly in the chamomile tea group in addition to the mean difference in serum glucose (−20.4 mg/dL; P = 0.004); whereas in the control group, serum insulin levels worsened significantly (0.34 microunits/dL; P < 0.001). No adverse events were reported.54

Estrogenic activity

Chamomile tea is reportedly among the most common herbs used for morning sickness (as a tea made from the flowers). However, there are no reports on the safety of chamomile during pregnancy.23 Chamomile also is commonly used in menopause with a perceived high efficacy rate and few perceived adverse reactions.24

An ethanolic extract of chamomile containing primarily apigenin demonstrated weak estrogenic and progestational activity in an in vitro tissue system.25

An aqueous extract of chamomile demonstrated antiestrogenic activity on breast cell tissue and demonstrated a nonproliferative effect on cervical cancer cells in a study designed to measure the stimulatory effect of chamomile on bone osteoblasts.26

Mouth, mucositis, and gingival bleeding

Use of chamomile in radiation- and chemotherapy-induced mucositis have been studied in several trials with conflicting results. Prophylactic use of chamomile gargles or mouth rinses prevented the occurrence, delayed the onset, and reduced the intensity of mucositis in 2 trials31, 32; in another trial, chamomile was no more effective than placebo.33

A randomized, double-blind, comparator trial in adult patients with periodontal disease (gingivitis or chronic periodontitis) found a chamomile 5% mouth rinse to significantly reduce the bleeding index (P < 0.001) and to be as effective as chlorhexidine 0.12%.51

A double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial investigated the efficacy of topical chamomile in patients with oral lichen planus (n=60). Most patients presented with buccal mucosa lesions (98%) with the remainder fairly evenly distributed between tongue or gum lesions. After 4 weeks of applying 0.5 mL of the 2% Chamaemelum nobile gel preparation to the symptomatic area 3 times daily, patient scores for pain, burning, and itching were all significantly improved from baseline (P<0.001 each) but not with placebo. Additionally, quality of life clinical characteristics as measured by Thongprasom and the Oral Health Impact Profile-14 were significantly improved with administration of chamomile (P<0.001 each), which was in contrast to placebo. Overall, more patients in the chamomile group vs placebo showed some response (92% vs 17%) with complete resolution experienced by 19.2% vs 0%, respectively. No adverse events were observed in either group.56 In contrast, application of 2% C. nobile gel twice daily for 1 month to the oral cavity of patients with burning mouth syndrome did not provide any significant benefit in pain, severity of dry mouth, or oral health compared to placebo in a double-blind, randomized, crossover trial (n=57).60

Osteoarthritis

Safety and efficacy of topical chamomile oil was evaluated in a randomized, blind, placebo-controlled trial (n = 99) in Iran that enrolled adults with knee osteoarthritis. Compared to diclofenac 1% topical gel and placebo, 1.5 mL of chamomile oil applied topically 3 times daily for 3 weeks significantly reduced the number of acetaminophen tablets used for analgesia (P = 0.001). However, no significant differences were observed between groups in the questionnaire domains of pain, physical function, and stiffness.53

Premenstrual syndrome

In a comparator randomized, double-blind trial conducted in 90 female Iranian students with premenstrual syndrome diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed), chamomile 100 mg 3 times daily x 2 menstrual cycles was found to reduce anger and irritability significantly more than mefanamic acid (P < 0.05). Additionally, mean reduction in overall symptom intensity and reduction in psychological symptoms were significantly better with chamomile than mefanamic acid (P < 0.05, P < 0.001, respectively).50 Pain scores for cyclical mastalgia in premenopausal women was also found to be significantly reduced with administration of chamomile for 2 months compared to placebo (P=0.004) in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial (n=55).61

Skin

Eczema

Commercial preparations of chamomile-containing creams are widely available despite the lack of trials to support their use.

