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Mitotane

Pronunciation

(MYE toe tane)

Index Terms

  • Chloditan
  • Chlodithane
  • Khloditan
  • Mytotan
  • o,p′ - DDD
  • Ortho,para - DDD

Dosage Forms

Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for generics); consult specific product labeling.

Tablet, Oral:

Lysodren: 500 mg [scored]

Brand Names: U.S.

  • Lysodren

Pharmacologic Category

  • Antineoplastic Agent, Miscellaneous

Pharmacology

Adrenolytic agent that suppresses (directly) the adrenal cortex and alters the peripheral metabolism of steroids

Absorption

Oral: ~40%

Distribution

Stored primarily in fat tissue but is found in all body tissues

Metabolism

Hepatic and other tissues; converted to a water soluble metabolite

Excretion

Urine (~10%, as metabolites); feces (1% to 17%, as metabolites)

Onset of Action

Antitumor response: Achieved at serum concentrations ≥14 mcg/mL; Pediatric patients: In experience with treatment of adenocarcinoma reported 1.5 to 12.5 months to reach 10 mcg/mL with subsequent rapid escalation of serum concentration, clinical response may be observed earlier (Rodriguez-Galindo 2005; Zancanella 2006).

Duration of Action

Measurable serum levels may persist for months after discontinuation (Veytsman 2009).

Half-Life Elimination

18 to 159 days (median: 53 days)

Special Populations: Hepatic Function Impairment

Hepatic impairment may interfere with mitotane metabolism and may result in accumulation.

Use: Labeled Indications

Adrenocortical carcinoma: Treatment of inoperable (functional or nonfunctional) adrenocortical carcinoma

Use: Unlabeled

Treatment of Cushing syndrome

Contraindications

US labeling: There are no contraindications listed in the manufacturer's labeling.

Canadian labeling: Hypersensitivity to mitotane or any component of the formulation

Dosing: Adult

Note: Mitotane is associated with a moderate emetic potential; antiemetics may be needed to prevent nausea and vomiting.

Adrenocortical carcinoma: Oral: Initial: 2 to 6 g daily in 3 to 4 divided doses, then increase incrementally to achieve a blood concentration of 14 to 20 mcg/mL or as tolerated.

Off-label dosing: Initial 1 to 2 g daily; increase by 1 to 2 g daily at 1- to 2-week intervals as tolerated; usual dose 4 to 6 g daily; maximum of 6 to 10 g daily (Veytsman 2009)

Cushing syndrome (off-label use): Oral: Initial: 500 mg 3 times daily (Biller 2008); may increase dose rapidly during the first 4 to 6 weeks up to a maximum of 4,000 mg to 8,000 mg daily in 3 divided doses, with the largest dose given in the evening to minimize discomfort (Baudry 2012; ES [Neiman 2015]; Schteingart 1980); after achieving control of cortisol secretion, gradually taper to the minimal dose required to maintain remission (Baudry 2012)

Dosing: Geriatric

Refer to adult dosing.

Dosing: Renal Impairment

There are no dosage adjustments provided in the manufacturer's labeling.

Dosing: Hepatic Impairment

There are no dosage adjustments provided in the manufacturer's labeling. However, accumulation may occur in patients with hepatic impairment; use with caution.

Dosing: Adjustment for Toxicity

Adrenal crisis in the setting of shock or severe trauma: Discontinue mitotane until recovery occurs.

CNS toxicity: Discontinue mitotane until symptoms resolve; 7 to 10 days after symptoms resolve, restart at a lower dose (eg, decrease dose by 500 to 1,000 mg).

Significant neuropsychiatric adverse effects: Withhold treatment for at least 1 week and restart at a lower dose (Allolio 2006).

Administration

Note: Mitotane is associated with a moderate emetic potential; antiemetics may be needed to prevent nausea and vomiting.

Administer in 3 to 4 divided doses/day. Do not crush tablets.

Hazardous agent; use appropriate precautions for handling and disposal (NIOSH 2014 [group 1]). Wear impervious gloves when handling; avoid exposure to crushed or broken tablets. NIOSH recommends single gloving for administration of intact tablets (NIOSH 2014).

Storage

Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions are permitted between 15°C and 30°C (59°F and 86°F).

