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hepatitis B adult vaccine

Generic Name: hepatitis B adult vaccine (HEP a TYE tis B a DULT VAX een)
Brand Name: Engerix-B, Recombivax HB Adult, Recombivax HB Dialysis Formulation

What is hepatitis B vaccine?

Hepatitis is a serious disease caused by a virus. Hepatitis causes inflammation of the liver, vomiting, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin or eyes). Hepatitis can lead to liver cancer, cirrhosis, or death.

Hepatitis B is a disease of the liver that is spread through blood or bodily fluids, sexual contact or sharing IV drug needles with an infected person, or during childbirth when the mother is infected.

The hepatitis B adult vaccine is used to help prevent this disease in adults.

This vaccine works by exposing you to a small amount of the virus, which causes the body to develop immunity to the disease. This vaccine will not treat an active infection that has already developed in the body.

Vaccination with hepatitis B adult vaccine is recommended for all adults who are at risk of getting hepatitis B. Risk factors include: having more than one sex partner; being a homosexual male; having sexual contact with infected people; having chronic liver disease; having diabetes and being under age 60; having HIV or AIDS; using intravenous (IV) drugs; being on dialysis or receiving blood transfusions; working in an institution for developmentally disabled patients; working in healthcare or public safety and being exposed to human blood; being in the military or traveling to high-risk areas; and living with a person who has hepatitis B.

Like any vaccine, the hepatitis B vaccine may not provide protection from disease in every person.

What is the most important information I should know about this vaccine?

You should not receive hepatitis B vaccine if you are allergic to baker's yeast.

This vaccine will not protect against hepatitis B if you are already infected with the virus, even if you do not yet show symptoms.

What should I discuss with my healthcare provider before receiving this vaccine?

Hepatitis B vaccine will not protect against infection with hepatitis A, C, and E, or other viruses that affect the liver. It may also not protect against hepatitis B if you are already infected with the virus, even if you do not yet show symptoms.

You should not receive this vaccine if you have ever had a life-threatening allergic reaction to any vaccine containing hepatitis B, or if you are allergic to baker's yeast.

If you have any of these other conditions, your vaccine may need to be postponed or not given at all:

  • multiple sclerosis;

  • kidney disease (or if you are on dialysis);

  • a bleeding or blood clotting disorder such as hemophilia or easy bruising;

  • an allergy to latex rubber; or

  • a neurologic disorder or disease affecting the brain (or if this was a reaction to a previous vaccine).

You can still receive a vaccine if you have a minor cold. In the case of a more severe illness with a fever or any type of infection, wait until you get better before receiving this vaccine.

It is not known whether this vaccine will harm an unborn baby. Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant while receiving the series of hepatitis B vaccines.

It is not known whether hepatitis B vaccine passes into breast milk or if it could harm a nursing baby. Tell your doctor if you are breast-feeding a baby.

How is this vaccine given?

This vaccine is given as an injection (shot) into a muscle. You will receive this injection in a doctor's office or other clinic setting.

The hepatitis B vaccine is given in a series of shots. The booster shots are sometimes given 1 month and 6 months after the first shot. If you have a high risk of hepatitis B infection, you may be given an additional booster 1 to 2 months after the third shot.

Your individual booster schedule may be different from these guidelines. Follow your doctor's instructions or the schedule recommended by your local health department.

What happens if I miss a dose?

Contact your doctor if you will miss a booster dose or if you get behind schedule. The next dose should be given as soon as possible. There is no need to start over.

Be sure to receive all recommended doses of this vaccine. You may not be fully protected if you do not receive the full series.

What happens if I overdose?

An overdose of this vaccine is unlikely to occur.

What should I avoid before or after receiving this vaccine?

Follow your doctor's instructions about any restrictions on food, beverages, or activity.

This vaccine side effects

Get emergency medical help if you have signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficult breathing; fast heartbeat; dizziness, weakness; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

You should not receive a booster vaccine if you had a life-threatening allergic reaction after the first shot.

Keep track of any and all side effects you have after receiving this vaccine. When you receive a booster dose, you will need to tell your doctor if the previous shot caused any side effects.

Becoming infected with hepatitis B is much more dangerous to your health than receiving this vaccine. However, like any medicine, this vaccine can cause side effects but the risk of serious side effects is extremely low.

Call your doctor at once if you have:

  • high fever, sore throat, and headache with a severe blistering, peeling, and red skin rash;

  • changes in behavior;

  • bruising or bleeding; or

  • severe skin reaction--fever, sore throat, swelling in your face or tongue, burning in your eyes, skin pain followed by a red or purple skin rash that spreads (especially in the face or upper body) and causes blistering and peeling.

Common side effects include:

  • redness, pain, swelling, or a lump where the shot was given;

  • diarrhea, loss of appetite;

  • headache, dizziness, weakness;

  • low fever;

  • feeling tired or irritable; or

  • runny nose.

This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report vaccine side effects to the US Department of Health and Human Services at 1-800-822-7967.

See also: Side effects (in more detail)

Hepatitis B adult vaccine dosing information

Usual Adult Dose for Hepatitis B Prophylaxis:

Primary Vaccination:
Engerix-B(R):
Ages 19 and younger: Three doses (10 mcg each), IM, on a 0, 1, and 6 month schedule
Ages 20 and older: Three doses (20 mcg each), IM, on a 0, 1, and 6 month schedule

Recombivax-HB(R):
Ages 19 and younger: Three doses (5 mcg each), IM, on a 0, 1, and 6 month schedule
Ages 20 and older: Three doses (10 mcg each), IM, on a 0, 1, and 6 month schedule

Known or Presumed Hepatitis B Exposure:
Use recommended doses (above) on a 0, 1, and 6 month schedule OR a 0, 1, 2, and 12 month schedule.

Comments:
-Administer hepatitis B immune globulin if appropriate.
-Start hepatitis B vaccine as soon as possible after exposure.

What other drugs will affect hepatitis B vaccine?

Other drugs may interact with hepatitis B vaccine, including prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal products. Tell each of your health care providers about all medicines you use now and any medicine you start or stop using.

Where can I get more information?

  • Your doctor or pharmacist can provide more information about this vaccine. Additional information is available from your local health department or the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
  • Remember, keep this and all other medicines out of the reach of children, never share your medicines with others, and use this medication only for the indication prescribed.
  • Disclaimer: Every effort has been made to ensure that the information provided by Cerner Multum, Inc. ('Multum') is accurate, up-to-date, and complete, but no guarantee is made to that effect. Drug information contained herein may be time sensitive. Multum information has been compiled for use by healthcare practitioners and consumers in the United States and therefore Multum does not warrant that uses outside of the United States are appropriate, unless specifically indicated otherwise. Multum's drug information does not endorse drugs, diagnose patients or recommend therapy. Multum's drug information is an informational resource designed to assist licensed healthcare practitioners in caring for their patients and/or to serve consumers viewing this service as a supplement to, and not a substitute for, the expertise, skill, knowledge and judgment of healthcare practitioners. The absence of a warning for a given drug or drug combination in no way should be construed to indicate that the drug or drug combination is safe, effective or appropriate for any given patient. Multum does not assume any responsibility for any aspect of healthcare administered with the aid of information Multum provides. The information contained herein is not intended to cover all possible uses, directions, precautions, warnings, drug interactions, allergic reactions, or adverse effects. If you have questions about the drugs you are taking, check with your doctor, nurse or pharmacist.

Copyright 1996-2012 Cerner Multum, Inc. Version: 5.01.

Date modified: November 30, 2016
Last reviewed: May 23, 2016

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