In a study designed to evaluate the effect of massage with chamomile essential oil versus massage only, no difference was found for the 2 study arms. Additionally, further use of the essential oil after the study period showed a decline in eczema severity, suggesting possible sensitization to the oils over time.19

In another trial, chamomile cream was as effective as hydrocortisone 0.25% cream in the treatment of atopic eczema.9 A more recent trial using a nonallergenic chamomile extract showed that chamomile extract was slightly superior to hydrocortisone 0.5%, but only marginally better than placebo.20

Radiation dermatitis

In a study designed to investigate the efficacy of chamomile cream in acute radiation dermatitis, no difference was found between chamomile and almond creams.21 Furthermore, review of the data did not reveal any additional trials; therefore, the use of chamomile cream for this condition is discouraged.22

Ulcerative colitis

A 12-month randomized, double-blind, active-controlled trial (n = 96) found no significant difference in relapse-free time, endoscopy, or fecal biomarkers in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients in remission treated with the gold standard, mesalazine, or a combination of dry extract of chamomile flowers (70 mg), myrrh (100 mg), and coffee charcoal (50 mg). Overall relapse rates were 53% and 45% in the herbal group versus the mesalazine group, respectively, and no significant differences were found between the 2 groups in Colitis Activity Index scores. This study describes first evidence of a potential non-inferior treatment to the gold standard treatment for UC.47

Dosing

Chamomile has been used as a tea for various conditions and as a topical cream or oil. Typical oral doses are 1,1 to 15 g/day. Gargles made from 8 g chamomile flowers in 1,000 mL water have been used in trials.31

Pregnancy / Lactation

Use during pregnancy should be avoided. Poorly documented adverse reactions have been reported (eg, abortifacient effects, menstrual cycle irregularities, uterine stimulation with excessive use).23, 34 Extracts of chamomile have demonstrated weak estrogenic activity25, 26 during pregnancy.

No clinical data are available on the use of chamomile during lactation.

Briggs Book Link

Interactions

Agents with antiplatelet properties: Herbs (anticoagulant/antiplatelet properties) may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of agents with antiplatelet properties. Bleeding may occur. Consider therapy modification.34, 35, 36, 37

Anticoagulants: Herbs (anticoagulant/antiplatelet properties) may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of anticoagulants. Bleeding may occur. Consider therapy modification.34, 35, 36, 37

Herbs (anticoagulant/antiplatelet properties): Herbs (anticoagulant/antiplatelet properties) may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other herbs (anticoagulant/antiplatelet properties). Bleeding may occur. Consider therapy modification.34, 35, 36, 37

Nonsteroidal anti-Inflammatory agents: Herbs (anticoagulant/antiplatelet properties) may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents. Bleeding may occur. Consider therapy modification.34, 35, 36, 37

Salicylates: Herbs (anticoagulant/antiplatelet properties) may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of salicylates. Bleeding may occur. Consider therapy modification.34, 35, 36, 37

Thrombolytic agents: Herbs (anticoagulant/antiplatelet properties) may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of thrombolytic agents. Bleeding may occur. Consider therapy modification.34, 35, 36, 37

Adverse Reactions

Allergic reactions to chamomile are commonly reported. Hypersensitivity reactions include anaphylaxis, dermatitis, GI upset, lacrimation, and sneezing.38, 39, 40, 52, 62 In large amounts, the dried flowering heads are reported to be emetogenic.41 Anaphylaxis resulting from chamomile-containing enemas42 and chamomile tea have been documented62 as well as allergic conjunctivitis caused by chamomile-containing eye drops.43

Manifestations of allergy are suggested to be dependent on the route of ingestion. Asthma, bowel cramps, diarrhea, and vomiting related to oral intake via tea have been reported; inhalation of the essential oil predominantly manifests as asthma.44

Cross-reactivity is reported among people allergic to ragweed, asters, chrysanthemums, and other members of the Asteraceae family.45

Toxicology

The toxicity of bisabolol was low following oral administration in animals, with oral median lethal dose (LD50) approximately 15 mL/kg in rats and mice. In a 4-week subacute toxicity study, the administration of bisabolol (1 to 2 mL/kg body weight) to rats did not cause toxicity. No teratogenic or developmental abnormalities were noted in rats and rabbits after long-term administration of bisabolol 1 mL/kg.46

Index Terms

  • Anthemis nobilis L.
  • Chameamelum nobile (L.) All.
  • Chamomilla chamomilla (L.) Rydb.
  • Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert
  • Matricaria chamomilla L.
  • Matricaria chamomilla L. var. coronata
  • Matricaria suaveolens L.

