Probenecid and Colchicine Side Effects
Generic Name: colchicine / probenecid
Note: This page contains side effects data for the generic drug colchicine / probenecid. It is possible that some of the dosage forms included below may not apply to the brand name Probenecid and Colchicine.
For the Consumer
Applies to colchicine / probenecid: oral tablet
Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction while taking colchicine / probenecid: hives; difficult breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.
Stop using colchicine and probenecid and call your doctor at once if you have:
painful urination, severe pain in your side or lower back, blood in your urine, little or no urinating;
fever, severe muscle weakness, mood changes, seizure (convulsions);
easy bruising or bleeding, unusual weakness; or
severe diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, or stomach pain.
Common side effects may include:
mild nausea or stomach pain, loss of appetite;
hair loss; or
flushing (warmth, redness, or tingly feeling).
This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects.
For Healthcare Professionals
Applies to colchicine / probenecid: oral tablet
Colchicine-induced neuromyopathy often presents with a pattern of general muscle weakness, elevated creatinine phosphokinase, a diffuse myosistic pattern on EMG, and noninflammatory vacuolar changes on muscle biopsy.[Ref]
Nervous system side effects of colchicine have rarely included myopathy, seizures, mental status changes, neuropathy, and peripheral neuritis in patients with impaired renal function. These symptoms are sometimes reversible with drug discontinuation. Neuropathy occurrence has been reported with or without elevated muscle enzymes.
Nervous system side effects of probenecid have included headache and dizziness.[Ref]
Gastrointestinal side effects of colchicine have included nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea in nearly 80% of treated patients. These symptoms can be indicative acute colchicine toxicity. Anorexia, electrolyte disturbance, pancreatitis, and paralytic ileus may also occur, and steatorrhea and enzyme inhibition have been reported in patients on long-term colchicine therapy.
Gastrointestinal side effects of probenecid have included vomiting, nausea, anorexia, and sore gums.[Ref]
Renal side effects of colchicine have included acute renal failure and rare cases of rapid progressive glomerulonephritis.
Chronic renal failure and acute renal failure with a fatal outcome following colchicine toxicity have been reported.
Renal side effects of probenecid have included nephrotic syndrome, with or without renal failure, urinary frequency, uric acid stones with or without hematuria, and renal colic.[Ref]
Acute renal failure with a fatal outcome has been reported in a 78-year-old man after a 10-day course of colchicine 0.5 mg three times a day.
Adequate hydration, to result in urine output of 2 liters/day, if possible, and alkalinization of the urine may reduce the risk of stone formation. Probenecid is contraindicated in patients who are overproducers of uric acid (i.e. 24-hour urinary uric acid excretion of greater than 750 mg).[Ref]
Hematologic side effects of colchicine have included thrombocytopenia, pancytopenia, leukopenia, agranulocytosis, bone marrow failure, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and aplastic anemia in patients on long-term therapy. These symptoms are most common in cases of overdose or intoxification. Heinz-body hemolytic anemia has been reported in 3 cases.
Hematologic side effects of probenecid have rarely included leukopenia, aplastic anemia, leukopenia, hemolytic anemia, and anemia.[Ref]
A case of fatal pancytopenia developed in a patient treated with 10 mg of colchicine over a 5-day period.
Thrombocytopenia is a rare side effect of colchicine and is usually associated with myelotoxicity.
Fatal marrow aplasia was reported in a 70-year-old who was given 10 mg of colchicine intravenously over a 5 day period.
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) deficiency may increase the risk of probenecid-induced hemolytic anemia in some patients. However, probenecid has also been implicated in at least two cases of immune-mediated hemolytic anemia. In both cases. serum antibodies reacted with red blood cells only in the presence of probenecid. In one patient, a generalized rash, fever, malaise, and anorexia were also present.[Ref]
Hepatic side effects of probenecid have included hepatic necrosis.[Ref]
Hypersensitivity side effects of colchicine have included urticaria.
