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is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by bacteria. Syphilis is spread through direct contact with the sores of an infected person. This usually happens through sexual activity, especially unprotected sex. It can also spread through sharing needles or contact with the blood of an infected person. If you are pregnant, you can give syphilis to your baby.
The signs and symptoms of syphilis:
Your symptoms may go away within a few weeks or come and go for up to 1 year. You may have any of the following:
- Primary syphilis may develop without any signs or symptoms. You may not know you have syphilis and can spread it by accident. You may develop a chancre sore 10 to 90 days after you were exposed to the bacteria:
- A chancre sore is a small sore on your skin where it came into contact with the bacteria. You can have more than one. It can appear anywhere on your body but is most common on the penis, vagina, anus, or inside the mouth. The sore heals without treatment in 3 to 6 weeks.
- Secondary syphilis develops 2 to 8 weeks after the chancre appears and may include any of the following:
- A red, bumpy, scaly rash appears on your torso, arms, and legs. It may spread to the palms of your hands and the soles of your feet. This rash does not usually itch.
- Gray or white mouth sores may be painful and your mouth may feel swollen. You may have a sore throat. You may have red, open sores at the corners of your mouth.
- Large, raised, white, or gray skin sores may be found in warm, moist areas of your body.
- A fever, headache, swollen glands in your neck or other signs of infection.
Call 911 for any of the following:
- You have chest pain and pain on your left arm, jaw, or back.
- You have shortness of breath.
Seek care immediately if:
- You have a headache and a stiff neck.
- You are confused.
Contact your healthcare provider if:
- You are pregnant and think you have syphilis.
- You have a new rash, sore throat, or swollen joint.
- Your symptoms do not go away after treatment, or they come back.
- You have questions or concerns about your condition or care.
You may need any of the following:
- Acetaminophen decreases pain and fever. It is available without a doctor's order. Ask how much to take and how often to take it. Follow directions. Read the labels of all other medicines you are using to see if they also contain acetaminophen, or ask your doctor or pharmacist. Acetaminophen can cause liver damage if not taken correctly. Do not use more than 4 grams (4,000 milligrams) total of acetaminophen in one day.
- NSAIDs , such as ibuprofen, help decrease swelling, pain, and fever. This medicine is available with or without a doctor's order. NSAIDs can cause stomach bleeding or kidney problems in certain people. If you take blood thinner medicine, always ask your healthcare provider if NSAIDs are safe for you. Always read the medicine label and follow directions.
- Antibiotics help treat the bacteria that caused your syphilis.
- Take your medicine as directed. Contact your healthcare provider if you think your medicine is not helping or if you have side effects. Tell him of her if you are allergic to any medicine. Keep a list of the medicines, vitamins, and herbs you take. Include the amounts, and when and why you take them. Bring the list or the pill bottles to follow-up visits. Carry your medicine list with you in case of an emergency.
You may have a reaction within the first day after treatment. Symptoms include a fever, chills, nausea, rash, and a headache. This happens as the antibiotic starts to kill the bacteria that caused your syphilis. These symptoms usually get better in 1 or 2 days. Drink plenty of liquids and rest during this time.
Prevent the spread of syphilis:
- Do not have sex until treatment is complete. This usually takes at least 2 months. Your healthcare provider will tell you when you can resume sexual activity.
- Tell your sexual partners about your syphilis. Tell everyone you have had sex with in the past 3 months. They need to be checked for infection and may need treatment.
- Use condoms and barrier methods for all types of sexual contact. Use a new condom or latex barrier each time you have sex. This includes oral, vaginal, and anal sex. Make sure that the condom fits and is put on correctly. Rubber latex sheets or dental dams can be used for oral sex. Ask your healthcare provider how to use these items and where to purchase them. If you are allergic to latex, use a nonlatex product such as polyurethane.
- Get tested for HIV. You are at increased risk of HIV if you have syphilis.
Follow up with your healthcare provider as directed:
You may need to return regularly for tests. Write down your questions so you remember to ask them during your visits.
Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.
Learn more about Syphilis (Ambulatory Care)
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