References

1. Matricaria recutita L. German chamomile and Chamaemelum nobile (L.) All. Roman chamomile. USDA, NRCS. 2017. The PLANTS Database (http://plants.usda.gov, March 2017). National Plant Data Team, Greensboro, NC 27401-4901 USA. Accessed March 15, 2017.
2. Ganzera M, Schneider P, Stuppner H. Inhibitory effects of the essential oil of chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.) and its major constituents on human cytochrome P-450 enzymes. Life Sci. 2006;78:856-861.16137701
3. Craker LE. Herb, Spices, and Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture, and Pharmacology. Vol 1. Phoenix, AZ: Oryx Press; 1986.
4. Carnat A, Carnat AP, Fraisse D, Ricoux L, Lamaison JL. The aromatic and polyphenolic composition of Roman camomile tea. Fitoterapia. 2004;75:32-38.14693217
5. Morton, J. Major Medicinal Plants: Botany, Culture, and Uses. Springfield, IL: Thomas; 1977.
6. Yamamoto A, Nakamura K, Furukawa K, et al. A new nonpeptide tachykinin NK1 receptor antagonist isolated from the plants of Compositae. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2002;50:47-52.
7. Segal R, Pilote L. Warfarin interaction with Matricaria chamomilla. CMAJ. 2006;174:1281-1282.16636327
8. Abebe W. Herbal medication: potential for adverse interactions with analgesic drugs. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2002;27:391-401.12472978
9. Ross SM. An integrative approach to eczema (atopic dermatitis). Holist Nurs Pract. 2003;17:56-62.12597676
10. Jakovlev V, Isaac O, Thiemer K, Kunde R. Pharmacological investigations with compounds of chamomile ii. New investigations on the antiphlogistic effects of (-)-alpha-bisabolol and bisabolol oxides. Planta Med. 1979;35:125-140.419180
11. Milin R, Stern P. Antiallergic and antiphlogistic effect of azulenes [in German]. Arzneimittelforschung. 1956;6:445-450.13373640
12. Hamon N. Herbal medicine. The chamomiles. Can Pharm J. 1989:612.
13. Farnsworth N, Morgan BM. Herb drinks: chamomile tea. JAMA. 1972;221:410.5067856
14. Crotteau CA, Wright ST, Eglash A. Clinical inquiries. What is the best treatment for infants with colic?J Fam Pract. 2006;55:634-636.16822454
15. Forster HB, Niklas H, Lutz S. Antispasmodic effects of some medicinal plants. Planta Med. 1980;40:309-319.7220648
16. Achterrath-Tuckermann U, Kunde R, Flaskamp E, Isaac O, Thiemer K. Pharmocological investigations with compounds of chamomile. V. Investigations on the spasmolytic effect of compounds of chamomile and Kamillosan on the isolated guinea pig ileum [in German]. Planta Med. 1980;39:38-50.7403307
17. de Ia Motte S, Bose-OReilly S, Heinisch M, Harrison F. Double-blind comparison of an apple pectin-chamomile extract preparation with placebo in children with diarrhea [in German]. Arzneimittelforschung. 1997;47:1247-1249.
18. Becker B, Kuhn U, Hardewig-Budny B. Double-blind, randomized evaluation of clinical efficacy and tolerability of an apple pectin-chamomile extract in children with unspecific diarrhea. Arzneimittelforschung. 2006;56:387-393.
19. Anderson C, Lis-Balchin M, Kirk-Smith M. Evaluation of massage with essential oils on childhood atopic eczema. Phytother Res. 2000;14:452-456.10960901
20. Patzelt-Wenczler R, Ponce-Poschl E. Proof of efficacy of Kamillosan cream in atopic eczema. Eur J Med Res. 2000;5:171-175.10799352
21. Maiche AG, Grohn P, Maki-Hokkonen H. Effect of chamomile cream and almond ointment on acute radiation skin reaction. Acta Oncol. 1991;30:395-396.2036252
22. Wilkinson JM. What do we know about herbal morning sickness treatments? A literature survey. Midwifery. 2000;16:224-228.10970756
23. Wickline MM. Prevention and treatment of acute radiation dermatitis: a literature review. Oncol Nurs Forum. 2004;31:237-247.15017440
24. Mahady GB, Parrot J, Lee C, Yun GS, Dan A. Botanical dietary supplement use in peri- and postmenopausal women. Menopause. 2003;10:65-72.12544679
25. Rosenberg Zand RS, Jenkins DJ, Diamandis EP. Effects of natural products and nutraceuticals on steroid hormone-regulated gene expression. Clin Chim Acta. 2001;312:213-219.11580929
26. Kassi E, Papoutsi Z, Fokialakis N, Messari I, Mitakou S, Moutsatsou P. Greek plant extracts exhibit selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM)-like properties. J Agric Food Chem. 2004;52:6956-6961.15537303
27. Avallone R, Zanoli P, Puia G, Kleinschnitz M, Schreier P, Baraldi M. Pharmacological profile of apigenin, a flavonoid isolated from Matricaria chamomilla. Biochem Pharmacol. 2000;59:1387-1394.10751547
