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WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW:
Pneumonia is an infection in your lungs caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungus. You can become infected if you come in contact with someone who is sick. You can get pneumonia if you recently had surgery or needed a ventilator to help you breathe. Pneumonia can also be caused by accidentally inhaling saliva or small pieces of food. Pneumonia may cause mild symptoms, or it can be severe and life-threatening.
Return to the emergency department if:
- You cough up blood.
- Your heart beats more than 100 beats in 1 minute.
- You are very tired, confused, and cannot think clearly.
- You have chest pain or trouble breathing.
- Your lips or fingernails turn gray or blue.
Contact your healthcare provider if:
- Your symptoms are the same or get worse 48 hours after starting antibiotics.
- Your fever is not below 99°F (37.2°C) 48 hours after starting antibiotics.
- You have a fever higher than 101°F (38.3°C).
- You cannot eat or have loss of appetite, nausea, or vomiting.
- You have questions or concerns about your condition or care.
- Medicines are given to treat a bacterial infection. Your healthcare provider may also recommend acetaminophen. It decreases pain and fever and is available without a doctor's order. Ask how much to take and how often to take it. Follow directions. Acetaminophen can cause liver damage if not taken correctly.
- Take your medicine as directed. Contact your healthcare provider if you think your medicine is not helping or if you have side effects. Tell him or her if you are allergic to any medicine. Keep a list of the medicines, vitamins, and herbs you take. Include the amounts, and when and why you take them. Bring the list or the pill bottles to follow-up visits. Carry your medicine list with you in case of an emergency.
Follow up with your healthcare provider within 1 or 2 days, or as directed:
You will need to return to monitor your symptoms. You may also need more tests. Write down your questions so you remember to ask them during your visits.
Manage your symptoms:
- Rest as needed. Rest often throughout the day. Alternate times of activity with times of rest.
- Drink liquids as directed. Ask how much liquid to drink each day and which liquids are best for you. Liquids help thin your mucus, which may make it easier for you to cough it up.
- Do not smoke. Smoking increases your risk for pneumonia. Smoking also makes it harder for you to get better after you have had pneumonia. Ask your healthcare provider for information if you need help to quit smoking.
- Avoid the spread of germs. Wash your hands often with soap and water. Use gel hand cleanser when there is no soap and water available. Do not touch your eyes, nose, or mouth unless you have washed your hands first. Cover your mouth when you cough. Cough into a tissue or your shirtsleeve so you do not spread germs from your hands. If you are sick, stay away from others as much as possible.
- Limit alcohol. Women should limit alcohol to 1 drink a day. Men should limit alcohol to 2 drinks a day. A drink of alcohol is 12 ounces of beer, 5 ounces of wine, or 1½ ounces of liquor.
- Ask about vaccines. You may need a vaccine to help prevent pneumonia. Get an influenza (flu) vaccine every year as soon as it becomes available.
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The above information is an educational aid only. It is not intended as medical advice for individual conditions or treatments. Talk to your doctor, nurse or pharmacist before following any medical regimen to see if it is safe and effective for you.