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Sodium Glycerophosphate Pentahydrate

Medically reviewed by Drugs.com. Last updated on Jul 23, 2020.

Pronunciation

(SOE dee um glis er oh FOS fate pen ta HYE drate)

Dosage Forms

Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for generics); consult specific product labeling.

Solution, Intravenous:

Glycophos: 1 mmol/mL (20 mL)

Brand Names: U.S.

  • Glycophos

Pharmacologic Category

  • Electrolyte Supplement, Parenteral

Pharmacology

Phosphorous participates in bone deposition, calcium metabolism, utilization of B complex vitamins, and as a buffer in acid-base equilibrium.

Metabolism

Hydrolyzed to inorganic phosphate

Excretion

Inorganic phosphate: Urine

Time to Peak

Serum: 4 hours (Topp 2011a)

Half-Life Elimination

Inorganic phosphate: 2.06 hours (Topp 2011a)

Use: Labeled Indications

Supplement in intravenous nutrition to meet the requirements of phosphate

Off Label Uses

General phosphate repletion during sodium phosphate and potassium phosphate shortages

Contraindications

Patients in a state of dehydration or with hypernatremia, hyperphosphatemia, severe renal insufficiency, or shock

Dosing: Adult

Note: When converting from inorganic phosphate products (ie, sodium phosphate and potassium phosphate), maintain the same mmol amount of phosphate. Doses are listed as mmol of phosphate. Sodium glycerophosphate pentahydrate 306.1 mg = sodium glycerophosphate 216 mg = phosphate 1 mmol. Sodium glycerophosphate pentahydrate will provide 2 mEq of sodium for every 1 mmol of phosphate delivered.

Parenteral nutrition: IV: 10 to 15 mmol/1,000 kcal (Hicks, 2001) or 20 to 40 mmol/24 hours (Mirtallo 2004 [ASPEN guidelines])

Phosphate repletion, general (off-label use):

Caution: With orders for IV phosphate, there is considerable confusion associated with the use of millimoles (mmol) versus milliequivalents (mEq) to express the phosphate requirement. The most reliable method of ordering IV phosphate is by millimoles.

Acute treatment of hypophosphatemia: IV: It is difficult to provide concrete guidelines for the treatment of severe hypophosphatemia because the extent of total body deficits and response to therapy are difficult to predict. Aggressive doses of phosphate may result in a transient serum elevation followed by redistribution into intracellular compartments or bone tissue. It is recommended that repletion of severe hypophosphatemia be done IV because large doses of oral phosphate may cause diarrhea and intestinal absorption may be unreliable. Intermittent IV infusion should be reserved for severe depletion situations; requires continuous cardiac monitoring. Guidelines differ based on degree of illness, need/use of TPN, and severity of hypophosphatemia. Obese patients and/or severe renal impairment were excluded from phosphate supplement trials. Note: 1 mmol phosphate = 31 mg phosphorus; 1 mg phosphorus = 0.032 mmol phosphate.

Critically-ill adult patients receiving concurrent enteral/parenteral nutrition (Brown, 2006; Clark, 1995): Note: Round doses to the nearest 7.5 mmol for ease of preparation. If administering with phosphate-containing parenteral nutrition, do not exceed 15 mmol/L within parenteral nutrition. May use adjusted body weight for patients weighing >130% of ideal body weight (and BMI <40 kg/m2) by using [IBW + 0.25 (ABW-IBW)]:

Low dose, serum phosphorus level 2.3 to 3 mg/dL (0.74 to 0.96 mmol/L): 0.16 to 0.32 mmol/kg over 4 to 6 hours

Intermediate dose, serum phosphorus level 1.6 to 2.2 mg/dL (0.51 to 0.71 mmol/L): 0.32 to 0.64 mmol/kg over 4 to 6 hours

High dose, serum phosphorus <1.5 mg/dL (<0.5 mmol/L): 0.64 to 1 mmol/kg over 8 to 12 hours

Dosing: Geriatric

Refer to adult dosing.

Dosing: Pediatric

Note: When converting from inorganic phosphate products (ie, sodium phosphate and potassium phosphate), maintain the same mmol amount of phosphate. Doses are listed as mmol of phosphate. Sodium glycerophosphate pentahydrate 306.1 mg = sodium glycerophosphate 216 mg = phosphate 1 mmol. Sodium glycerophosphate pentahydrate will provide 2 mEq of sodium for every 1 mmol of phosphate delivered.