28. Masago R, Matsuda T, Kikuchi Y, et al. Effects of inhalation of essential oils on EEG activity and sensory evaluation. J Physiol Anthropol Appl Human Sci. 2000;19:35-42.10979248
29. Gomaa A, Hashem T, Mohamed M, Ashry E. Matricaria chamomilla extract inhibits both development of morphine dependence and expression of abstinence syndrome in rats. J Pharmacol Sci. 2003;92:50-55.
30. Burns E, Blamey C, Ersser SJ, Lloyd AJ, Barnetson L. The use of aromatherapy in intrapartum midwifery practice an observational study. Complement Ther Nurs Midwifery. 2000;6:33-34.
31. Mazokopakis EE, Vrentzos GE, Papadakis JA, Babalis DE, Ganotakis ES. Wild chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.) mouthwashes in methotrexate-induced oral mucositis. Phytomedicine. 2005;12:25-27.15693704
32. Carl W, Emrich LS. Management of oral mucositis during local radiation and systemic chemotherapy: a study of 98 patients. J Prosthet Dent. 1991;66:361-369.1800734
33. Fidler P, Loprinzi CL, O'Fallon JR, et al. Prospective evaluation of a chamomile mouthwash for prevention of 5-FU-induced oral mucositis. Cancer. 1996;77:522-525.8630960
34. Mousa SA. Antithrombotic effects of naturally derived products on coagulation and platelet function. Methods Mol Biol. 2010;663:229-240.20617421
35. Stanger MJ, Thompson LA, Young AJ, et al. Anticoagulant activity of select dietary supplements. Nutr Rev. 2012;70(2):107-117.22300597
36. Spolarich AE, Andrews L. An examination of the bleeding complications associated with herbal supplements, antiplatelet and anticoagulant medications. J Dent Hyg. 2007;81(3):67.17908423
37. Ulbricht C, Chao W, Costa D, et al. Clinical evidence of herb-drug interactions: a systematic review by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration. Curr Drug Metab. 2008;9(10):1063-1120.19075623
38. Rowe A. Chamomile (Anthemis cotula) as a skin irritant. J Allergy. 1934;5:383.
39. Benner MH, Lee HJ. Anaphylactic reaction to camomile tea. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1973;52:307-308.4746793
40. Jensen-Jarolim E, Reider N, Fritsch R, Breiteneder H. Fatal outcome of anaphylaxis to camomile-containing enema during labor: a case study. J Allergy C!in Immunol. 1998;102:1041-1042.9847448
41. Lewis W, et al. Medical Botany: Plants Affecting Man's Health. New York, NY: J. Wiley; 1977.
42. Maddocks-Jennings W. Critical incident: idiosyncratic allergic reactions to essential oils. Complement Ther Nurs Midwifery. 2004;10:58-60.14744508
43. Fraunfelder FW. Ocular side effects from herbal medicines and nutritional supplements. Am J Ophthalmol. 2004;138:639-647.15488795
44. Reider N, Sepp N, Fritsch P, Weinlich G, Jensen-Jarolim E. Anaphylaxis to camomile: clinical features and allergen cross-reactivity. Clin Exp Allergy. 2000;30:1436-1443.10998021
45. Toxic reactions to plant products sold in health food stores. Med Left Drugs Ther. 1979;21:29-32.
46. Habersang S, Leuschner F, Isaac O, Thiemer K. Pharmacological studies with compounds of chamomile. IV. Studies on toxicity of (-)-alpha-bisabolol. Planta Med. 1979;37:115-123.117474
47. Langhorst J, Varnhagen I, Schneider SB, et al. Randomised clinical trial: a herbal preparation of myrrh, chamomile and coffee charcoal compared with mesalazine in maintaining remission in ulcerative colitis—a double-blind, double-dummy study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2013;38(5):490-500.23826890
48. Taliou A, Zintzaras E, Lykouras L, Francis K. An open-label pilot study of a formulation containing the anti-inflammatory flavonoid luteolin and its effects on behavior in children with autism spectrum disorders. Clin Ther. 2013;35(5):592-602.
49. Amsterdam JD, Li Y, Soeller I, Rockwell K, Mao JJ, Shults J. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of oral Matricaria recutita (chamomile) extract therapy of generalized anxiety disorder. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2009;29(4):378-382.19593179
50. Sharifi F, Simbar M, Mojab F, Majd HA. Comparison of the effects of Matricaria chamomile (Chamomile) exract and mefenamic acid on the intensity of premenstrual syndrome. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2014;20(1):81-88.24439651
51. Batista AL, Lins RD, de Souza Coelho R, et al. Clinical efficacy analysis of the mouth rinsing with pomegranate and chamomile plant extracts in the gingival bleeding reduction. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2014;20(1):93-98.24439653