Drug Interactions

Abiraterone Acetate: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Abiraterone Acetate. Management: Avoid whenever possible. If such a combination cannot be avoided, increase abiraterone acetate dosing frequency from once daily to twice daily during concomitant use. Avoid combination

Antihepaciviral Combination Products: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Antihepaciviral Combination Products. Avoid combination

Apixaban: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Apixaban. Avoid combination

Apremilast: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Apremilast. Avoid combination

Aprepitant: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Aprepitant. Avoid combination

ARIPiprazole: CYP3A4 Inducers may decrease the serum concentration of ARIPiprazole. Management: Double the oral aripiprazole dose and closely monitor response. Reduce oral aripiprazole dose to 10-15 mg/day (for adults) if the inducer is discontinued. Avoid use of CYP3A4 inducers for more than 14 days with extended-release injectable aripiprazole. Consider therapy modification

ARIPiprazole Lauroxil: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of ARIPiprazole Lauroxil. Management: Patients taking the 441 mg dose of aripiprazole lauroxil increase their dose to 662 mg if used with a strong CYP3A4 inducer for more than 14 days. No dose adjustment is necessary for patients using the 662 mg or 882 mg doses of aripiprazole lauroxil. Consider therapy modification

Artemether: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Artemether. Specifically, dihydroartemisinin concentrations may be reduced. CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Artemether. Avoid combination

Asunaprevir: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Asunaprevir. Avoid combination

Axitinib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Axitinib. Avoid combination

Bedaquiline: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Bedaquiline. Avoid combination

Boceprevir: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Boceprevir. Avoid combination

Bortezomib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Bortezomib. Avoid combination

Bosutinib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Bosutinib. Avoid combination

Brentuximab Vedotin: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Brentuximab Vedotin. Specifically, concentrations of the active monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE) component may be decreased. Monitor therapy

Brexpiprazole: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Brexpiprazole. Management: If brexpiprazole is used together with a strong CYP3A4 inducer, the brexpiprazole dose should gradually be doubled over the course of 1 to 2 weeks. Consider therapy modification

Cabozantinib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Cabozantinib. Management: Avoid use of strong CYP3A4 inducers with cabozantinib if possible. If combined, cabozantinib dose adjustments are recommended and vary based on the cabozantinib product used and the indication for use. See monograph for details. Consider therapy modification

Calcifediol: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Calcifediol. Monitor therapy

Cannabidiol: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Cannabidiol. Monitor therapy

Cannabis: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Cannabis. More specifically, tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol serum concentrations may be decreased. Monitor therapy

Cariprazine: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Cariprazine. Avoid combination

Ceritinib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Ceritinib. Avoid combination

Clarithromycin: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Clarithromycin. Clarithromycin may increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong). CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Clarithromycin. Management: Consider alternative antimicrobial therapy for patients receiving a CYP3A inducer. Drugs that enhance the metabolism of clarithromycin into 14-hydroxyclarithromycin may alter the clinical activity of clarithromycin and may impair clarithromycin efficacy. Consider therapy modification

CloZAPine: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of CloZAPine. Avoid combination

Cobimetinib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Cobimetinib. Avoid combination

Corticosteroids (Systemic): Mitotane may decrease the serum concentration of Corticosteroids (Systemic). Consider therapy modification

Crizotinib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Crizotinib. Avoid combination

CYP3A4 Substrates: Mitotane may decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Management: Doses of CYP3A4 substrates may need to be adjusted substantially when used in patients being treated with mitotane. Consider therapy modification

Dabrafenib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Dabrafenib. Avoid combination

Daclatasvir: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Daclatasvir. Avoid combination

Dasatinib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Dasatinib. Management: Avoid when possible. If such a combination cannot be avoided, consider increasing dasatinib dose and monitor clinical response and toxicity closely. Consider therapy modification

Dexamethasone (Systemic): CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Dexamethasone (Systemic). Management: Consider dexamethasone dose increases in patients receiving strong CYP3A4 inducers and monitor closely for reduced steroid efficacy. Consider therapy modification

Dienogest: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Dienogest. Management: Avoid use of dienogest for contraception when using medications that induce CYP3A4 and for at least 28 days after discontinuation of a CYP3A4 inducer. An alternative form of contraception should be used during this time. Avoid combination