Caution: With orders for IV phosphate, there is considerable confusion associated with the use of millimoles (mmol) versus milliequivalents (mEq) to express the phosphate requirement. The most reliable method of ordering IV phosphate is by millimoles.

Parenteral nutrition, maintenance phosphorus requirement (ASPEN [Mirtallo 2004]): Dose should be individualized.

Infants and Children ≤50 kg: IV: 0.5 to 2 mmol/kg/day of phosphorus as an additive to parenteral nutrition solution.

Children >50 kg and Adolescents: IV: 10 to 40 mmol/day of phosphorus as an additive to parenteral nutrition solution.

Hypophosphatemia, acute: Hypophosphatemia does not necessarily equate with phosphate depletion. Hypophosphatemia may occur in the presence of low, normal, or high total body phosphate and conversely, phosphate depletion may exist with normal, low, or elevated levels of serum phosphate (Gaasbeek 2005). It is difficult to provide concrete guidelines for the treatment of severe hypophosphatemia because the extent of total body deficits and response to therapy are difficult to predict. Aggressive doses of phosphate may result in a transient serum elevation followed by redistribution into intracellular compartments or bone tissue. If hypokalemia exists, consider another phosphate replacement strategy with potassium (eg, potassium phosphates). Various regimens for replacement of phosphate in adults have been studied. The regimens below have only been studied in adult patients; however, many institutions have used them in children safely and successfully (ASPEN [Corkins 2015]). Obese patients and/or patients with severe renal impairment were excluded from phosphate supplement trials. Note: 1 mmol phosphate = 31 mg phosphorus; 1 mg phosphorus = 0.032 mmol phosphate.

IV doses may be incorporated into the patient's maintenance IV fluids; intermittent IV infusion should be reserved for severe depletion situations; requires continuous cardiac monitoring. Note: Doses listed as mmol of phosphate.

Children and Adolescents: Note: There are no prospective studies of parenteral phosphate replacement in children. The following weight-based guidelines for adult dosing may be cautiously employed in pediatric patients (ASPEN [Corkins 2015]). Guidelines differ based on degree of illness, use of TPN, and severity of hypophosphatemia.

General replacement guidelines (Lentz 1978): Note: The initial dose may be increased by 25% to 50% if the patient is symptomatic secondary to hypophosphatemia and lowered by 25% to 50% if the patient is hypercalcemic.

Low dose: 0.08 mmol/kg over 6 hours; use if losses are recent and uncomplicated.

Intermediate dose: 0.16 to 0.24 mmol/kg over 4 to 6 hours; use if serum phosphorus level 0.5 to 1 mg/dL (0.16 to 0.32 mmol/L).

High dose: 0.36 mmol/kg over 6 hours; use if serum phosphorus <0.5 mg/dL (<0.16 mmol/L).

Patients receiving TPN (Clark 1995):

Low dose: 0.16 mmol/kg over 4 to 6 hours; use if serum phosphorus level 2.3 to 3 mg/dL (0.73 to 0.96 mmol/L).

Intermediate dose: 0.32 mmol/kg over 4 to 6 hours; use if serum phosphorus level 1.6 to 2.2 mg/dL (0.51 to 0.72 mmol/L).

High dose: 0.64 mmol/kg over 8 to 12 hours; use if serum phosphorus <1.5 mg/dL (<0.5 mmol/L).

Critically ill adult trauma patients receiving TPN (Brown 2006):

Low dose: 0.32 mmol/kg over 4 to 6 hours; use if serum phosphorus level 2.3 to 3 mg/dL (0.73 to 0.96 mmol/L).

Intermediate dose: 0.64 mmol/kg over 4 to 6 hours; use if serum phosphorus level 1.6 to 2.2 mg/dL (0.51 to 0.72 mmol/L).

High dose: 1 mmol/kg over 8 to 12 hours; use if serum phosphorus <1.5 mg/dL (<0.5 mmol/L).

Alternative method in critically ill patients (Kingston 1985):

Low dose: 0.25 mmol/kg over 4 hours; use if serum phosphorus level 0.5 to 1 mg/dL (0.16 to 0.32 mmol/L).

