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Aminophylline / amobarbital / ephedrine Disease Interactions

There are 23 disease interactions with aminophylline / amobarbital / ephedrine:

Major

Barbiturates (Includes Aminophylline/amobarbital/ephedrine) ↔ Acute Alcohol Intoxication

Severe Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Acute Alcohol Intoxication

The use of barbiturates is contraindicated in patients with acute alcohol intoxication exhibiting depressed vital signs. The central nervous system depressant effects of barbiturates may be additive with those of alcohol. Severe respiratory depression and death may occur. Therapy with barbiturates should be administered cautiously in patients who might be prone to acute alcohol intake.

References

  1. "Product Information. Phenobarbital (phenobarbital)." Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
  2. Plaa GL "Acute toxicity of antiepileptic drugs." Epilepsia 16 (1975): 183-91
  3. "Product Information. Nembutal Sodium (pentobarbital)" Abbott Pharmaceutical, Abbott Park, IL.
  4. "Product Information. Butisol Sodium (butabarbital)" Wallace Laboratories, Cranbury, NJ.
  5. "Product Information. Mebaral (mephobarbital)" Sanofi Winthrop Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  6. "Product Information. Amytal Sodium (amobarbital)" Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
  7. "Multum Information Services, Inc. Expert Review Panel"
  8. "Product Information. Seconal Sodium (secobarbital)" Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
View all 8 references
Major

Barbiturates (Includes Aminophylline/amobarbital/ephedrine) ↔ Drug Dependence

Severe Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Alcoholism, Drug Abuse/Dependence

Barbiturates have the potential to cause dependence and abuse. Tolerance as well as physical and psychological dependence can develop, particularly after prolonged use of excessive dosages. Abrupt cessation and/or a reduction in dosage may precipitate withdrawal symptoms. In patients who have developed tolerance to a barbiturate, overdosage can still produce respiratory depression and death, and cross-tolerance usually will occur with other agents in the class. Addiction-prone individuals, such as those with a history of alcohol or substance abuse, should be under careful surveillance or medical supervision when treated with barbiturates. It may be prudent to refrain from dispensing large quantities of medication to these patients. After prolonged use or if dependency is suspected, withdrawal of barbiturates should be undertaken gradually using a dosage-tapering schedule.

References

  1. Boisse NR, Okamoto M "Physical dependence to barbital compared to pentobarbital. II. Tolerance characteristics." J Pharmacol Exp Ther 204 (1978): 507-13
  2. "Product Information. Mebaral (mephobarbital)" Sanofi Winthrop Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  3. "Product Information. Amytal Sodium (amobarbital)" Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
  4. "Product Information. Phenobarbital (phenobarbital)." Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
  5. "Product Information. Seconal Sodium (secobarbital)" Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
  6. American Medical Association, Division of Drugs and Toxicology "Drug evaluations annual 1994." Chicago, IL: American Medical Association; (1994):
  7. Gersema LM, Alexander B, Kunze KE "Major withdrawal symptoms after abrupt discontinuation of phenobarbital." Clin Pharm 6 (1987): 420-2
  8. "Product Information. Butisol Sodium (butabarbital)" Wallace Laboratories, Cranbury, NJ.
  9. "Product Information. Nembutal Sodium (pentobarbital)" Abbott Pharmaceutical, Abbott Park, IL.
View all 9 references
Major

Barbiturates (Includes Aminophylline/amobarbital/ephedrine) ↔ Liver Disease

Severe Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Liver Disease

Barbiturates are extensively metabolized by the liver. The plasma clearance of barbiturates may be decreased and the half-lives prolonged in patients with impaired hepatic function. Therapy with barbiturates should be administered cautiously and initiated at reduced dosages in patients with liver disease. Barbiturates are not recommended for use in patients with cirrhosis, hepatic failure, hepatic coma, or other severe hepatic impairment.

References

  1. "Product Information. Phenobarbital (phenobarbital)." Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
  2. Kallberg N, Agurell S, Ericsson O, et al "Quantitation of phenobarbital and its main metabolites in human urine." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 9 (1975): 161-8
  3. "Product Information. Seconal Sodium (secobarbital)" Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
  4. "Product Information. Mebaral (mephobarbital)" Sanofi Winthrop Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  5. "Product Information. Amytal Sodium (amobarbital)" Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
  6. Whyte MP, Dekaban "Metabolic fate of phenobarbital: a quantitative study of p-hydroxyphenobarbital elimination in man." Drug Metab Dispos 5 (1977): 63-9
  7. "Product Information. Butisol Sodium (butabarbital)" Wallace Laboratories, Cranbury, NJ.
  8. Alvin J, McHorse T, Hoyumpa A, et al "The effect of liver disease in man on the disposition of phenobarbital." J Pharmacol Exp Ther 192 (1975): 224-35
  9. "Product Information. Nembutal Sodium (pentobarbital)" Abbott Pharmaceutical, Abbott Park, IL.
View all 9 references
Major

Barbiturates (Includes Aminophylline/amobarbital/ephedrine) ↔ Porphyria

Severe Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Porphyria

The use of barbiturates is contraindicated in patients with a history of porphyria. Barbiturates may exacerbate acute intermittent porphyria or porphyria variegata by inducing the enzymes responsible for porphyrin synthesis.

References

  1. American Medical Association, Division of Drugs and Toxicology "Drug evaluations annual 1994." Chicago, IL: American Medical Association; (1994):
  2. "Product Information. Nembutal Sodium (pentobarbital)" Abbott Pharmaceutical, Abbott Park, IL.
  3. "Product Information. Butisol Sodium (butabarbital)" Wallace Laboratories, Cranbury, NJ.
  4. "Product Information. Phenobarbital (phenobarbital)." Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
  5. Fauci AS, Braunwald E, Isselbacher KJ, Wilson JD, Martin JB, Kasper DL, Hauser SL, Longo DL, eds. "Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. 14th ed." New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Health Professionals Division (1998):
  6. "Product Information. Seconal Sodium (secobarbital)" Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
  7. "Product Information. Amytal Sodium (amobarbital)" Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
  8. "Product Information. Mebaral (mephobarbital)" Sanofi Winthrop Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
View all 8 references
Major

Barbiturates (Includes Aminophylline/amobarbital/ephedrine) ↔ Rash

Severe Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Dermatitis - Drug-Induced

Skin eruptions may precede rare but potentially fatal barbiturate-induced reactions such as systemic lupus erythematosus and exfoliative dermatitis, the latter of which may be accompanied by hepatitis and jaundice. Therapy with barbiturates should be administered cautiously in patients with preexisting drug-induced dermatitis, since it may delay the recognition of a potential reaction to barbiturates. Barbiturate therapy should be withdrawn promptly at the first sign of a dermatologic adverse effect. However, cutaneous reactions may proceed to an irreversible stage even after cessation of medication due to the slow rate of metabolism and excretion of barbiturates. Patients should be advised to promptly report signs that may indicate impending development of barbiturate-related cutaneous lesions, including high fever, severe headache, stomatitis, conjunctivitis, rhinitis, urethritis, and balanitis. Rashes may be more likely to occur with phenobarbital and mephobarbital.

