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Sepsis in Children
WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW:
What is sepsis?
Sepsis happens when an infection spreads and causes your child's body to react strongly to germs. Your child's defense system normally releases chemicals to fight off infection at the infected area. When infection spreads, chemicals are released throughout your child's body. The chemicals cause inflammation and clotting in small blood vessels. The clots are often hard to control. Inflammation and clotting decrease blood flow and oxygen to your child's organs. This may cause your child's organs to stop working correctly. Sepsis is a life-threatening emergency.
What increases my child's risk for sepsis?
- Age less than 1 year
- An infection anywhere in your child's body, especially the blood or urinary tract
- Treatment in a hospital for a serious illness, or having an implanted catheter
- Birth before 37 weeks or birth more than 18 hours after the mother's amniotic sac (water) broke
- An infection in the placenta or mother's uterus during pregnancy
- A weakened immune system from a long-term condition or medicine
- Heart problems, large burns, or multiple injuries
- Recent surgery
What are the signs and symptoms of sepsis?
Seek care immediately for any of the following:
- Fast or irregular heartbeat
- Shortness of breath, fast breathing, or pauses in breathing
- Confusion, loss of consciousness, or a seizure
- Cold, pale, or clammy skin
- Chills or severe shaking
- Fever or very low body temperature
- Severe pain
- A rash
- Extreme weakness, fussiness, or poor feeding
- Urinating very little or not at all (fewer wet diapers than usual)
How is sepsis diagnosed?
- Measurement of your child's vital signs may show an abnormal temperature, heart rate, or blood pressure.
- Blood and urine tests will show infection, organ function, and give information about your child's overall health.
- An x-ray, ultrasound, CT, or MRI may show where in your child's body the infection came from. Your child may be given contrast liquid to help the organs show up better in the pictures. Tell the healthcare provider if your child has ever had an allergic reaction to contrast liquid. Do not let your child enter the MRI room with anything metal. Metal can cause serious injury. Tell the healthcare provider if your child has any metal in or on his or her body.
How is sepsis treated?
Several treatments may be needed if sepsis causes one or more organs to stop working correctly. Treatments are often started in the emergency room and continued in an intensive care or critical care unit of a hospital. Your child may need any of the following:
- Medicines will be given to treat the infection. Medicines may be given to increase your child's blood pressure and blood flow to his or her organs. Medicines may also be given to control your child's heart rate or blood sugar level, or to prevent blood clots.
- Removal or change of a catheter or drain may be needed to get rid of the infection.
- IV fluids may be given to treat or prevent dehydration. IV fluids also help increase blood flow to your child's organs, and increase his or her blood pressure.
- Oxygen may be needed if your child's blood oxygen level is lower than it should be.
- A ventilator is a machine that gives your child oxygen and breathes for him or her when he or she cannot breathe well. An endotracheal (ET) tube is put into your child's mouth or nose and attached to the ventilator.
- A blood transfusion may be needed if bleeding occurs or platelet levels drop. This can happen in severe sepsis.
- Dialysis may be needed if your child's kidneys stop working correctly or are damaged during sepsis. Dialysis is a procedure to remove chemicals, wastes, and extra fluid from your child's blood.
- Surgery may be needed to treat problems causing sepsis. This may include removing an abscess or infected tissue.
What can I do to prevent sepsis in my child?
- Ask your child's healthcare provider about vaccines. Vaccines can help prevent some infections that may lead to sepsis. Your child's healthcare provider will tell you what vaccines your child needs at each age. Have your child get a flu shot every year.
- Care for your child's wounds and incisions as directed. Keep your child's wounds and incisions clean and dry. Change your child's bandages when they get wet or dirty. Tell your child's healthcare provider immediately if you see signs of a wound infection. Signs include redness, warmth, swelling, or pus.
- Care for your child's drain or IV catheter as directed. Ask your child's healthcare provider how to care for his or her tube or IV catheter. Correct care of these devices can help prevent infection.
- Wash your hands and your child's hands frequently. This can help decrease your child's risk for infections. Have your child wash his or her hands before he or she eats. Also have your child wash his or her hands after the bathroom. Wash your hands before you prepare your child's meal. Also wash your hands after you use the bathroom. You and your child should use soap and water or an alcohol-based hand rub.
Care AgreementYou have the right to help plan your child's care. Learn about your child's health condition and how it may be treated. Discuss treatment options with your child's healthcare providers to decide what care you want for your child. The above information is an educational aid only. It is not intended as medical advice for individual conditions or treatments. Talk to your doctor, nurse or pharmacist before following any medical regimen to see if it is safe and effective for you.
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