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Chronic Myeloid Leukemia


Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML)

is also called chronic myelogenous leukemia. It is cancer of the bone marrow and blood cells. Blood cells that should become white blood cells (WBCs) do not fully grow. These cells do not fight infection like a normal WBC should. They crowd the bone marrow and prevent normal blood cells from growing and fighting infection. You may have no signs or symptoms. Many people learn that they have CML after blood is drawn for tests during a regular medical exam.

Common symptoms include the following:

  • Pain or a full feeling in your stomach
  • Tiredness and weakness that does not go away
  • Fever or infections, such as cold or flu, do not get better or keep coming back
  • Weight loss without trying
  • Shortness of breath, or you become easily tired during exercise
  • Night sweats or sweating more than usual
  • Bone pain, or easy bruising and bleeding

Seek care immediately if:

  • You have chest pain.
  • You have a fever higher than 100.4°F (38°C).
  • You have abdominal pain.

Contact your healthcare provider if:

  • You have blood in your spit or vomit.
  • You are coughing or have shortness of breath.
  • You feel dizzy or your heart begins to beat very fast.
  • You have sores or white patches in your mouth or throat.
  • You have rectal pain or hemorrhoids.
  • You have diarrhea or bloody bowel movements.
  • You have pain in your eyes, ears, skin, joints, or stomach.
  • You have pain when you urinate or bad-smelling urine.
  • Your gums and nose are bleeding.
  • You have blurred vision or blood spots in the whites of your eyes.
  • You have questions or concerns about your condition or care.

Treatment for CML

may include any of the following:

  • Medicines may be given to decrease the growth of CML cells and increase the growth of normal blood cells.
  • Chemotherapy is used to kill cancer cells before a stem cell transplant.
  • A transplant is rarely used to put bone marrow or stem cells in your blood through an IV. The bone marrow or stem cells go to your bone marrow and begin to make healthy, new blood cells.

Manage CML:

  • Prevent infection. Wash your hands often, avoid people who are sick, and clean humidifiers daily. Ask your healthcare provider for more information on preventing infection.
  • Prevent bleeding and bruising. Be careful with sharp or pointed objects, such as knives and toothpicks. Do not play contact sports, such as football. Use a soft toothbrush. Do not floss your teeth while your platelet count is low. Blow your nose gently. Your nose may bleed if you pick it. Do not take NSAIDs or aspirin. NSAIDs and aspirin thin your blood and increase your risk for bleeding.
  • Do not smoke cigarettes or drink alcohol. Alcohol can thin your blood and make it easier to bleed. Smoking increases your risk for new or returning cancer. Smoking can also delay healing after treatment. Do not use e-cigarettes or smokeless tobacco in place of cigarettes or to help you quit. They still contain nicotine. Ask your healthcare provider for information if you currently smoke or drink and need help quitting.
  • Drink liquids as directed. You may need to drink extra liquids to prevent dehydration, especially if you are vomiting or have diarrhea from cancer treatments. Ask how much liquid you need each day and which liquids are best for you.
  • Exercise as directed. CML or its treatment may make you feel tired. Exercise can help you have more energy.
  • Eat healthy foods. Healthy foods may help you feel better and have more energy. If you have trouble swallowing, you may be given foods that are soft or in liquid form. Ask about any extra nutrition you may need, such as nutrition shakes or vitamins. Tell your healthcare provider if you have problems eating, or if you are nauseated.

Follow up with your healthcare provider as directed:

You will need to see your oncologist for ongoing treatment. Write down your questions so you remember to ask them during your visits.

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The above information is an educational aid only. It is not intended as medical advice for individual conditions or treatments. Talk to your doctor, nurse or pharmacist before following any medical regimen to see if it is safe and effective for you.

Learn more about Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (Ambulatory Care)

Associated drugs

IBM Watson Micromedex

Further information

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