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is a condition that causes mucus to collect in your airway. Chronic respiratory infections or inflammation cause the bronchi to become thick. Bronchi are larger airways that help carry air in and out of your lungs. Your lungs make mucus to trap and remove germs and irritants that you breathe. Bronchiectasis prevents your lungs from clearing the mucus. This leads to more infections and inflammation, and scarring in your lungs.
Signs and symptoms of bronchiectasis:
Periods of active signs and symptoms are called exacerbations.
- A chronic cough with mucus that may contain blood
- Wheezing or crackling, shortness of breath, or trouble breathing
- Foul-smelling mucus from your lungs
- Weakness and fatigue
- Clubbing of your fingers or toes
- Chest pain
Call your local emergency number (911 in the US) if:
- You have sudden chest pain.
- You have sudden or more severe trouble breathing.
- You are confused or feel faint.
Call your doctor or pulmonologist if:
- Your lips or fingernails turn gray or blue.
- You cough up blood.
- You have a fever.
- You cough more than usual or wheeze.
- Your medicines do not relieve your symptoms.
- You have questions or concerns about your condition or care.
may include any of the following:
- Medicines may help relieve your symptoms. Bronchodilators help open the air passages in your lungs. Antibiotics may be used to treat an infection caused by bacteria. Steroids and some kinds of antibiotics help decrease inflammation in your airway. Medicines may help thin the mucus in your lungs. Thin mucus may be easier to cough up.
- Oxygen may be given to help you breathe easier. Oxygen can also decrease the strain on your heart and can help prevent more breathing problems.
- Surgery may be used to remove a part of your lung causing your symptoms. You may also need a lung transplant if your symptoms become severe. Surgery may also be needed to stop heavy bleeding in your airway if you cough up a lot of blood.
- Go to pulmonary rehabilitation (rehab) as directed. Pulmonary rehab is a program that can help you learn how to manage bronchiectasis and prevent exacerbations. Your plan will include aerobic exercise, such as walking, swimming, or riding a bicycle. Regular exercise helps your lungs work well and helps keep your airway clear. Rehab can help you increase your ability to exercise for as long as recommended.
- Keep your airway clear and open. Do airway clearance techniques as needed. Healthcare providers will show you how to do these in pulmonary rehab. A saline nasal rinse can help clear irritants from your sinuses. Thin mucus by drinking more liquids or using a cool mist humidifier. Keep your head higher than your body when you sleep. If your bed is not adjustable, you can put extra pillows under your upper body to keep your head up.
- Do not smoke or be around anyone who is smoking. Nicotine and other chemicals in cigarettes and cigars can cause lung damage and make breathing problems worse. Ask your healthcare provider for information if you currently smoke and need help to quit. E-cigarettes or smokeless tobacco still contain nicotine. Talk to your healthcare provider before you use these products.
Prevent the spread of germs:
- Wash your hands often. Wash your hands several times each day. Wash after you use the bathroom, change a child's diaper, and before you prepare or eat food. Use soap and water every time. Rub your soapy hands together, lacing your fingers. Wash the front and back of your hands, and in between your fingers. Use the fingers of one hand to scrub under the fingernails of the other hand. Wash for at least 20 seconds. Rinse with warm, running water for several seconds. Then dry your hands with a clean towel or paper towel. Use hand sanitizer that contains alcohol if soap and water are not available. Do not touch your eyes, nose, or mouth without washing your hands first.
- Cover a sneeze or cough. Use a tissue that covers your mouth and nose. Throw the tissue away in a trash can right away. Use the bend of your arm if a tissue is not available. Then wash your hands well with soap and water or use a hand sanitizer. Do not stand close to anyone who is sneezing or coughing.
- Stay away from anyone who is sick. Avoid crowds as much as possible. Ask anyone who is sick not to come to your home.
- Ask about vaccines you may need. Vaccines can help prevent some lung infections. Examples include pneumonia, pertussis (whooping cough), diphtheria, and influenza (flu). Get a flu vaccine every year as soon as recommended, usually starting in September or October. Your healthcare provider will tell you if you need other vaccines, and when to get them.
Follow up with your doctor or pulmonologist as directed:
Write down your questions so you remember to ask them during your visits.
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The above information is an educational aid only. It is not intended as medical advice for individual conditions or treatments. Talk to your doctor, nurse or pharmacist before following any medical regimen to see if it is safe and effective for you.
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