References

  1. "Product Information. Amytal Sodium (amobarbital)" Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
  2. "Product Information. Mebaral (mephobarbital)" Sanofi Winthrop Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  3. Stuttgen G "Toxic epidermal necrolysis provoked by barbiturates." Br J Dermatol 88 (1973): 291-3
  4. Shear NH, Spielberg SP "Anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome. In vitro assessment of risk." J Clin Invest 82 (1988): 1826-32
  5. "Product Information. Butisol Sodium (butabarbital)" Wallace Laboratories, Cranbury, NJ.
  6. Pagliaro L, Campesi G, Aguglia F "Barbiturate jaundice. Report of a case due to a barbital-containing drug, with positive rechallenge to phenobarbital." Gastroenterology 56 (1969): 938-43
  7. Pelekanos J, Camfield P, Camfield C, Gordon K "Allergic rash due to antiepileptic drugs: clinical features and management." Epilepsia 32 (1991): 554-9
  8. "Product Information. Seconal Sodium (secobarbital)" Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
  9. "Product Information. Nembutal Sodium (pentobarbital)" Abbott Pharmaceutical, Abbott Park, IL.
  10. "Product Information. Phenobarbital (phenobarbital)." Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
  11. Fernandez de Corres L, Leanizbarrutia I, Munoz D "Eczematous drug reaction from phenobarbitone." Contact Dermatitis 11 (1984): 319
  12. Dourmishev AL, Rahman MA "Phenobarbital-induced pemphigus vulgaris." Dermatologica 173 (1986): 256-8
View all 12 references
Major

Barbiturates (Includes Aminophylline/amobarbital/ephedrine) ↔ Respiratory Depression

Severe Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Pulmonary Impairment, Asphyxia, Respiratory Arrest

Barbiturates may produce severe respiratory depression, apnea, laryngospasm, bronchospasm and cough, particularly during rapid intravenous administration. In usual hypnotic dosages, the degree of respiratory depression produced is similar to that which occurs during physiologic sleep, while at higher dosages, the rate, depth and volume of respiration may be markedly decreased. However, some patients may be susceptible at commonly used dosages, including the elderly, debilitated or severely ill patients, those receiving other CNS depressants, and those with limited ventilatory reserve, chronic pulmonary insufficiency or other respiratory disorders. Therapy with barbiturates should be administered cautiously in these patients. Appropriate monitoring and individualization of dosage are particularly important, and equipment for resuscitation should be immediately available if the parenteral route is used. Barbiturates, especially injectable formulations, should generally be avoided in patients with sleep apnea, hypoxia, or severe pulmonary diseases in which dyspnea or obstruction is evident.

References

  1. "Product Information. Phenobarbital (phenobarbital)." Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
  2. "Product Information. Amytal Sodium (amobarbital)" Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
  3. "Product Information. Mebaral (mephobarbital)" Sanofi Winthrop Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  4. Lund A, Gormsen H "The role of antiepileptics in sudden death in epilepsy." Acta Neurol Scand 72 (1985): 444-6
  5. Plaa GL "Acute toxicity of antiepileptic drugs." Epilepsia 16 (1975): 183-91
  6. "Product Information. Nembutal Sodium (pentobarbital)" Abbott Pharmaceutical, Abbott Park, IL.
  7. American Medical Association, Division of Drugs and Toxicology "Drug evaluations annual 1994." Chicago, IL: American Medical Association; (1994):
  8. "Product Information. Butisol Sodium (butabarbital)" Wallace Laboratories, Cranbury, NJ.
  9. "Product Information. Seconal Sodium (secobarbital)" Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
View all 9 references
Major

Barbiturates Iv (Includes Aminophylline/amobarbital/ephedrine) ↔ Cardiovascular

Severe Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Hypotension, Heart Disease, Hypertension

The intravenous administration of barbiturates may produce severe cardiovascular reactions such as bradycardia, hypertension, or vasodilation with fall in blood pressure, particularly during rapid infusion. Parenteral therapy with barbiturates should be administered cautiously in patients with hypertension, hypotension, or cardiac disease. The intravenous administration of barbiturates should be reserved for emergency treatment of acute seizures or for anesthesia.

References

  1. "Product Information. Amytal Sodium (amobarbital)" Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
  2. "Product Information. Phenobarbital (phenobarbital)." Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
  3. "Product Information. Seconal Sodium (secobarbital)" Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
  4. American Medical Association, Division of Drugs and Toxicology "Drug evaluations annual 1994." Chicago, IL: American Medical Association; (1994):
  5. "Product Information. Nembutal Sodium (pentobarbital)" Abbott Pharmaceutical, Abbott Park, IL.
View all 5 references
Major

Barbiturates Iv/Im (Includes Aminophylline/amobarbital/ephedrine) ↔ Prolonged Hypotension

Severe Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Shock, Altered Consciousness

Barbiturates should not be administered by injection to patients in shock or coma or who have recently received another respiratory depressant. The hypnotic and hypotensive effects of these agents may be prolonged and intensified in such patients.