Hypersensitivity side effects of probenecid have included anaphylaxis, fever, urticaria, rash, and pruritus.[Ref]
Dermatologic side effects of colchicine and probenecid have included dermatitis, purpura, alopecia after intoxification or long-term usage, and toxic epidermal necrolysis with concomitant ethanol use.[Ref]
Metabolic side effects of probenecid have included precipitation of gouty arthritis.[Ref]
Musculoskeletal side effects of colchicine have included myopathy, muscular weakness, paralysis, and costovertebral pain.[Ref]
A case of azoospermia has been reported in a patient treated with colchicine. The patient's sperm count returned to normal when colchicine was discontinued, and decreased on reintroduction of the drug. The patient fathered two apparently normal children while not receiving the drug. One study of six patients treated with colchicine showed moderate oligospermia in two patients, but no effect in any of the treated patients.[Ref]
Genitourinary side effects of probenecid have included urinary frequency and azoospermia.[Ref]
At toxic doses, other side effects associated with colchicine have included severe diarrhea, generalized vascular damage, and renal damage with hematuria and oliguria.[Ref]
Respiratory side effects including respiratory distress syndrome have been reported.[Ref]
1. Schiff D, Drislane FW "Rapid-onset colchicine myoneuropathy." Arthritis Rheum 35 (1992): 1535-6
2. Cook M, Ramos E, Peterson J, Croker B "Colchicine neuromyopathy in a renal transplant patient with normal muscle enzyme levels." Clin Nephrol 42 (1994): 67-8
3. "Product Information. Colchicine-Probenecid (colchicine-probenecid)." Watson Pharmaceuticals, Corona, CA.
4. Duarte J, Cabezas C, Rodriguez F, Claveria LE, Palacin T "Colchicine-induced myopathy with myotonia." Muscle Nerve 21 (1998): 550
5. Rutkove SB, Raynor EM "Colchicine-induced myopathy with myotonia - A reply." Muscle Nerve 21 (1998): 551
6. Younger DS, Mayer SA, Weimer LH, et al "Colchicine-induced myopathy and neuropathy." Neurology 41 (1991): 943
7. Kim KY, Ralph Schumacher H, Hunsche E, Wertheimer AI, Kong SX "A literature review of the epidemiology and treatment of acute gout." Clin Ther 25 (2003): 1593-617
8. Rieger EH, Halasz NA, Wahlstrom HE "Colchicine neuromyopathy after renal transplantation." Transplantation 49 (1990): 1196-8
9. Jonsson J, Gelpi JR, Light JA, Aquino A, Maszaros S "Colchicine-induced myoneuropathy in a renal transplant patient." Transplantation 53 (1992): 1369-71
10. "Product Information. Colchicine (colchicine)." Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
11. Stanley MW, Taurog JD, Snover DC "Fatal colchicine toxicity: report of a case." Clin Exp Rheumatol 2 (1984): 167-71
12. "Product Information. Hydeltrasol (prednisolone)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
13. van der Naalt J, Haaxma-Reiche H, van den Berg AP, Hazenberg BP, Molenaar WM "Acute neuromyopathy after colchicine treatment." Ann Rheum Dis 51 (1992): 1267-8
14. Kuncl RW, Duncan G, Watson D, Alderson K, Rogawski MA, Peper M "Colchicine myopathy and neuropathy." N Engl J Med 316 (1987): 1562-8
15. Older SA, Finbloom DS, Pezeshkpour GH "Colchicine myoneuropathy and renal dysfunction." Ann Rheum Dis 51 (1992): 1343-4
16. Warnes TW, Babbs C, Lee FI "Colchicine myoneuropathy." Lancet 11/28/87 (1987): 1271-2
17. Rutkove SB, Degirolami U, Preston DC, Freeman R, Nardin RA, Gouras GK, Johns DR, Raynor EM "Myotonia in colchicine myoneuropathy." Muscle Nerve 19 (1996): 870-5
18. Rott KT, Agudelo CA "Gout." JAMA 289 (2003): 2857-60
19. Neuss MN, McCallum RM, Brenckman WD, Silberman HR "Long-term colchicine administration leading to colchicine toxicity and death." Arthritis Rheum 29 (1986): 448-9
20. Ben-Chetrit E, Levy M, Eliakim M "Therapeutic rounds. Colchicine therapy for familial Mediterranean fever." Clin Ther 8 (1986): 481,586-7
21. "Product Information. Benemid (probenecid)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
22. Boucher BJ, Wright JT "Steatorrhoea and jejunal reticulum cell sarcoma occurring in a patient on long-term colchicine therapy for gout." Postgrad Med J 49 (1973): 106-7
23. Ehrenfeld M, Levy M, Sharon P, et al "Gastrointestinal effects of long-term colchicine therapy in patients with recurrent polyserositis (familial Mediterranean fever)." Dig Dis Sci 27 (1982): 723-7
