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Congenital heart defects in children

Medically reviewed by Last updated on May 3, 2022.


A congenital heart defect is a problem with the structure of the heart that a child is born with.

Some congenital heart defects in children are simple and don't need treatment. Other congenital heart defects in children are more complex and may require several surgeries performed over a period of several years.

Learning about your child's congenital heart defect can help you understand the condition and know what you can expect in the coming months and years.


Serious congenital heart defects usually are noticed soon after birth or during the first few months of life. Signs and symptoms could include:

Less-serious congenital heart defects may not be diagnosed until later in childhood. Signs and symptoms of congenital heart defects in older children may include:

When to see a doctor

Serious congenital heart defects are often diagnosed before or soon after your child is born. If you notice that your baby has any of the signs or symptoms above, call your health care provider.

If your child has any of the signs or symptoms of less-serious heart defects as he or she grows, call your child's care provider. Your child's provider can let you know if your child's symptoms are due to a heart defect or another medical condition.


To understand the causes of congenital heart defects, it may be helpful to know how the heart typically works.

The heart is divided into four chambers, two on the right and two on the left. To pump blood throughout the body, the heart uses its left and right sides for different tasks.

The right side of the heart moves blood to the lungs through the lung (pulmonary) arteries. In the lungs, blood picks up oxygen then returns to the heart's left side through the pulmonary veins. The left side of the heart then pumps the blood through the body's main artery (aorta) and out to the rest of the body.

Chambers and valves of the heart

A typical heart has two upper and two lower chambers. The upper chambers, the right and left atria, receive incoming blood. The lower chambers, the more muscular right and left ventricles, pump blood out of the heart. The heart valves, which keep blood flowing in the right direction, are gates at the chamber openings.


How congenital heart defects develop

During the first six weeks of pregnancy, the baby's heart begins to form and starts beating. The major blood vessels that run to and from the heart also begin to develop during this critical time.

It's at this point in a baby's development that congenital heart defects may begin to develop. Researchers aren't sure exactly what causes most of these defects, but they think genetics, certain medical conditions, some medications, and environmental or lifestyle factors, such as smoking, may play a role.

There are many different types of congenital heart defects. They fall into the general categories described below.

Altered connections in the heart or blood vessels

Altered connections allow blood to flow where it usually wouldn't. Holes in the walls between heart chambers are one example of this type of congenital heart defect.

An altered connection can cause oxygen-poor blood to mix with oxygen-rich blood. This lowers the amount of oxygen sent through the body. The change in blood flow forces the heart and lungs to work harder.

Types of altered connections in the heart or blood vessels include:

Congenital heart valve problems

Heart valves are like doorways between the heart chambers and the blood vessels. Heart valves open and close to keep blood moving in the proper direction. If the heart valves can't open and close correctly, blood can't flow smoothly.

Heart valve problems include valves that are narrowed and don't open completely (stenosis) or valves that don't close completely (regurgitation).

Examples of congenital heart valve problems include:

Combination of congenital heart defects

Some infants are born with several congenital heart defects that affect the structure and function of the heart. Very complex heart problems may cause significant changes in blood flow or undeveloped heart chambers.

For example, tetralogy of Fallot (teh-TRAL-uh-jee of fuh-LOW) is a combination of four congenital heart defects:

Other examples of complex congenital heart defects are:

Risk factors

Most congenital heart defects result from changes that occur early as the baby's heart is developing before birth. The exact cause of most congenital heart defects is unknown, but some risk factors have been identified. Risk factors for congenital heart defects include:


Potential complications of a congenital heart defect include:


Because the exact cause of most congenital heart defects is unknown, it may not be possible to prevent these conditions. If you have a high risk of giving birth to a child with a congenital heart defect, genetic testing and screening may be done during pregnancy.

There are some steps you can take to help reduce your child's overall risk of birth defects such as:


After birth, a health care provider may suspect a diagnosis of a congenital heart defect if a child has growth delays or changes in the color of the lips, tongue or fingernails.

The care provider may hear a heart sound (murmur) while listening to the child's heart with a stethoscope. Most heart murmurs are innocent, meaning that there is no heart defect and the murmur isn't dangerous to your child's health. However, some murmurs may be caused by blood flow changes to and from the heart.


Tests to diagnose a congenital heart defect include:

2D fetal ultrasound

A 2D fetal ultrasound can help your health care provider evaluate your baby's growth and development.


Treatment of congenital heart defects in children depends on the specific type of heart problem and how severe it is. Sometimes, a congenital heart defect may have no long-term effect on a child's health and may safely go untreated. Other congenital heart defects, such as a small hole in the heart, may close as a child ages.

Serious congenital heart defects require treatment soon after they're diagnosed. Treatment may involve medications, heart procedures or surgeries, or a heart transplant.


Medications may be given to treat symptoms or complications of a congenital heart defect. They may be used alone or with a heart procedure. Medications for congenital heart defects include:

Surgery or other procedures

If your child has a severe congenital heart defect, a heart procedure or surgery may be recommended. Heart procedures and surgeries done to treat congenital heart defects include:

Some children with congenital heart defects need many procedures and surgeries throughout life. After congenital heart defect surgery, a child will need regular checkups by a heart doctor (cardiologist).

Lifestyle and home remedies

If your child has a congenital heart defect, lifestyle changes may be recommended to keep the heart healthy and prevent complications.

Sports and activity restrictions

Some children with a congenital heart defect may need to limit exercise or sports activities. However, many others with a congenital heart defect can participate in such activities. Your child's care provider can tell you which sports and types of exercise are safe for your child.

Preventive antibiotics

Sometimes, a congenital heart defect can increase the risk of infection in the lining of the heart or heart valves (infective endocarditis). Antibiotics may be recommended before dental procedures to prevent infection, especially for people who have a mechanical heart valve. Ask your child's heart doctor (cardiologist) if preventive antibiotics are necessary for your child.

Coping and support

You may find that talking with other people who've experienced the same situation brings you comfort and encouragement. Ask your health care provider if there are any support groups in your area.

Living with a congenital heart defect can make some children feel stressed or anxious. Talking to a therapist or counselor may help you and your child learn new ways to manage stress and anxiety. Your care provider can suggest therapists who may be helpful to you or your child.

Preparing for an appointment

If your child has a life-threatening heart defect, it will likely be diagnosed soon after birth, or possibly before birth during a pregnancy ultrasound.

If you think your child has a heart defect that wasn't recognized at birth, talk to your child's health care provider. Be prepared to describe your child's symptoms and provide a family medical history, since some congenital heart defects tend to be passed down through families (are inherited).

Write down the following and bring the notes with you to your appointment:

What you can do

Preparing a list of questions can help you and your health care provider make the most of your time together. You might want to ask questions such as:

What to expect from your doctor

Your health care provider is likely to ask you many questions. Being ready to answer them may save time to go over anything you want to spend more time on. Your provider may ask:

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