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Probenecid and Colchicine Side Effects

Generic Name: colchicine / probenecid

Note: This page contains side effects data for the generic drug colchicine / probenecid. It is possible that some of the dosage forms included below may not apply to the brand name Probenecid and Colchicine.

For the Consumer

Applies to colchicine / probenecid: oral tablet

Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction while taking colchicine / probenecid: hives; difficult breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Stop using colchicine and probenecid and call your doctor at once if you have:

  • painful urination, severe pain in your side or lower back, blood in your urine, little or no urinating;

  • fever, severe muscle weakness, mood changes, seizure (convulsions);

  • easy bruising or bleeding, unusual weakness; or

  • severe diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, or stomach pain.

Common side effects may include:

  • mild nausea or stomach pain, loss of appetite;

  • headache;

  • dizziness;

  • hair loss; or

  • flushing (warmth, redness, or tingly feeling).

This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects.

For Healthcare Professionals

Applies to colchicine / probenecid: oral tablet

Nervous system

Colchicine-induced neuromyopathy often presents with a pattern of general muscle weakness, elevated creatinine phosphokinase, a diffuse myosistic pattern on EMG, and noninflammatory vacuolar changes on muscle biopsy.[Ref]

Nervous system side effects of colchicine have rarely included myopathy, seizures, mental status changes, neuropathy, and peripheral neuritis in patients with impaired renal function. These symptoms are sometimes reversible with drug discontinuation. Neuropathy occurrence has been reported with or without elevated muscle enzymes.

Nervous system side effects of probenecid have included headache and dizziness.[Ref]


Gastrointestinal side effects of colchicine have included nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea in nearly 80% of treated patients. These symptoms can be indicative acute colchicine toxicity. Anorexia, electrolyte disturbance, pancreatitis, and paralytic ileus may also occur, and steatorrhea and enzyme inhibition have been reported in patients on long-term colchicine therapy.

Gastrointestinal side effects of probenecid have included vomiting, nausea, anorexia, and sore gums.[Ref]


Renal side effects of colchicine have included acute renal failure and rare cases of rapid progressive glomerulonephritis.
Chronic renal failure and acute renal failure with a fatal outcome following colchicine toxicity have been reported.

Renal side effects of probenecid have included nephrotic syndrome, with or without renal failure, urinary frequency, uric acid stones with or without hematuria, and renal colic.[Ref]

Acute renal failure with a fatal outcome has been reported in a 78-year-old man after a 10-day course of colchicine 0.5 mg three times a day.

Adequate hydration, to result in urine output of 2 liters/day, if possible, and alkalinization of the urine may reduce the risk of stone formation. Probenecid is contraindicated in patients who are overproducers of uric acid (i.e. 24-hour urinary uric acid excretion of greater than 750 mg).[Ref]


Hematologic side effects of colchicine have included thrombocytopenia, pancytopenia, leukopenia, agranulocytosis, bone marrow failure, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and aplastic anemia in patients on long-term therapy. These symptoms are most common in cases of overdose or intoxification. Heinz-body hemolytic anemia has been reported in 3 cases.

Hematologic side effects of probenecid have rarely included leukopenia, aplastic anemia, leukopenia, hemolytic anemia, and anemia.[Ref]

A case of fatal pancytopenia developed in a patient treated with 10 mg of colchicine over a 5-day period.

Thrombocytopenia is a rare side effect of colchicine and is usually associated with myelotoxicity.

Fatal marrow aplasia was reported in a 70-year-old who was given 10 mg of colchicine intravenously over a 5 day period.

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) deficiency may increase the risk of probenecid-induced hemolytic anemia in some patients. However, probenecid has also been implicated in at least two cases of immune-mediated hemolytic anemia. In both cases. serum antibodies reacted with red blood cells only in the presence of probenecid. In one patient, a generalized rash, fever, malaise, and anorexia were also present.[Ref]


Hepatic side effects of probenecid have included hepatic necrosis.[Ref]


Hypersensitivity side effects of colchicine have included urticaria.

Hypersensitivity side effects of probenecid have included anaphylaxis, fever, urticaria, rash, and pruritus.[Ref]


Dermatologic side effects of colchicine and probenecid have included dermatitis, purpura, alopecia after intoxification or long-term usage, and toxic epidermal necrolysis with concomitant ethanol use.[Ref]


Metabolic side effects of probenecid have included precipitation of gouty arthritis.[Ref]


Musculoskeletal side effects of colchicine have included myopathy, muscular weakness, paralysis, and costovertebral pain.[Ref]


A case of azoospermia has been reported in a patient treated with colchicine. The patient's sperm count returned to normal when colchicine was discontinued, and decreased on reintroduction of the drug. The patient fathered two apparently normal children while not receiving the drug. One study of six patients treated with colchicine showed moderate oligospermia in two patients, but no effect in any of the treated patients.[Ref]

Genitourinary side effects of probenecid have included urinary frequency and azoospermia.[Ref]


At toxic doses, other side effects associated with colchicine have included severe diarrhea, generalized vascular damage, and renal damage with hematuria and oliguria.[Ref]


Respiratory side effects including respiratory distress syndrome have been reported.[Ref]


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It is possible that some side effects of Probenecid and Colchicine may not have been reported. These can be reported to the FDA here. Always consult a healthcare professional for medical advice.

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