Doxercalciferol: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Doxercalciferol. Monitor therapy

DOXOrubicin (Conventional): CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of DOXOrubicin (Conventional). Management: Seek alternatives to strong CYP3A4 inducers in patients treated with doxorubicin. One U.S. manufacturer (Pfizer Inc.) recommends that these combinations be avoided. Consider therapy modification

Dronabinol: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Dronabinol. Monitor therapy

Dronedarone: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Dronedarone. Avoid combination

Eliglustat: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Eliglustat. Avoid combination

Enzalutamide: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Enzalutamide. Management: Consider using an alternative agent that has no or minimal CYP3A4 induction potential when possible. If this combination cannot be avoided, increase the dose of enzalutamide from 160 mg daily to 240 mg daily. Avoid combination

Erlotinib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Erlotinib. Management: Avoid combination if possible. If combination must be used, increase erlotinib dose by 50 mg increments every 2 weeks as tolerated, to a maximum of 450 mg/day. Consider therapy modification

Estriol (Systemic): CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Estriol (Systemic). Monitor therapy

Estriol (Topical): CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Estriol (Topical). Monitor therapy

Etoposide: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Etoposide. Management: When possible, seek alternatives to strong CYP3A4-inducing medications in patients receiving etoposide. If these combinations cannot be avoided, monitor patients closely for diminished etoposide response. Consider therapy modification

Etoposide Phosphate: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Etoposide Phosphate. Management: When possible, seek alternatives to strong CYP3A4-inducing medications in patients receiving etoposide phosphate. If these combinations cannot be avoided, monitor patients closely for diminished etoposide phosphate response. Consider therapy modification

Everolimus: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Everolimus. Management: Avoid concurrent use of strong CYP3A4 inducers, but if strong CYP3A4 inducers cannot be avoided, consider gradually (in 5 mg increments) increasing the everolimus dose from 10 mg/day to 20 mg/day (adult doses). Avoid combination

Exemestane: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Exemestane. Management: Exemestane U.S. product labeling recommends using an increased dose (50 mg/day) in patients receiving concurrent strong CYP3A4 inducers. The Canadian product labeling does not recommend a dose adjustment with concurrent use of strong CYP3A4 inducers. Consider therapy modification

FentaNYL: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of FentaNYL. Monitor therapy

Flibanserin: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Flibanserin. Avoid combination

Gefitinib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Gefitinib. Management: In the absence of severe adverse reactions, increase gefitinib dose to 500 mg daily in patients receiving strong CYP3A4 inducers; resume 250 mg dose 7 days after discontinuation of the strong inducer. Carefully monitor clinical response. Consider therapy modification

Grazoprevir: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Grazoprevir. Avoid combination

GuanFACINE: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of GuanFACINE. Management: Increase the guanfacine dose by up to double when initiating concomitant therapy with strong CYP3A4 inducers. Increase guanfacine dose gradually over 1-2 weeks if strong CYP3A4 inducer therapy is just beginning. Consider therapy modification

Ibrutinib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Ibrutinib. Avoid combination

Idelalisib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Idelalisib. Avoid combination

Ifosfamide: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Ifosfamide. CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Ifosfamide. Monitor therapy

Imatinib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Imatinib. Management: Avoid concurrent use of imatinib with strong CYP3A4 inducers when possible. If such a combination must be used, increase imatinib dose by at least 50% and monitor the patient's clinical response closely. Consider therapy modification

Irinotecan Products: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Irinotecan Products. Specifically, serum concentrations of SN-38 may be reduced. CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Irinotecan Products. Avoid combination

Isavuconazonium Sulfate: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Isavuconazonium Sulfate. Specifically, CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease isavuconazole serum concentrations. Avoid combination

Itraconazole: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Itraconazole. Avoid combination

Ivabradine: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Ivabradine. Avoid combination

Ivacaftor: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Ivacaftor. Avoid combination

Ixabepilone: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Ixabepilone. Management: Avoid this combination whenever possible. If this combination must be used, a gradual increase in ixabepilone dose from 40 mg/m2 to 60 mg/m2 (given as a 4-hour infusion), as tolerated, should be considered. Consider therapy modification

Ixazomib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Ixazomib. Avoid combination