24. Ahern MJ, Reid C, Gordon TP, McCredie M, Brooks PM, Jones M "Does colchicine work? The results of the first controlled study in acute gout." Aust N Z J Med 17 (1987): 301-4
25. Hertz P, Yager H, Richardson JA "Probenecid-induced nephrotic syndrome." Arch Pathol 94 (1972): 241-3
26. Scott JT, O'Brien PK "Probenecid, nephrotic syndrome, and renal failure." Ann Rheum Dis 27 (1968): 249-52
27. Vigneau C, Petrover D, Sraer JD "Late Occurrence of Chronic Renal Failure in Familial Mediterranean Fever after 20 Years of Colchicine Treatment." Ann Intern Med 135 (2001): 1096
28. Scott AC, Fleming LW, Stewart WK "Efficacy of ciprofloxacin in treatment of CAPD peritonitis." Eur J Clin Microbiol 6 (1987): 599
29. Said R, Hamzeh Y, Tarawneh M, el-Khateeb M, Abdeen M, Shaheen A "Rapid progressive glomerulonephritis in patients with familial Mediterranean fever." Am J Kidney Dis 14 (1989): 412-6
30. Kubler PA "Fatal colchicine toxicity." Med J Australia 172 (2000): 498-9
31. "Product Information. ColBENEMID (probenecid)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
32. Wallace SL, Singer JZ, Duncan GJ, Wigley FM, Kuncl RW "Renal function predicts colchicine toxicity: guidelines for the prophylactic use of colchicine in gout." J Rheumatol 18 (1991): 264-9
33. Vedia C, Mascort JJ, Carrasco I, Olive A "Colchicine and thrombopenia." Clin Exp Rheumatol 11 (1993): 458
34. Liu YK, Hymowitz R, Carroll MG "Marrow aplasia induced by colchicine. A case report." Arthritis Rheum 21 (1978): 731-5
35. Finklestein M, Goldman L, Grace ND, Foley M, Randall N "Granulocytopenia complicating colchicine therapy for primary biliary cirrhosis." Gastroenterology 93 (1987): 1231-5
36. Yoon KH "Colchicine induced toxicity and pancytopenia at usual doses and treatment with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor." J Rheumatol 28 (2001): 1199-200
37. Ferrannini E, Pentimone F "Marrow aplasia following colchicine treatment for gouty arthritis." Clin Exp Rheumatol 2 (1984): 173-5
38. Sosler SD, Behzad O, Garratty G, et al "Immune hemolytic anemia associated with probenecid." Am J Clin Pathol 84 (1985): 391-4
39. Myers KW, Katial RK, Engler RJM "Probenecid hypersensitivity in AIDS: a case report." Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 80 (1998): 416-8
40. Mochida K, Teramae H, Hamada T "Fixed drug eruption due to colchicine." Dermatology 192 (1996): 61
41. Caglar K, Safali M, Yavuz I, Odabasi Z, Yenicesu M, Vural A "Colchicine-induced myopathy with normal creatine phosphokinase level in a renal transplant patient." Nephron 92 (2002): 922-924
42. Merlin HE "Azoospermia caused by colchicine--a case report." Fertil Steril 23 (1972): 180-1
43. Bremner WJ, Paulsen CA "Colchicine and testicular function in man." N Engl J Med 294 (1976): 1384-5
It is possible that some side effects of Probenecid and Colchicine may not have been reported. These can be reported to the FDA here. Always consult a healthcare professional for medical advice.
More about Probenecid and Colchicine (colchicine / probenecid)
Related treatment guides
Disclaimer: Every effort has been made to ensure that the information provided is accurate, up-to-date and complete, but no guarantee is made to that effect. In addition, the drug information contained herein may be time sensitive and should not be utilized as a reference resource beyond the date hereof. This material does not endorse drugs, diagnose patients, or recommend therapy. This information is a reference resource designed as supplement to, and not a substitute for, the expertise, skill , knowledge, and judgement of healthcare practitioners in patient care. The absence of a warning for a given drug or combination thereof in no way should be construed to indicate safety, effectiveness, or appropriateness for any given patient. Drugs.com does not assume any responsibility for any aspect of healthcare administered with the aid of materials provided. The information contained herein is not intended to cover all possible uses, directions, precautions, warnings, drug interactions, allergic reactions, or adverse effects. If you have questions about the substances you are taking, check with your doctor, nurse, or pharmacist.