glipizide

Pronunciation

Generic Name: glipizide (GLIP i zide)
Brand Name: GlipiZIDE XL, Glucotrol, Glucotrol XL

What is glipizide?

Glipizide is an oral diabetes medicine that helps control blood sugar levels by helping your pancreas produce insulin.

Glipizide is used together with diet and exercise to treat type 2 diabetes.

Glipizide may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.

What is the most important information I should know about glipizide?

You should not use glipizide if you are in a state of diabetic ketoacidosis (call your doctor for treatment with insulin).

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What should I discuss with my doctor before taking glipizide?

You should not use this medicine if you are allergic to glipizide, or if you are in a state of diabetic ketoacidosis (call your doctor for treatment with insulin).

To make sure glipizide is safe for you, tell your doctor if you have:

  • liver or kidney disease;

  • chronic diarrhea or a blockage in your intestines;

  • an enzyme deficiency called glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD);

  • a disorder of your pituitary or adrenal glands;

  • a history of heart disease; or

  • if you are malnourished.

Certain oral diabetes medications may increase your risk of serious heart problems. However, not treating your diabetes can damage your heart and other organs. Talk to your doctor about the risks and benefits of taking glipizide.

FDA pregnancy category C. It is not known whether glipizide will harm an unborn baby. Similar diabetes medications have caused severe hypoglycemia in newborn babies whose mothers had used the medication near the time of delivery. Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant while using this medication.

It is not known whether glipizide passes into breast milk or if it could harm a nursing baby. Tell your doctor if you are breast-feeding a baby.

How should I take glipizide?

Follow all directions on your prescription label. Your doctor may occasionally change your dose to make sure you get the best results. Do not take this medicine in larger or smaller amounts or for longer than recommended.

Take glipizide 30 minutes before a meal. If you take glipizide once daily, take it 30 minutes before breakfast.

Glipizide extended-release (Glucotrol XL) should be taken with breakfast.

Do not crush, chew, or break an extended-release tablet. Swallow it whole.

Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) can happen to everyone who has diabetes. Symptoms include headache, hunger, sweating, confusion, irritability, dizziness, or feeling shaky. Always keep a source of sugar with you in case you have low blood sugar. Sugar sources include fruit juice, hard candy, crackers, raisins, and non-diet soda. Be sure your family and close friends know how to help you in an emergency.

If you have severe hypoglycemia and cannot eat or drink, use a glucagon injection. Your doctor can prescribe a glucagon emergency injection kit and tell you how to use it.

Also watch for signs of high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) such as increased thirst, increased urination, hunger, dry mouth, fruity breath odor, drowsiness, dry skin, blurred vision, and weight loss.

Check your blood sugar carefully during times of stress, travel, illness, surgery or medical emergency, vigorous exercise, or if you drink alcohol or skip meals. These things can affect your glucose levels and your dose needs may also change. Do not change your medication dose or schedule without your doctor's advice.

Your blood sugar will need to be checked often, and you may need other blood tests at your doctor's office.

Some forms of glipizide are made with a shell that is not absorbed or melted in the body. Part of the tablet shell may appear in your stool. This is a normal side effect and will not make the medication less effective.

Glipizide is only part of a treatment program that may also include diet, exercise, weight control, blood sugar testing, and special medical care. Follow your doctor's instructions very closely.

Store at room temperature away from moisture, heat, and light.

What happens if I miss a dose?

Take the missed dose 30 minutes before your next meal, then return to your regular schedule. Skip the missed dose if it is almost time for your next scheduled dose. Do not take extra medicine to make up the missed dose.

Use glipizide regularly to get the most benefit. Get your prescription refilled before you run out of medicine completely.

What happens if I overdose?

Seek emergency medical attention or call the Poison Help line at 1-800-222-1222. A glipizide overdose can cause life-threatening hypoglycemia.

Symptoms of severe hypoglycemia include extreme weakness, blurred vision, sweating, trouble speaking, tremors, stomach pain, confusion, and seizure (convulsions).

What should I avoid while taking glipizide?

Avoid drinking alcohol. It lowers blood sugar and may interfere with your diabetes treatment.

If you also take colesevelam, avoid taking it within 4 hours after you take glipizide.

Glipizide side effects

Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Call your doctor at once if you have:

  • easy bruising or bleeding (nosebleeds, bleeding gums), feeling tired or short of breath, rapid heart rate;

  • nausea, upper stomach pain, itching, loss of appetite, dark urine, clay-colored stools, jaundice (yellowing of the skin or eyes);

  • pale skin, fever, confusion; or

  • throbbing headache, severe nausea and vomiting, fast or pounding heartbeats, sweating or thirst, feeling like you might pass out.