References

  1. "Product Information. Seconal Sodium (secobarbital)" Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
  2. "Product Information. Nembutal Sodium (pentobarbital)" Abbott Pharmaceutical, Abbott Park, IL.
  3. "Product Information. Amytal Sodium (amobarbital)" Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
  4. "Multum Information Services, Inc. Expert Review Panel"
  5. "Product Information. Phenobarbital (phenobarbital)." Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
View all 5 references
Major

Methylxanthines (Includes Aminophylline/amobarbital/ephedrine) ↔ Pud

Severe Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Peptic Ulcer

Methylxanthines are known to stimulate peptic acid secretion. Therapy with products containing methylxanthines should be administered with extreme caution in patients with active peptic ulcer disease. Some manufacturers consider their use to be contraindicated under such circumstance.

References

  1. "Product Information. Theo-Dur (theophylline)." Schering Laboratories, Kenilworth, NJ.
  2. Stoller JL "Oesophageal ulceration and theophylline." Lancet 2 (1985): 328-9
  3. Alterman P, Spiegel D, Feldman J, Yaretzky A "Histamine h2-receptor antagonists and chronic theophylline toxicity." Am Fam Physician 54 (1996): 1473
  4. "Product Information. Lufyllin (dyphylline)" Wallace Laboratories, Cranbury, NJ.
View all 4 references
Major

Methylxanthines (Includes Aminophylline/amobarbital/ephedrine) ↔ Renal Dysfunction

Severe Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Renal Dysfunction

The metabolites of theophylline, which are generally undetectable in patients with normal renal function, may accumulate in patients with renal impairment and contribute to the toxicity of theophylline. In addition, the plasma protein binding of theophylline may be significantly decreased in renal impairment, resulting in elevated free drug concentrations and further increasing the risk of toxicity. Therapy with theophyllines should be administered cautiously in patients with impaired renal function. Dosage adjustments and more intensive monitoring of serum theophylline concentrations may be required.

References

  1. Vanholder R, Van Landschoot N, De Smet R, Schoots A, Ringoir S "Drug protein binding in chronic renal failure: evaluation of nine drugs." Kidney Int 33 (1988): 996-1004
  2. Leakey TE, Elias-Jones AC, Coates PE, Smith KJ "Pharmacokinetics of theophylline and its metabolites during acute renal failure: a case report." Clin Pharmacokinet 21 (1991): 400-8
  3. Kraan J, Jonkman JH, Koeter GH, et al "The pharmacokinetics of theophylline and enprofylline in patients with liver cirrhosis and in patients with chronic renal disease." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 35 (1988): 357-62
  4. Reidenberg MM, Restivo K "The binding of theophylline to serum proteins of hemodialysis patients." J Dial 3 (1979): 375-81
  5. Nicot G, Charmes JP, Lachatre G, et al "Theophylline toxicity risks and chronic renal failure." Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol 27 (1989): 398-401
  6. Shaw LM, Fields L, Mayock R "Factors influencing theophylline serum protein binding." Clin Pharmacol Ther 32 (1982): 490-6
  7. Bauer LA, Bauer SP, Blouin RA "The effect of acute and chronic renal failure on theophylline clearance." J Clin Pharmacol 22 (1982): 65-8
  8. Leopold D, Webb D, Buss DC, Fifield RA, Smith AP, Routledge PA "The ex vivo plasma protein binding of theophylline in renal disease." Br J Clin Pharmacol 19 (1985): 823-5
View all 8 references
Major

Methylxanthines (Includes Aminophylline/amobarbital/ephedrine) ↔ Seizure Disorders

Severe Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Seizures, Head Injury, Cerebral Vascular Disorder

The use of theophyllines is considered by some manufacturers to be contraindicated in patients with underlying seizure disorders unless they are receiving adequate anticonvulsant therapy. Theophyllines may cause seizures, which have generally been associated with toxic drug levels but have also been reported at therapeutic concentrations in patients with head trauma or cerebral infarct. If theophylline therapy is administered in patients with these or other risk factors for seizures, serum drug levels should be monitored closely and maintained in the low therapeutic range. Intractable seizures and death have been reported during acute theophylline toxicity.

References

  1. Bahls FH, Ma KK, Bird TD "Theophylline-associated seizures with "therapeutic" or low toxic serum concentrations: risk factors for serious outcome in adults." Neurology 41 (1991): 1309-12
  2. Hendeles L, Weinberger M, Johnson G "Monitoring serum theophylline levels." Clin Pharmacokinet 3 (1978): 294-312
  3. Milgrom H, Bender B "Current issues in the use of theophylline." Am Rev Respir Dis 147 (1993): s33-9
  4. Covelli HD, Knodel AR, Heppner BT "Predisposing factors to apparent theophylline-induced seizures." Ann Allergy 54 (1985): 411-5
  5. Aderka D, Shavit G, Garfinkel D, et al "Life-threatening theophylline intoxication in a hypothyroid patient." Respiration 44 (1983): 77-80
  6. Sessler CN "Theophylline toxicity: clinical features of 116 consecutive cases." Am J Med 88 (1990): 567-76
  7. Stewart JT "Prolongation of ECT-induced seizures with theophylline." J Am Geriatr Soc 44 (1996): 475
  8. Nakada T, Kwee IL, Lerner AM, Remler MP "Theophylline-induced seizures: clinical and pathophysiologic aspects." West J Med 138 (1983): 371-4
  9. Schiff GD, Hegde HK, LaCloche L, Hryhorczuk DO "Inpatient theophylline toxicity: preventable factors." Ann Intern Med 114 (1991): 748-53
  10. "Product Information. Theo-Dur (theophylline)." Schering Laboratories, Kenilworth, NJ.
  11. Albert S "Aminophylline toxicity." Pediatr Clin North Am 34 (1987): 61-73
View all 11 references
Major

Sympathomimetics (Includes Aminophylline/amobarbital/ephedrine) ↔ Cardiovascular Disease

Severe Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Hyperthyroidism, Cardiovascular Disease, Cerebrovascular Insufficiency, Pheochromocytoma

Sympathomimetic agents may cause adverse cardiovascular effects, particularly when used in high dosages and/or in susceptible patients. In cardiac tissues, these agents may produce positive chronotropic and inotropic effects via stimulation of beta- 1 adrenergic receptors. Cardiac output, oxygen consumption, and the work of the heart may be increased. In the peripheral vasculature, vasoconstriction may occur via stimulation of alpha-1 adrenergic receptors. Palpitations, tachycardia, arrhythmia, hypertension, reflex bradycardia, coronary occlusion, cerebral vasculitis, myocardial infarction, cardiac arrest, and death have been reported. Some of these agents, particularly ephedra alkaloids (ephedrine, ma huang, phenylpropanolamine), may also predispose patients to hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke. Therapy with sympathomimetic agents should generally be avoided or administered cautiously in patients with sensitivity to sympathomimetic amines, hyperthyroidism, or underlying cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disorders. These agents should not be used in patients with severe coronary artery disease or severe/uncontrolled hypertension.