Lapatinib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Lapatinib. Management: If therapy overlap cannot be avoided, consider titrating lapatinib gradually from 1,250 mg/day up to 4,500 mg/day (HER2 positive metastatic breast cancer) or 1,500 mg/day up to 5,500 mg/day (hormone receptor/HER2 positive breast cancer) as tolerated. Avoid combination

Linagliptin: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Linagliptin. Management: Strongly consider using an alternative to any strong CYP3A4 inducer in patients who are being treated with linagliptin. If this combination is used, monitor patients closely for evidence of reduced linagliptin effectiveness. Consider therapy modification

Lumefantrine: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Lumefantrine. Avoid combination

Lurasidone: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Lurasidone. Avoid combination

Macitentan: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Macitentan. Avoid combination

Maraviroc: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Maraviroc. Management: Increase maraviroc adult dose to 600 mg twice daily when used with strong CYP3A4 inducers. This does not apply to patients also receiving strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Do not use maraviroc with strong CYP3A4 inducers in patients with CrCl less than 30 mL/min. Consider therapy modification

MethylPREDNISolone: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of MethylPREDNISolone. Management: Consider methylprednisolone dose increases in patients receiving strong CYP3A4 inducers and monitor closely for reduced steroid efficacy. Consider therapy modification

MiFEPRIStone: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of MiFEPRIStone. Avoid combination

Mirodenafil: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Mirodenafil. Management: Consider avoiding the concomitant use of mirodenafil and strong CYP3A4 inducers. If combined, monitor for decreased mirodenafil effects. Mirodenafil dose increases may be required to achieve desired effects. Consider therapy modification

Naloxegol: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Naloxegol. Avoid combination

Netupitant: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Netupitant. Avoid combination

NIFEdipine: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of NIFEdipine. Avoid combination

Nilotinib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Nilotinib. Avoid combination

NiMODipine: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of NiMODipine. Avoid combination

Nisoldipine: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Nisoldipine. Avoid combination

Olaparib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Olaparib. Avoid combination

Osimertinib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Osimertinib. Consider therapy modification

Palbociclib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Palbociclib. Avoid combination

Panobinostat: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Panobinostat. Avoid combination

PAZOPanib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of PAZOPanib. Avoid combination

Perampanel: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Perampanel. Management: Avoid use of perampanel with strong CYP3A inducers other than enzyme-inducing antiepileptic drugs (EIAEDs). Increase perampanel starting dose to 4 mg/day when used with EIAEDs such as phenytoin, carbamazepine, or oxcarbazepine. Avoid combination

Pimavanserin: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Pimavanserin. Monitor therapy

PONATinib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of PONATinib. Avoid combination

Praziquantel: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Praziquantel. Management: Avoid concomitant use of praziquantel with strong CYP3A4 inducers. Discontinue rifampin 4 weeks prior to initiation of praziquantel therapy. Rifampin may be resumed the day following praziquantel completion. Avoid combination

Propafenone: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Propafenone. Monitor therapy

QUEtiapine: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of QUEtiapine. Management: Quetiapine dose increases to as much as 5 times the regular dose may be required to maintain therapeutic benefit. Reduce the quetiapine dose back to the previous/regular dose within 7-14 days of discontinuing the inducer. Consider therapy modification

Ranolazine: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Ranolazine. Avoid combination

Reboxetine: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Reboxetine. Monitor therapy

Regorafenib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Regorafenib. Avoid combination

Rivaroxaban: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Rivaroxaban. Avoid combination

Roflumilast: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Roflumilast. Management: Roflumilast U.S. prescribing information recommends against combining strong CYP3A4 inducers with roflumilast. The Canadian product monograph makes no such recommendation but notes that such agents may reduce roflumilast therapeutic effects. Avoid combination

Rolapitant: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Rolapitant. Management: Avoid rolapitant use in patients requiring chronic administration of strong CYP3A4 inducers. Monitor for reduced rolapitant response and the need for alternative or additional antiemetic therapy even with shorter-term use of such inducers. Consider therapy modification

RomiDEPsin: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of RomiDEPsin. Avoid combination

SAXagliptin: CYP3A4 Inducers may decrease the serum concentration of SAXagliptin. Monitor therapy

Simeprevir: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Simeprevir. Avoid combination