52. Anzai A, Herrera NE, Tosti A. Airborne allergic contact dermatitis caused by chamomile tea. Contact Dermatitis. 2015;72:254-255.25622757
53. Shoara R, Hashempur MH, Ashraf A, Salehi A, Dehshahri S, Habibagahi Z. Efficacy and safety of topical Matricaria chamomilla L. (chamomile) oil for knee osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled clinical trial. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2015;21:181-187.26256137
54. Rafraf M, Zemestani M, Asghari-Jafarabadi M. Effectiveness of chamomile tea on glycemic control and serum lipid profile in patients with type 2 diabetes. J Endocrinol Invest. 2015;38:163-170.25194428
55. Zaidi SF, Muhammad JS, Shahryar S, et al. Anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective effects of selected Pakistani medicinal plants in Helicobacter pylori-infected gastric epithelial cells. J Ethnopharmacol. 2012;141(1):403-410.22433535
56. Jornet PL, Aznar-Cayuela C. Efficacy of topical chamomile management vs. placebo in patients with oral lichen planus: a randomized double-blind study. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2016;30(10):1783-1786.27324515
57. Mao JJ, Xie SX, Keefe JR, Soeller I, Li QS, Amsterdam JD. Long-term chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) treatment for generalized anxiety disorder: a randomized clinical trial. Phytomedicine. 2016;23(14):1735-1742.27912875
58. Hashempur MH, Ghasemi MS, Daneshfard B, et al. Efficacy of topical chamomile oil for mild and moderate carpal tunnel syndrome: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Complement Therap Clin Pract. 2017;26:61-67.
59. Sharifi H, Minaie MB, Qasemzadeh MJ, Ataei N, Gharehbeglou M, Heydari M. Topical use of Matriciaria recutita L (chamomile) oil in the treatmet of monosymptomatic enuresis in children: a double-blind randomized controlled trial. J Evid Based Complementary Altern Med. 2017;22(1):12-17.
60. Valenzuela S, Pons-Fuster A, Lopez-Jornet P. Effect of a 2% topical chamomile application for treating burning mouth syndrome: a controlled clinical trial. J Oral Pathol Med. 2016;45:528-533.26694632
61. Saghafi N, Rhkhshandeh H, Pourmoghadam N, Pourali L, Ghazanfarpour M, Behrooznia A, Vafisani F. Effectiveness of Matricaria chamomilla (chamomile) extract on pain control of cyclic mastalgia: a double-blind randomised controlled trial. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2018;38(1):81-84.29072514
62. Andres C, Chen WC, Ollert M, Mempel M, Darsow U, Ring J. Anaphylactic reaction to camomile tea. Allergol Int. 2009;58(1):135-136.19050375

Disclaimer

This information relates to an herbal, vitamin, mineral or other dietary supplement. This product has not been reviewed by the FDA to determine whether it is safe or effective and is not subject to the quality standards and safety information collection standards that are applicable to most prescription drugs. This information should not be used to decide whether or not to take this product. This information does not endorse this product as safe, effective, or approved for treating any patient or health condition. This is only a brief summary of general information about this product. It does NOT include all information about the possible uses, directions, warnings, precautions, interactions, adverse effects, or risks that may apply to this product. This information is not specific medical advice and does not replace information you receive from your health care provider. You should talk with your health care provider for complete information about the risks and benefits of using this product.

This product may adversely interact with certain health and medical conditions, other prescription and over-the-counter drugs, foods, or other dietary supplements. This product may be unsafe when used before surgery or other medical procedures. It is important to fully inform your doctor about the herbal, vitamins, mineral or any other supplements you are taking before any kind of surgery or medical procedure. With the exception of certain products that are generally recognized as safe in normal quantities, including use of folic acid and prenatal vitamins during pregnancy, this product has not been sufficiently studied to determine whether it is safe to use during pregnancy or nursing or by persons younger than 2 years of age.

Further information

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.

Hide