References

  1. Horowitz JD, Lang WJ, Howes LG, Fennessy MR, Christophidis N, Rand MJ, Louis WJ "Hypertensive responses induced by phenylpropanolamine in anorectic and decongestant preparations." Lancet 1 (1980): 60-1
  2. Covington TR, Lawson LC, Young LL, eds. "Handbook of Nonprescription Drugs. 10th ed." Washington, DC: American Pharmaceutical Association (1993):
  3. Gordon RD, Ballantine DM, Bachmann AW "Effects of repeated doses of pseudoephedrine on blood pressure and plasma catecholamines in normal subjects and in patients with phaeochromocytoma." Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 19 (1992): 287-90
  4. Frewin DB "Phenylpropanolamine. How safe is it?" Med J Aust 2 (1983): 54-5
  5. Shapiro SR "Hypertension due to anorectic agent." N Engl J Med 280 (1969): 1363
  6. Leo PJ, Hollander JE, Shih RD, Marcus SM "Phenylpropanolamine and associated myocardial injury." Ann Emerg Med 28 (1996): 359-62
  7. American Medical Association, Division of Drugs and Toxicology "Drug evaluations annual 1994." Chicago, IL: American Medical Association; (1994):
  8. Kroenke K, Omori DM, Simmons JO, Wood DR, Meier NJ "The safety of phenylpropanolamine in patients with stable hypertension." Ann Intern Med 111 (1989): 1043-4
  9. Kase CS, Foster TE, Reed JE, Spatz EL, Girgis GN "Intracerebral hemorrhage and phenylpropanolamine use." Neurology 37 (1987): 399-404
  10. Frewin DB, Leonello PP, Frewin ME "Hypertension after ingestion of Trimolets." Med J Aust 2 (1978): 497-8
  11. Noble R "A controlled clinical trial of the cardiovascular and psychological effects of phenylpropanolamine and caffeine." Drug Intell Clin Pharm 22 (1988): 296-9
  12. Kikta DG, Devereaux MW, Chandar K "Intracranial hemorrhages due to phenylpropanolamine." Stroke 16 (1985): 510-2
  13. Lake CR, Zaloga G, Clymer R, Quirk RM, Chernow B "A double dose of phenylpropanolamine causes transient hypertension." Am J Med 85 (1988): 339-43
  14. Edwards M, Russo L, Harwood-Nuss A "Cerebral infarction with a single oral dose of phenylpropanolamine." Am J Emerg Med 5 (1987): 163-4
  15. Johnson DA, Etter HS, Reeves DM "Stroke and phenylpropanolamine use" Lancet 2 (1983): 970
  16. Mansoor GA "Herbs and alternative therapies in the hypertension clinic." Am J Hypertens 14(9 Pt 1) (2001): 971-5
  17. Elliott CF, Whyte JC "Phenylpropanolamine and hypertension." Med J Aust 1 (1981): 715
  18. Pentel PR, Aaron C, Paya C "Therapeutic doses of phenylpropanolamine increase supine systolic blood pressure." Int J Obes 9 (1985): 115-9
  19. Fallis RJ, Fisher M "Cerebral vasculitis and hemorrhage associated with phenylpropanolamine." Neurology 35 (1985): 405-7
  20. McDowell JR, LeBlanc HJ "Phenylpropanolamine and cerebral hemorrhage." West J Med 142 (1985): 688-91
  21. Howrie DL, Wolfson JH "Phenylpropanolamine-induced hypertensive seizures." J Pediatr 102 (1983): 143-5
  22. Williams DM "Phenylpropanolamine hydrochloride" Am Pharm NS30 (1990): 47-50
  23. Samenuk D, Link MS, Homoud MK, et al. "Adverse cardiovascular events temporally associated with ma huang, an herbal source of ephedrine." Mayo Clin Proc 77 (2002): 12-6
  24. Loizou LA, Hamilton JG, Tsementzis SA "Intracranial haemorrhage in association with pseudoephedrine overdose." J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 45 (1982): 471-2
  25. Bruno A, Nolte KB, Chapin J "Stroke associated with ephedrine use." Neurology 43 (1993): 1313-6
  26. Lee KY, Beilin LJ, Vandongen R "Severe hypertension after ingestion of an appetite suppressant (phenylpropanolamine) with indomethacin." Lancet 1 (1979): 1110-1
  27. Horowitz JD, McNeil JJ, Sweet B, Mendelsohn FA, Louis WJ "Hypertension and postural hypotension induced by phenylpropanolamine (Trimolets)." Med J Aust 1 (1979): 175-6
  28. Stoessl AJ, Young GB, Feasby TE "Intracerebral haemorrhage and angiographic beading following ingestion of catecholaminergics." Stroke 16 (1985): 734-6
  29. Lee KY, Beilin LJ, Vandongen R "Severe hypertension after administration of phenylpropanolamine" Med J Aust 1 (1979): 525-6
  30. O'Connell MB, Gross CR "The effect of multiple doses of phenylpropanolamine on the blood pressure of patients whose hypertension was controlled with beta blockers." Pharmacotherapy 11 (1991): 376-81
  31. McEwen J "Phenylpropanolamine-associated hypertension after the use of "over- the-counter" appetite-suppressant products." Med J Aust 2 (1983): 71-3
  32. Wiener I, Tilkian AG, Palazzolo M "Coronary artery spasm and myocardial infarction in a patient with normal coronary arteries: temporal relationship to pseudoephedrine ingestion." Cathet Cardiovasc Diagn 20 (1990): 51-3
  33. O'Connell MB, Gross CR "The effect of single-dose phenylpropanolamine on blood pressure in patients with hypertension controlled by beta blockers." Pharmacotherapy 10 (1990): 85-91
  34. Dickerson J, Perrier D, Mayersohn M, Bressler R "Dose tolerance and pharmacokinetic studies of L (+) pseudoephedrine capsules in man." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 14 (1978): 253-9
  35. Bernstein E, Diskant BM "Phenylpropanolamine: a potentially hazardous drug." Ann Emerg Med 11 (1982): 311-5
  36. To LB, Sangster JF, Rampling D, Cammens I "Ephedrine-induced cardiomyopathy." Med J Aust 2 (1980): 35-6
  37. Maher LM, Peterson PL, Dela-Cruz C "Postpartum intracranial hemorrhage and phenylpropanolamine use." Neurology 37 (1987): 1886,1890
  38. Caperton E "Raynaud's phenomenon. Role of diet pills and cold remedies." Postgrad Med 73 (1983): 291-2
  39. Gill ND, Shield A, Blazevich AJ, Zhou S, Weatherby RP "Muscular and cardiorespiratory effects of pseudoephedrine in human athletes." Br J Clin Pharmacol 50 (2000): 205-13
  40. Mariani PJ "Pseudoephedrine-induced hypertensive emergency: treatment with labetalol." Am J Emerg Med 4 (1986): 141-2
  41. Teh AY "Phenylpropanolamine and hypertension" Med J Aust 2 (1979): 425-6
  42. Pentel PR, Mikell FL, Zavoral JH "Myocardial injury after phenylpropanolamine ingestion." Br Heart J 47 (1982): 51-4
  43. Rosen RA "Angina associated with pseudoephedrine ." Ann Emerg Med 10 (1981): 230-1
  44. Lake CR, Gallant S, Masson E, Miller P "Adverse drug effects attributed to phenylpropanolamine: a review of 142 case reports." Am J Med 89 (1990): 195-208
  45. Humberstone PM "Hypertension from cold remedies." Br Med J 1 (1969): 846
  46. Maher LM, Peterson PL, Dela-Cruz C "Postpartum intracranial hemorrhage and phenylpropanolamine use" Neurology 37 (1987): 1686
  47. Haller CA, Benowitz NL "Adverse cardiovascular and central nervous system events associated with dietary supplements containing ephedra alkaloids." N Engl J Med 343 (2000): 1833-8
  48. Dowse R, Scherzinger SS, Kanfer I "Serum concentrations of phenylpropanolamine and associated effects on blood pressure in normotensive subjects: a pilot-study." Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol 28 (1990): 205-10
  49. Gibson GJ, Warrell DA "Hypertensive crises and phenylpropanolamine." Lancet 2 (1972): 492-3
  50. "Product Information. Sudafed (pseudoephedrine)." Glaxo Wellcome, Research Triangle Park, NC.
  51. Lake CR, Zaloga G, Bray J, Rosenberg D, Chernow B "Transient hypertension after two phenylpropanolamine diet aids and the effects of caffeine: a placebo-controlled follow-up study." Am J Med 86 (1989): 427-32
  52. Finton CK, Barton M, Chernow B "Possible adverse effects of phenylpropanolamine (diet pills) on sympathetic nervous system function--caveat emptor!" Mil Med 147 (1982): 1072
  53. Kizer KW "Intracranial hemorrhage associated with overdose of decongestant containing phenylpropanolamine" Am J Emerg Med 2 (1984): 180-1
  54. Clark JE, Simon WA "Cardiac arrhythmias after phenylpropanolamine ingestion." Drug Intell Clin Pharm 17 (1983): 737-8
  55. Wooten MR, Khangure MS, Murphy MJ "Intracerebral hemorrhage and vasculitis related to ephedrine abuse." Ann Neurol 13 (1983): 337-40
  56. Chin C, Choy M "Cardiomyopathy induced by phenylpropanolamine." J Pediatr 123 (1993): 825-7
View all 56 references
Moderate