Sirolimus: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Sirolimus. Management: Avoid concomitant use of strong CYP3A4 inducers and sirolimus if possible. If combined, monitor for reduced serum sirolimus concentrations. Sirolimus dose increases will likely be necessary to prevent subtherapeutic sirolimus levels. Consider therapy modification

Sonidegib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Sonidegib. Avoid combination

SORAfenib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of SORAfenib. Avoid combination

Spironolactone: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Mitotane. Management: Consideration should be given to discontinuing spironolactone prior to initiating mitotane in order to eliminate the risk of therapeutic failure of the mitotane. Consider therapy modification

SUNItinib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of SUNItinib. Management: Avoid when possible. If such a combination cannot be avoided, consider increasing sunitinib dose and monitor clinical response and toxicity closely. Consider therapy modification

Suvorexant: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Suvorexant. Avoid combination

Tadalafil: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Tadalafil. Management: Erectile dysfunction: monitor for decreased effectiveness - no standard dose adjustments recommended. Avoid use of tadalafil for pulmonary arterial hypertension in patients receiving a strong CYP3A4 inducer. Consider therapy modification

Tasimelteon: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Tasimelteon. Avoid combination

Telaprevir: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Telaprevir. Avoid combination

Tetrahydrocannabinol: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Tetrahydrocannabinol. Monitor therapy

TiaGABine: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of TiaGABine. Management: Approximately 2-fold higher tiagabine doses and a more rapid dose titration will likely be required in patients concomitantly taking a strong CYP3A4 inducer. Consider therapy modification

Ticagrelor: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Ticagrelor. CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Ticagrelor. Avoid combination

Tofacitinib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Tofacitinib. Avoid combination

Tolvaptan: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Tolvaptan. Management: If concurrent use is necessary, increased doses of tolvaptan (with close monitoring for toxicity and clinical response) may be needed. Avoid combination

Toremifene: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Toremifene. Avoid combination

Trabectedin: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Trabectedin. Avoid combination

Tropisetron: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Tropisetron. Monitor therapy

Udenafil: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Udenafil. Monitor therapy

Ulipristal: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Ulipristal. Avoid combination

Vandetanib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Vandetanib. Avoid combination

Velpatasvir: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Velpatasvir. Avoid combination

Vemurafenib: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Vemurafenib. Avoid combination

Venetoclax: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Venetoclax. Avoid combination

Vilazodone: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Vilazodone. Management: Consider increasing vilazodone dose by as much as 2-fold (do not exceed 80 mg/day), based on response, in patients receiving strong CYP3A4 inducers for > 14 days. Reduce to the original vilazodone dose over 1-2 weeks after inducer discontinuation. Consider therapy modification

VinCRIStine (Liposomal): CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of VinCRIStine (Liposomal). Avoid combination

Vinflunine: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Vinflunine. Avoid combination

Vorapaxar: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Vorapaxar. Avoid combination

Vortioxetine: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Vortioxetine. Management: Consider increasing the vortioxetine dose to no more than 3 times the original dose when used with a strong drug metabolism inducer for more than 14 days. The vortioxetine dose should be returned to normal within 14 days of stopping the strong inducer. Consider therapy modification

Zaleplon: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Zaleplon. Management: Consider the use of an alternative hypnotic that is not metabolized by CYP3A4 in patients receiving strong CYP3A4 inducers. If zalephon is combined with a strong CYP3A4 inducer, monitor for decreased effectiveness of zaleplon. Consider therapy modification

Zuclopenthixol: CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Zuclopenthixol. Monitor therapy

Adverse Reactions

The majority of adverse events are dose-dependent.

>10%:

Central nervous system: Central nervous system depression (32%), lethargy/drowsiness (25%), dizziness/vertigo (15%)

Dermatologic: Skin rash (15%)

Gastrointestinal: Anorexia (24%), nausea (39%), vomiting (37%), diarrhea (13%)

Neuromuscular & skeletal: Weakness (12%)

1% to 10%:

Central nervous system: Headache (5%), confusion (3%)

Neuromuscular & skeletal: Tremor (3%)

