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Multiple Myeloma

Medically reviewed by Last updated on Jun 6, 2022.

What is multiple myeloma?

Multiple myeloma is a cancer of plasma cells. Plasma cells are a type of white blood cell. Plasma cells make antibodies to help your body fight infection. You may have high amounts of plasma cells that do not work correctly. Your body may make so many plasma cells or antibodies that they damage your bones and other healthy tissue.

What are the signs and symptoms of multiple myeloma?

  • Bone pain, most commonly in the lower back, pelvis, or ribs
  • Frequent infections
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Fatigue, weakness, or confusion
  • Constipation or difficulty urinating
  • Loss of appetite or weight loss
  • Shortness of breath

How is multiple myeloma diagnosed?

  • Blood and urine tests are used to find or measure antibodies, called M proteins. The tests may also be used to monitor your calcium levels and kidney function.
  • A bone marrow biopsy is a sample from your bone to check for myeloma cells.
  • An x-ray, CT, PET, or MRI may be done to find cancer in your body. You may be given contrast liquid to help the cancer show up better. Tell the healthcare provider if you have ever had an allergic reaction to contrast liquid. Do not enter the MRI room with anything metal. Metal can cause serious injury. Tell the healthcare provider if you have any metal in or on your body.

How is multiple myeloma treated?

Treatment will depend on your symptoms and the stage of cancer. The stage will depend on how much your bone and kidneys are involved, and the level of calcium and proteins in your blood. Your healthcare provider may recommend that you have frequent tests and regular follow-up visits to watch for changes. You may also need one or more of the following:

  • Medicines are given to stop myeloid cells from growing and to kill new cancer cells. Medicines may also help strengthen your immune system.
  • Radiation therapy uses x-rays or gamma rays to treat cancer. Radiation kills cancer cells and may stop the cancer from spreading. It may be given alone or with chemotherapy.
  • A transplant is a procedure to give bone marrow or stem cells through an IV. The stem cells go to your bone marrow and begin to make new, healthy blood cells.

Treatment options

The following list of medications are in some way related to or used in the treatment of this condition.

View more treatment options

What can I do to manage my multiple myeloma?

  • Wash your hands often. Use soap and water. Wash your hands after you use the bathroom, change a child's diapers, or sneeze. Wash your hands before you prepare or eat food. Avoid people who are sick and ask about other ways to help prevent infection.
  • Prevent bleeding and bruising. Be careful with sharp or pointed objects, such as knives and toothpicks. Do not play contact sports, such as football. Use a soft toothbrush. Do not floss your teeth while your platelet count is low. Blow your nose gently.
  • Do not smoke. Nicotine and other chemicals in cigarettes and cigars can damage blood vessels. This can make it harder to manage your symptoms. Smoking also increases your risk for new or returning cancer and delays healing after treatment. Ask your healthcare provider for information if you currently smoke and need help to quit. E-cigarettes or smokeless tobacco still contain nicotine.
  • Do not drink alcohol. Alcohol can thin your blood and make it easier to bleed.
  • Drink liquids as directed. You may need to drink extra liquids to prevent dehydration. Ask how much liquid to drink each day and which liquids are best for you.
  • Exercise regularly. Multiple myeloma or its treatment may make you feel tired. Exercise can help you have more energy. Ask about the best exercise plan for you.
  • Eat a variety of healthy foods. Healthy foods include fruits, vegetables, whole-grain breads, low-fat dairy products, beans, lean meats, and fish. Ask about any extra nutrition you may need, such as nutrition shakes or vitamins. Tell your healthcare provider if you have problems eating, or if you are nauseated.

Call your local emergency number (911 in the US) if:

  • You have sudden chest pain, pounding or racing heartbeat, or shortness of breath.

When should I seek immediate care?

  • You had a bad fall and you may have broken a bone.
  • You feel dizzy or faint.
  • You cannot think clearly.
  • You feel weak or numb on one side of your body.

When should I call my doctor?

  • You are vomiting repeatedly and cannot keep food down.
  • You have a fever or chills.
  • You have a cough, or feel weak and achy.
  • Your pain is worse or does not go away after you take pain medicine.
  • You cannot control your urine or bowel movements.
  • You have questions or concerns about your condition or care.

Care Agreement

You have the right to help plan your care. Learn about your health condition and how it may be treated. Discuss treatment options with your healthcare providers to decide what care you want to receive. You always have the right to refuse treatment. The above information is an educational aid only. It is not intended as medical advice for individual conditions or treatments. Talk to your doctor, nurse or pharmacist before following any medical regimen to see if it is safe and effective for you.

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Learn more about Multiple Myeloma

Treatment options

Symptoms and treatments guides (external)

Further information

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.