Barbiturates (Includes Aminophylline/amobarbital/ephedrine) ↔ Adrenal Insufficiency

Moderate Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Adrenal Insufficiency, Panhypopituitarism

Barbiturates, especially phenobarbital, secobarbital and butabarbital, may diminish the systemic effects of exogenous and endogenous corticosteroids via induction of hepatic microsomal enzymes, thereby accelerating the metabolism of corticosteroids. In addition, barbiturates may interfere with pituitary corticotropin production. Therapy with barbiturates should be administered cautiously in patients with adrenal insufficiency. Patients with borderline hypoadrenalism should be monitored closely, and patients receiving steroid supplementation may require an adjustment in dosage when barbiturates are added to or withdrawn from their medication regimen.

References

  1. "Product Information. Seconal Sodium (secobarbital)" Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
  2. "Product Information. Amytal Sodium (amobarbital)" Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
  3. "Product Information. Phenobarbital (phenobarbital)." Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
  4. "Product Information. Mebaral (mephobarbital)" Sanofi Winthrop Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  5. "Product Information. Nembutal Sodium (pentobarbital)" Abbott Pharmaceutical, Abbott Park, IL.
  6. "Product Information. Butisol Sodium (butabarbital)" Wallace Laboratories, Cranbury, NJ.
View all 6 references
Moderate

Barbiturates (Includes Aminophylline/amobarbital/ephedrine) ↔ Depression

Moderate Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Depression

Barbiturates depress the central nervous system and may cause or exacerbate mental depression. Therapy with barbiturates should be administered cautiously in patients with a history of depression or suicidal tendencies. It may be prudent to refrain from dispensing large quantities of medication to these patients.