<1% (Limited to important or life-threatening): Abnormal thyroid function test, adrenocortical insufficiency, albuminuria, anemia, autoimmune hepatitis, blurred vision, brain damage (may be reversible), cataract, decreased protein-bound iodine, diplopia, generalized aches, growth suppression, gynecomastia, hematuria, hemorrhagic cystitis, hepatitis, hypercholesterolemia, hyperpyrexia, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, hypogonadism (primary), hypouricemia, increased gamma-glutamyl transferase, increased liver enzymes, increased serum transaminases, increased serum triglycerides, increased sex hormone binding globulin, leukopenia, macular edema, maculopathy, memory impairment, mental deficiency, mucositis, myalgia, neuropathy, neutropenia, orthostatic hypotension, prolonged bleeding time, psychological disturbances (neuro), retinopathy (toxic), thrombocytopenia

ALERT: U.S. Boxed Warning

Adrenal crisis:

In patients taking mitotane, adrenal crisis occurs in the setting of shock or severe trauma and response to shock is impaired. Administer hydrocortisone, monitor for escalating signs of shock, and discontinue mitotane until recovery occurs.

Warnings/Precautions

Concerns related to adverse effects:

• Adrenal crisis: [US Boxed Warning]: Adrenal crisis occurs in the setting of shock or severe trauma and response to shock is impaired in patients taking mitotane. Administer hydrocortisone, monitor for escalating signs of shock, and discontinue mitotane until recovery occurs.

• Adrenal insufficiency: Patients treated with mitotane may develop adrenal insufficiency; steroid replacement therapy may be required. Monitor free cortisol and corticotropin (ACTH) levels to achieve optimal steroid replacement.

• CNS toxicity: CNS adverse effects, including lethargy, sedation, and vertigo may occur; mitotane plasma concentrations above 20 mcg/mL are associated with higher incidence of toxicity. Patients must be cautioned about performing tasks which require mental alertness (eg, operating machinery or driving).

• Gastrointestinal toxicity: Mitotane is associated with a moderate emetic potential; antiemetics may be needed to prevent nausea and vomiting.

• Prolonged bleeding time: Although uncommon, prolonged bleeding time may occur; consider bleeding possibility prior to any surgical intervention. If currently on anticoagulant therapy, monitor coagulation parameters and adjust anticoagulant dose as needed.

Disease-related concerns:

• Hepatic impairment: Use with caution in patients with hepatic impairment; hepatic impairment may interfere with mitotane metabolism and may result in accumulation.

Concurrent drug therapy issues:

• Drug-drug interactions: Potentially significant interactions may exist, requiring dose or frequency adjustment, additional monitoring, and/or selection of alternative therapy. Consult drug interactions database for more detailed information.

Special handling:

• Hazardous agent: Use appropriate precautions for handling and disposal (NIOSH 2014 [group 1]).

Monitoring Parameters

Monitor for therapeutic levels; monitor free cortisol and corticotropin levels; monitor adrenal function; signs/symptoms of CNS toxicity

Mitotane level monitoring (gas chromatography-flame ionization assay): Every 4 to 8 weeks until target levels are attained, then monitor every 3 months; urinary free cortisol levels; TSH and free thyroxine every few months (Veytsman 2009).

Pregnancy Considerations

Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted. May cause fetal harm if administered during pregnancy; adverse outcomes have been reported. Women of reproductive potential should use effective contraception during treatment and after treatment until plasma levels are no longer detected.

Patient Education

• Discuss specific use of drug and side effects with patient as it relates to treatment. (HCAHPS: During this hospital stay, were you given any medicine that you had not taken before? Before giving you any new medicine, how often did hospital staff tell you what the medicine was for? How often did hospital staff describe possible side effects in a way you could understand?)

• Patient may experience nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, lack of appetite, or loss of strength and energy. Have patient report immediately to prescriber vision changes, blood in urine, bruising, bleeding, severe headache, illogical thinking, severe dizziness, passing out, or severe fatigue (HCAHPS).

• Educate patient about signs of a significant reaction (eg, wheezing; chest tightness; fever; itching; bad cough; blue skin color; seizures; or swelling of face, lips, tongue, or throat). Note: This is not a comprehensive list of all side effects. Patient should consult prescriber for additional questions.

Intended Use and Disclaimer: Should not be printed and given to patients. This information is intended to serve as a concise initial reference for healthcare professionals to use when discussing medications with a patient. You must ultimately rely on your own discretion, experience and judgment in diagnosing, treating and advising patients.

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