Moderate dose: 0.5 mmol/kg over 4 hours; use if serum phosphorus level <0.5 mg/dL (<0.16 mmol/L).

Reconstitution

Must be diluted before administration; appropriate volume of diluent and maximum concentration have not been determined for intermittent phosphate repletion. Administer within 24 hours of preparation due to risk of microbial contamination.

Administration

IV: Must be diluted prior to parenteral administration. In general, the dose, concentration of infusion, and rate of administration may be dependent on patient condition and specific institution policy. For adult patients with severe symptomatic hypophosphatemia (ie, <1.5 mg/dL), may administer at rates up to 15 mmol/hour (Charron 2003; Rosen 1995). In patients with renal dysfunction and/or less severe hypophosphatemia, slower administration rates (eg, over 4 to 6 hours) or oral repletion is recommended. Per the manufacturer, infusion time should not be <8 hours and not >24 hours.

Storage

Store intact vials at ≤25°C (77°F); do not freeze.

Drug Interactions

Erdafitinib: Serum Phosphate Level-Altering Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Erdafitinib. Management: Avoid coadministration of serum phosphate level-altering agents with erdafitinib before initial dose increase period based on serum phosphate levels (Days 14 to 21). Consider therapy modification

Adverse Reactions

None reported by manufacturer. Adverse drug reactions listed have been reported in one small clinical trial (n=27); frequency may not be defined (Topp, 2011a).

>10%: Endocrine & metabolic: Hypocalcemia (16%)

1% to 10%:

Central nervous system: Headache

Gastrointestinal: Nausea, xerostomia

Warnings/Precautions

Disease-related concerns:

• Electrolyte disturbances: Use with caution in patients with pre-existing electrolyte imbalances or risk of electrolyte disturbance (eg, hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, hypernatremia). Use is contraindicated in patients who are dehydrated.

• Renal impairment: Use with caution in patients with renal impairment. Monitor closely for hyperphosphatemia, particularly when GFR is ≤20% of mean adult normal values (IOM 1997). Use is contraindicated in patients with severe renal impairment.

Other warnings/precautions:

• Conversion from other phosphate products: Unlike phosphate products available in the US, sodium glycerophosphate pentahydrate is an organic phosphate product and varies from other phosphate products in terms of concentration, dosing, and preservative content; use caution when switching between products.

Monitoring Parameters

Serum calcium, sodium and phosphorus levels; renal function; after IV phosphate repletion, repeat serum phosphorus level should be checked 2-4 hours later

Pregnancy Considerations

Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted. Phosphorus requirements are similar in pregnant and nonpregnant women (IOM 1997).

Patient Education

What is this drug used for?

• It is used to treat or prevent low phosphate levels.

WARNING/CAUTION: Even though it may be rare, some people may have very bad and sometimes deadly side effects when taking a drug. Tell your doctor or get medical help right away if you have any of the following signs or symptoms that may be related to a very bad side effect:

• Fluid and electrolyte problems like mood changes, confusion, muscle pain or weakness, abnormal heartbeat, very bad dizziness or passing out, fast heartbeat, more thirst, seizures, feeling very tired or weak, not hungry, unable to pass urine or change in the amount of urine produced, dry mouth, dry eyes, or nausea or vomiting

• Signs of an allergic reaction, like rash; hives; itching; red, swollen, blistered, or peeling skin with or without fever; wheezing; tightness in the chest or throat; trouble breathing, swallowing, or talking; unusual hoarseness; or swelling of the mouth, face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Note: This is not a comprehensive list of all side effects. Talk to your doctor if you have questions.

Consumer Information Use and Disclaimer: This information should not be used to decide whether or not to take this medicine or any other medicine. Only the healthcare provider has the knowledge and training to decide which medicines are right for a specific patient. This information does not endorse any medicine as safe, effective, or approved for treating any patient or health condition. This is only a limited summary of general information about the medicine's uses from the patient education leaflet and is not intended to be comprehensive. This limited summary does NOT include all information available about the possible uses, directions, warnings, precautions, interactions, adverse effects, or risks that may apply to this medicine. This information is not intended to provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment and does not replace information you receive from the healthcare provider. For a more detailed summary of information about the risks and benefits of using this medicine, please speak with your healthcare provider and review the entire patient education leaflet.

Further information

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.

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Other brands: Glycophos