References

  1. "Multum Information Services, Inc. Expert Review Panel"
  2. "Product Information. Butisol Sodium (butabarbital)" Wallace Laboratories, Cranbury, NJ.
  3. "Product Information. Nembutal Sodium (pentobarbital)" Abbott Pharmaceutical, Abbott Park, IL.
  4. "Product Information. Phenobarbital (phenobarbital)." Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
  5. "Product Information. Mebaral (mephobarbital)" Sanofi Winthrop Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  6. "Product Information. Seconal Sodium (secobarbital)" Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
  7. "Product Information. Amytal Sodium (amobarbital)" Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
View all 7 references
Moderate

Barbiturates (Includes Aminophylline/amobarbital/ephedrine) ↔ Hematologic Toxicity

Moderate Potential Hazard, Low plausibility

Applies to: Bone Marrow Depression/Low Blood Counts

Hematologic toxicity, including agranulocytosis, thrombocytopenic purpura and megaloblastic anemia, has been reported rarely during use of barbiturates. Therapy with barbiturates should be administered cautiously in patients with preexisting blood dyscrasias or bone marrow suppression. Blood counts are recommended prior to and periodically during long-term therapy, and patients should be instructed to immediately report any signs or symptoms suggestive of blood dyscrasia such as fever, sore throat, local infection, easy bruising, petechiae, bleeding, pallor, dizziness, or jaundice. Barbiturate therapy should be discontinued if blood dyscrasias occur.

References

  1. "Product Information. Nembutal Sodium (pentobarbital)" Abbott Pharmaceutical, Abbott Park, IL.
  2. Kiorboe E, Plum CM "Megaloblastic anaemia developing during treatment of epilepsy." Acta Med Scand Suppl 445 (1966): 349-57
  3. Iivanainen M, Savolainen H "Side effects of phenobarbital and phenytoin during long-term treatment of epilepsy." Acta Neurol Scand Suppl 97 (1983): 49-67
  4. "Product Information. Butisol Sodium (butabarbital)" Wallace Laboratories, Cranbury, NJ.
  5. "Product Information. Phenobarbital (phenobarbital)." Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
  6. "Product Information. Seconal Sodium (secobarbital)" Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
  7. "Product Information. Mebaral (mephobarbital)" Sanofi Winthrop Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  8. Van Hoof A, Chamone DA, Vermylen J "Platelet aggregation and anaesthesia." Lancet 2 (1980): 373
  9. "Product Information. Amytal Sodium (amobarbital)" Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
View all 9 references
Moderate

Barbiturates (Includes Aminophylline/amobarbital/ephedrine) ↔ Osteomalacia

Moderate Potential Hazard, Low plausibility

Applies to: Vitamin D Deficiency

Rickets and osteomalacia have rarely been reported following prolonged use of barbiturates, possibly due to increased metabolism of vitamin D as a result of enzyme induction by barbiturates. Long-term therapy with barbiturates should be administered cautiously in patients with vitamin D deficiency.

References

  1. "Product Information. Phenobarbital (phenobarbital)." Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
  2. Zerwekh JE, Homan R, Tindall R, Pak CY "Decreased serum 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentration during long- term anticonvulsant therapy in adult epileptics." Ann Neurol 12 (1982): 184-6
  3. Iivanainen M, Savolainen H "Side effects of phenobarbital and phenytoin during long-term treatment of epilepsy." Acta Neurol Scand Suppl 97 (1983): 49-67
  4. Doriguzzi C, Mongini T, Jeantet A, Monga G "Tubular aggregates in a case of osteomalacic myopathy due to anticonvulsant drugs." Clin Neuropathol 3 (1984): 42-5
  5. Sotaniemi EA, Hakkarainen HK, Puranen JA, Lahti RO "Radiologic bone changes and hypocalcemia with anticonvulsant therapy in epilepsy." Ann Intern Med 77 (1972): 389-94
  6. Marsden CD, Reynolds EH, Parsons V, Harris R, Duchen L "Myopathy associated with anticonvulsant osteomalacia." Br Med J 4 (1973): 526-7
View all 6 references
Moderate

Barbiturates (Includes Aminophylline/amobarbital/ephedrine) ↔ Paradoxical Reactions

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Hyperkinetic Syndrome of Childhood

Paradoxical reactions characterized by excitability and restlessness may occur in pediatric patients with hyperactive aggressive disorders. Such patients should be monitored for signs of paradoxical stimulation during therapy with barbiturates.

References

  1. American Medical Association, Division of Drugs and Toxicology "Drug evaluations annual 1994." Chicago, IL: American Medical Association; (1994):
  2. "Product Information. Nembutal Sodium (pentobarbital)" Abbott Pharmaceutical, Abbott Park, IL.
  3. Mayhew LA, Hanzel TE, Ferron FR, Kalachnik JE, Harder SR "Phenobarbital exacerbation of self-injurious behavior." J Nerv Ment Dis 180 (1992): 732-3
  4. Sylvester CE, Marchlewski A, Manaligod JM "Primidone or phenobarbital use complicating disruptive behavior disorders." Clin Pediatr (Phila) 33 (1994): 252-3
  5. "Product Information. Butisol Sodium (butabarbital)" Wallace Laboratories, Cranbury, NJ.
  6. "Product Information. Amytal Sodium (amobarbital)" Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
  7. "Product Information. Mebaral (mephobarbital)" Sanofi Winthrop Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  8. "Product Information. Phenobarbital (phenobarbital)." Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
  9. "Product Information. Seconal Sodium (secobarbital)" Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
View all 9 references
Moderate

Methylxanthines (Includes Aminophylline/amobarbital/ephedrine) ↔ Gerd

Moderate Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

Methylxanthines increase gastric acidity and may also relax lower esophageal sphincter, which can lead to gastric reflux into the esophagus. Therapy with products containing methylxanthines should be administered cautiously in patients with significant gastroesophageal reflux.

References

  1. American Medical Association, Division of Drugs and Toxicology "Drug evaluations annual 1994." Chicago, IL: American Medical Association; (1994):
  2. Stoller JL "Oesophageal ulceration and theophylline." Lancet 2 (1985): 328-9
  3. Alterman P, Spiegel D, Feldman J, Yaretzky A "Histamine h2-receptor antagonists and chronic theophylline toxicity." Am Fam Physician 54 (1996): 1473
  4. "Product Information. Lufyllin (dyphylline)" Wallace Laboratories, Cranbury, NJ.
View all 4 references
Moderate

Methylxanthines (Includes Aminophylline/amobarbital/ephedrine) ↔ Hemodialysis

Moderate Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: hemodialysis

Theophylline is removed by hemodialysis. Doses should either be scheduled for administration after dialysis or supplemental doses be given after dialysis.