Common side effects may include:

  • mild nausea;

  • diarrhea, constipation;

  • dizziness, drowsiness; or

  • skin rash, redness, or itching.

This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

See also: Side effects (in more detail)

Glipizide dosing information

Usual Adult Dose for Diabetes Type 2:

Immediate release:
Initial dose: 5 mg orally once a day, 30 minutes before breakfast
Maintenance dose: Up to 40 mg in divided doses 30 minutes before a meal of adequate caloric content. Doses may be increased in intervals of 2.5 to 5 mg a day according to blood glucose response.
Maximum single dose: 15 mg
Maximum daily dose: 40 mg
Comments:
-At least several days should elapse between titration steps.
-If response to a single dose is not satisfactory, dividing that dose may prove effective.

Extended Release:
Initial dose: 5 mg orally once a day, 30 minutes before breakfast
Maintenance dose: 5 to 10 mg orally once a day
Maximum daily dose: 20 mg
Patients receiving immediate release may be switched safely to extended release tablets once-a-day at the nearest equivalent total daily dose, or titrate to the appropriate extended release dose starting with 5 mg once daily.
Combination use:
-When adding other blood-glucose-lowering agents to glipizide extended release, the agent should be initiated at the lowest recommended dose. Observe for hypoglycemia.
-When adding glipizide extended release to other blood-glucose-lowering agents, glipizide extended release can be initiated at 5 mg. Start at a lower dose in patients that are more sensitive to hypoglycemia.

When transferring patients from insulin to glipizide, the following general guidelines should be considered:
-For patients with daily insulin doses of 20 units or less: Discontinue insulin and begin glipizide at usual dosages.
-For patients with daily insulin doses greater than 20 units: Insulin dose should be reduced by 50% and glipizide therapy may begin at usual dosages.
Comments:
-Several days should elapse between glipizide titration steps.
-Subsequent reductions in insulin dosage should depend on individual patient response.
-During the insulin withdrawal period, the patient should test urine samples for sugar and ketone bodies at least three times daily.
-Some patients receiving greater than 40 units of insulin daily may need to consider hospitalization during the transition period.

Patients Receiving Other Oral Hypoglycemic Agents:
-When transferring from longer half-life sulfonylureas: Observe for 1 to 2 weeks for hypoglycemia
-Glipizide extended release coadministered with colesevelam: Glipizide should be administered at least 4 hours prior to colesevelam.

Use: Adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus

Usual Geriatric Dose for Diabetes Type 2:

Initial dose: 2.5 mg orally once a day 30 minutes before breakfast

Comments:
-Maintenance dosing should be conservative to avoid hypoglycemic reactions.
-Doses can be adjusted with caution taking into account the degree of hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and the concomitant disease or other drug therapy.

Use: Adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus

What other drugs will affect glipizide?

Many other medicines can increase or decrease the effects of glipizide on lowering your blood sugar. This includes prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal products Tell each of your health care providers about all medicines you use now and any medicine you start or stop using.

Where can I get more information?

  • Your pharmacist can provide more information about glipizide.
  • Remember, keep this and all other medicines out of the reach of children, never share your medicines with others, and use this medication only for the indication prescribed.
  • Disclaimer: Every effort has been made to ensure that the information provided by Cerner Multum, Inc. ('Multum') is accurate, up-to-date, and complete, but no guarantee is made to that effect. Drug information contained herein may be time sensitive. Multum information has been compiled for use by healthcare practitioners and consumers in the United States and therefore Multum does not warrant that uses outside of the United States are appropriate, unless specifically indicated otherwise. Multum's drug information does not endorse drugs, diagnose patients or recommend therapy. Multum's drug information is an informational resource designed to assist licensed healthcare practitioners in caring for their patients and/or to serve consumers viewing this service as a supplement to, and not a substitute for, the expertise, skill, knowledge and judgment of healthcare practitioners. The absence of a warning for a given drug or drug combination in no way should be construed to indicate that the drug or drug combination is safe, effective or appropriate for any given patient. Multum does not assume any responsibility for any aspect of healthcare administered with the aid of information Multum provides. The information contained herein is not intended to cover all possible uses, directions, precautions, warnings, drug interactions, allergic reactions, or adverse effects. If you have questions about the drugs you are taking, check with your doctor, nurse or pharmacist.

Copyright 1996-2012 Cerner Multum, Inc. Version: 9.01. Revision Date: 2014-04-07, 10:26:16 AM.

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