References

  1. Lee CS, Marbury TC, Perrin JH, Fuller TJ "Hemodialysis of theophylline in uremic patients." J Clin Pharmacol April (1979): 219-26
  2. Vaziri ND, Barton CH, Ness R, Clark D "Dialysability of theophylline." J Dial 2 (1978): 243-9
  3. Anderson JR, Poklis A, McQueen RC, Purtell JN, Slavin RG "Effects of hemodialysis on theophylline kinetics." J Clin Pharmacol 23 (1983): 428-32
  4. Kradjan WA, Martin TR, Delaney CJ, et al "Effect of hemodialysis on the pharmacokinetics of theophylline in chronic renal failure." Nephron 32 (1982): 40-4
  5. Slaughter RL, Green L, Kohli R "Hemodialysis clearance of theophylline." Ther Drug Monit 4 (1982): 191-3
  6. Lee CS, Peterson JC, Marbury TC "Comparative pharmacokinetics of theophylline in peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis." J Clin Pharmacol 23 (1983): 274-80
  7. Blouin RA, Bauer LA, Bustrack JA, Record KE, Bivins BA "Theophylline hemodialysis clearance." Ther Drug Monit 2 (1980): 221-3
  8. Levy G, Gibson TP, Whitman W, Procknai J "Hemodialysis clearance of theophylline." JAMA 237 (1977): 1466-7
View all 8 references
Moderate

Methylxanthines (Includes Aminophylline/amobarbital/ephedrine) ↔ Reduced Clearance

Moderate Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Liver Disease, Congestive Heart Failure, Pulmonary Edema, Cor Pulmonale, Shock, Influenza, Fever, Hypothyroidism, Panhypopituitarism

Certain conditions have been identified as causes of reduced theophylline clearance. They include age (neonates and infants < 1 year as well as elderly patients > 60 years) and the following concurrent diseases: acute pulmonary edema; decompensated heart failure; cor pulmonale; fever (>= 102 degrees for 24 hours or more, or lesser temperature elevations for longer periods); influenza; untreated or uncontrolled hypothyroidism; liver disease, cirrhosis or acute hepatitis; reduced renal function in infants < 3 months of age; sepsis with multi-organ failure; and shock. Therapy with theophyllines should be administered cautiously in patients presenting with one or more of these risk factors, and the dosage should be appropriately reduced to prevent toxicity. More intensive monitoring of serum theophylline concentrations may be required. Toxicity is most likely to occur when levels exceed 20 mcg/mL. Severe cases, sometimes without previous warning, have led to cardiac arrhythmias, intractable seizures, and death.

References

  1. Kraan J, Jonkman JH, Koeter GH, et al "The pharmacokinetics of theophylline and enprofylline in patients with liver cirrhosis and in patients with chronic renal disease." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 35 (1988): 357-62
  2. O'Connor P, Feely J "Clinical pharmacokinetics and endocrine disorders. Therapeutic implications." Clin Pharmacokinet 13 (1987): 345-64
  3. Clark BG, Vestal RE "Adverse drug reactions in the elderly: case studies." Geriatrics 39 (1984): 53-4,60-3,66
  4. Aderka D, Shavit G, Garfinkel D, et al "Life-threatening theophylline intoxication in a hypothyroid patient." Respiration 44 (1983): 77-80
  5. Dal Negro R, Turco P, Pomari C, Monici-Preti P "Effect of various disease states on theophylline plasma levels and on pulmonary function in patients with chronic airway obstruction treated with a sustained release theophylline preparation." Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol 25 (1987): 401-5
  6. Jeong CS, Hwang SC, Jones DW, Ryu HS, Sohn K, Sands CD "Theophylline disposition in korean patients with congestive heart failure." Ann Pharmacother 28 (1994): 396-401
  7. Staib AH, Schuppan D, Lissner R, Zilly W, von Bomhard G, Richter E "Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of theophylline in patients with liver diseases." Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol 18 (1980): 500-2
  8. Sessler CN "Theophylline toxicity: clinical features of 116 consecutive cases." Am J Med 88 (1990): 567-76
  9. Shin SG, Juan D, Rammohan M "Theophylline pharmacokinetics in normal elderly subjects." Clin Pharmacol Ther 44 (1988): 522-30
  10. Piafsky KM, Sitar DS, Rangno RE, Ogilvie RI "Theophylline disposition in patients with hepatic cirrhosis." N Engl J Med 296 (1977): 1495-7
  11. Shannon M "Predictors of major toxicity after theophylline overdose." Ann Intern Med 119 (1993): 1161-7
  12. Ogilvie RJ "Clinical pharmacokinetics of theophylline." Clin Pharmacokinet 3 (1978): 267-93
  13. Hendeles L, Weinberger M, Johnson G "Monitoring serum theophylline levels." Clin Pharmacokinet 3 (1978): 294-312
  14. Schiff GD, Hegde HK, LaCloche L, Hryhorczuk DO "Inpatient theophylline toxicity: preventable factors." Ann Intern Med 114 (1991): 748-53
  15. Albert S "Aminophylline toxicity." Pediatr Clin North Am 34 (1987): 61-73
  16. Au WY, Dutt AK, DeSoyza N "Theophylline kinetics in chronic obstructive airway disease in the elderly." Clin Pharmacol Ther 37 (1985): 472-8
  17. "Product Information. Theo-Dur (theophylline)." Schering Laboratories, Kenilworth, NJ.
  18. Blouin RA, Erwin WG, Foster TS, Scott S "Pharmacokinetics of theophylline in young and elderly subjects." Gerontology 28 (1982): 323-7
  19. Covelli HD, Knodel AR, Heppner BT "Predisposing factors to apparent theophylline-induced seizures." Ann Allergy 54 (1985): 411-5
  20. Amodio P, Lauro S, Rondana M, et al "Theophylline pharmacokinetics and liver function indexes in chronic liver disease." Respiration 58 (1991): 106-11
  21. Vicuna N, McNay JL, Ludden TM, Schwertner H "Impaired theophylline clearance in patients with cor pumonale." Br J Clin Pharmacol 7 (1979): 33-7
  22. Jackson SH, Johnston A, Woollard R, Turner P "The relationship between theophylline clearance and age in adult life." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 36 (1989): 29-34
  23. Vozeh S, Otten M, Staub JJ, Follath F "Influence of thyroid function on theophylline kinetics." Clin Pharmacol Ther 36 (1984): 634-40
  24. Jenne JW "Effect of disease states on theophylline elimination." J Allergy Clin Immunol 78 (1986): 727-35
  25. Pokrajac M, Simic D, Varagic VM "Pharmacokinetics of theophylline in hyperthyroid and hypothyroid patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 33 (1987): 483-6
  26. Milgrom H, Bender B "Current issues in the use of theophylline." Am Rev Respir Dis 147 (1993): s33-9
  27. Kuntz HD, Straub H, May B "Theophylline elimination in congestive heart failure." Klin Wochenschr 61 (1983): 1105-6
View all 27 references
Moderate

Methylxanthines (Includes Aminophylline/amobarbital/ephedrine) ↔ Tachyarrhythmias

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Tachyarrhythmia, Angina Pectoris, Myocardial Infarction, Post MI Syndrome, Hypertension, Hyperthyroidism

The use of theophyllines is associated with an increase in heart rate which may progress to supraventricular tachycardia or ventricular arrhythmia at high serum drug concentrations. Appearance of cardiac adverse effects is generally an indication of theophylline toxicity, although patients with a history of tachyarrhythmias may be more susceptible to the chronotropic effect of these drugs. Therapy with theophyllines should be administered cautiously in such patients. Caution is also advised in patients with hypertension, hyperthyroidism, angina pectoris, or recent myocardial infarction, since high dosages of the drugs are associated with positive inotropic as well as chronotropic effects. Clinical monitoring of serum drug concentrations is recommended to prevent toxicity.

References

  1. Sessler CN "Theophylline toxicity: clinical features of 116 consecutive cases." Am J Med 88 (1990): 567-76
  2. Levine JH, Michael JR, Guarnieri T "Multifocal atrial tachycardia: a toxic effect of theophylline." Lancet 1 (1985): 12-4
  3. Bittar G, Friedman HS "The arrhythmogenicity of theophylline: a multivariate analysis of clinical determinants." Chest 99 (1991): 1415-20
  4. Albert S "Aminophylline toxicity." Pediatr Clin North Am 34 (1987): 61-73
  5. Chazan R, Karwat K, Tyminska K, Tadeusiak W, Droszcz W "Cardiac arrhythmias as a result of intravenous infusions of theophylline in patients with airway obstruction." Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 33 (1995): 170-5
  6. Taniguchi A, Ohe T, Shimorura K "Theophylline-induced ventricular tachycardia in a patient with chronic lung disease: sensitivity to verapamil." Chest 96 (1989): 958-9
  7. Marchlinski FE, Miller JM "Atrial arrhythmias exacerbated by theophylline: response to verapamil and evidence for triggered activity in man." Chest 88 (1985): 931-4
  8. Schiff GD, Hegde HK, LaCloche L, Hryhorczuk DO "Inpatient theophylline toxicity: preventable factors." Ann Intern Med 114 (1991): 748-53
  9. Patel AK, Skatrud JB, Thomsen JH "Cardiac arrhythmias due to oral aminophylline in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease." Chest 80 (1981): 661-5
  10. Milgrom H, Bender B "Current issues in the use of theophylline." Am Rev Respir Dis 147 (1993): s33-9
  11. Hendeles L, Weinberger M, Johnson G "Monitoring serum theophylline levels." Clin Pharmacokinet 3 (1978): 294-312
  12. Mccarthy M "Theophylline, beta-agonists, and cardiovascular death." Lancet 349 (1997): 33
View all 12 references
Moderate

Sympathomimetics (Includes Aminophylline/amobarbital/ephedrine) ↔ Bph

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia, Prostate Tumor

Sympathomimetic agents may cause or worsen urinary difficulty in patients with prostate enlargement due to smooth muscle contraction in the bladder neck via stimulation of alpha-1 adrenergic receptors. Therapy with sympathomimetic agents should be administered cautiously in patients with hypertrophy or neoplasm of the prostate.

References

  1. "Product Information. Sudafed (pseudoephedrine)." Glaxo Wellcome, Research Triangle Park, NC.
  2. Covington TR, Lawson LC, Young LL, eds. "Handbook of Nonprescription Drugs. 10th ed." Washington, DC: American Pharmaceutical Association (1993):
  3. Williams DM "Phenylpropanolamine hydrochloride" Am Pharm NS30 (1990): 47-50
Moderate

Sympathomimetics (Includes Aminophylline/amobarbital/ephedrine) ↔ Diabetes

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Diabetes Mellitus

Sympathomimetic agents may cause increases in blood glucose concentrations. These effects are usually transient and slight but may be significant with dosages higher than those normally recommended. Therapy with sympathomimetic agents should be administered cautiously in patients with diabetes mellitus. Closer monitoring of blood glucose concentrations may be appropriate.

References

  1. "Product Information. Sudafed (pseudoephedrine)." Glaxo Wellcome, Research Triangle Park, NC.
  2. American Medical Association, Division of Drugs and Toxicology "Drug evaluations annual 1994." Chicago, IL: American Medical Association; (1994):
  3. Covington TR, Lawson LC, Young LL, eds. "Handbook of Nonprescription Drugs. 10th ed." Washington, DC: American Pharmaceutical Association (1993):
  4. Williams DM "Phenylpropanolamine hydrochloride" Am Pharm NS30 (1990): 47-50
View all 4 references

aminophylline / amobarbital / ephedrine drug Interactions

There are 1245 drug interactions with aminophylline / amobarbital / ephedrine

aminophylline / amobarbital / ephedrine alcohol/food Interactions

There are 3 alcohol/food interactions with aminophylline / amobarbital / ephedrine

Drug Interaction Classification

The classifications below are a general guideline only. It is difficult to determine the relevance of a particular drug interaction to any individual given the large number of variables.
Major Highly clinically significant. Avoid combinations; the risk of the interaction outweighs the benefit.
Moderate Moderately clinically significant. Usually avoid combinations; use it only under special circumstances.
Minor Minimally clinically significant. Minimize risk; assess risk and consider an alternative drug, take steps to circumvent the interaction risk and/or institute a monitoring plan.
Unknown No information available.

Do not stop taking any medications without consulting your healthcare provider.

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